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MT. TOM in Massachusetts is famous as a view point, affording the observer one of the most grandly p 
turesquc, diversified and beautiful panoramic landscapes in the world. Mt. Tom is the highest peak in the ran 
that bears its name. It rises in its rugged natural beauty far above the surrounding country, and commands 
view for many miles in all directions. 

The summit was not readily accessible until 1897 when the Mt. Tom Railroad was constructed. Since tr 
time thousands of people have annually journeyed from all parts of New England to partake of the enjoyme 
and inspiration that is offered by the unexcelled views across fields and mountains with winding rivers and gl 
tening lakes diversifying the scenery, to watch the magnificent cloud effects and golden sun-sets, or breathe t 
invigorating air of this altitude. 

On a clear day with the use of the powerful telescopes the eye commands a view stretching from A 
Ascutney, eighty-five miles to the north in Vermont, to Hartford in the valley lands of Connecticut, thirty-fi 
miles to the south where the golden dome of the Connecticut State Capitol is plainly visible. The powerl 
telescopic lenses bring many of the distant cities and villages in the intervening territory within such close ran 
as to appear to be almost at the foot-hills of Mt. Tom itself. The street cars of Holyoke (which connect wi 
the Springfield, Northampton, Westfield and Amherst systems of street cars, and with the Boston & Maine a 
N. Y. t N. H. & Hartford Railroads) run to the lower station of the Mt. Tom Railroad, and in less than ten minut 
afterwards the mountain cars deliver the passengers on the summit. The Mt. Tom Railroad is a cable-trolle 
electric, modern mountain railway. The electric car-fare from the Holyoke post-office to the foot of M. Tom 
5 cents. The fare on the t\t. Tom Railroad is 25 cents for the round trip, which includes free use of grounc 
pavilion, use of telescopes, etc. 

The Hartford & Springfield trolley road, skirting the west bank of the Connecticut river and traversing t! 
beautiful towns of Windsor and Suffield in Connecticut state, forms the ideal avenue of approach for Connectic 
people to glorious Mount Tom. Cars are of the most modern and comfortable design, cover the distance in le 
than three hours, and present to the passenger to the mountain an endless panorama of beautiful New Englai 
scenery. Cars making direct connection in Springfield for Mount Tom leave the City Hall, Hartford, daily eve 
half hour. On Sunday special reserved seat excursions are run, starting from the corner of Main and State stree 
Hartford, at 9:15 a. m. and reaching the mountain without change of car or seat, or other inconvenience to t 
passenger. Fare for the round trip on these excursions is $1.00. 

The Summit House is a large, solidly built structure, 76 feet wide by 104 feet long, three 
stories high. Wide piazzas surround two stories, and the upper story is a large observa- 
tion room, 48x80 feet, surrounded by windows of polished plate glass. This observation 
room is furnished with numerous telescopes for the use of visitors. In the lower story is 
a cafe, where excellent meals are served at all times, in charge of Bowker & Co., who fur= 
nlsh good service and an excellent cuisine. There is also a lunch counter, and beautiful 
rustic pavilion for those who bring their own lunches. A long distance telephone connects 
with the Holyoke and Springfield Exchanges. 

Please Mention Thb Connecticut Maoazinb when patronizing our Advertisers. 

£o those who 
while loving 
their Rome-land 
make the World 
their Country 
and to Do Qood 
their Religion * 


This is the Third Book of Volume X, covering the months of July, August and 
September. In it is permanently recorded many contributions of much signifi- 
cance to American History, of vital importance to the historical literature 
of the Nation. This publication is limited to editions to meet advance orders, 
and may be found on the library tables of the first homes of culture and in the 
leading PUBLIC LIBRARIES in the United States. 

Oldest Wills Extant in America—" Last will and testament of Mary Harries of New 
London, Connecticut, taken from her owne mouth, nineteenth day of January, 
1655" — Accurate transcript from original ...... 474 

The Conquest for Land — Connecticut's Changes and Exchanges of Territory — Originally 
planned with imperial boundaries from Atlantic to Pacific Oceans but after cen- 
turies of real estate manipulations finds itself third smallest commonwealth in 
acreage in the United States— With nature illustration Joel N. Eno, A. M. 475 

The Original Indian Land Owners in Connecticut . . Joel N. Eno, A. M. 481 

Historic Earthquakes— An Epitome . . . . • . . .482 

An Indian Summer Idyll ..... John Warren Harper 483 

The Glory of the Hills— A Poem . . . . Edith Turner Newcomb 483 

Gala Days in Old New England ..... Margaret E. Backus 484 

** America Began Her Revolution With But Ten Pieces of Cannon " Mary L. D. Ferris 485 
The Ballad of the Brook— To the Quinnipiac . . Edwin N. Andrews 486 

Country Life in Connecticut — Nature illustrations ...... 

In the Canaan Valley — Litchfield Hills . . . . . .487 

An Autumn Day at Lakeville ....... 488 

The Mill on the Farmington at New Hartford ..... 489 

Public Libraries in Connecticut— Founding and Development of the Public Library at 

Greenwich, Connecticut ..... Mary M. Miller 490 

With illustration Librarian 

Connecticut's Contribution to the Cause of American Liberty — Politics in New World 
during War for Independence — Deeds of valor on battlefield and in forum — Con- 
necticut sent 31.939 men into conflict and "for a time the entire burden of the 
struggle lay on this state " . . . William Gordon Murphy, Jr. 495 

A "Warning Speech of J812— Excerpt from Daniel Webster .... 509 

A Lenape Slumber-Song ..... E. Tallmadge Root 

Greenwich -A Community of Beautiful Estates — Its transition from the conquering of 
the forests in 1640— Illustrated with many rare prints and views of palatial 
American Homes ..... Elisha Jay Edwards 

Former Editor of New York Evening Sun 
Romance of the Great Struggle .... Elizabeth D. Jewett 

Original Sources of American Historical Data and Studies in Ancestry— Department edited 
by Charles L. N. Camp— Records from the parish of Amity (Now Woodbridge) 
Connecticut Louise Tracy III 



Addrcas manuscript ito .The Connecticut Magazine Company, Hartford, Connecticut- Address all business communications 
to publication oince at New Haven. Connecticut-Copyright 1906-By The Connecticut Magazine Company 

The Connecticut Magazine 


An Illustrated Quarterly Magazine devoted to Connecticut in its various 
phases of History, Literature, Genealogy, Science, Art, Genius and Industry. 
Published in four beautiful books to the annual volume. Following is con- 
tents of this edition, generously illustrated and ably written. Editorial de- 
partment in Cheney Tower, 926 Main Street, Hartford — Business department 
at 671-679 Chapel Street, New Haven. 

Aft Cover— The Harvest— A pastoral view on the acreage of Carl Stoeckel at Nor- 
folk, Connecticut ...... Mrs. J. C. Kendall 

Indian Summer — A Poem ...... Herbert Randall 401 

First American Satirists — The four famous Hartford Wits who represented a con- 
centration of talent such as had not hitherto existed in any American town — 
Joel Barlow, Lemuel Hopkins, David Humphreys, John Trumbull — With rare 
portraits by Randall ..... Winnifred B. King 403 

The Respect of Government— An excerpt from Edwin P. Whipple . . ,411 

Midst Autumn Fires— A Poem ...... Edna C. Lines 412 

Edward Everett Hale's Memoirs of Connecticut— Distinguished Chaplain of United 
States Senate and Patriarch of Letters recalls historical incidents in Constitution 
State— A chapter from forthcoming book written in his eighty-fifth year with 
character sketch in portraiture by Harold Douglas .... 413 

The Heritage of Years— A Poem .... Howard Arnold Walter 421 

I Long for the Touch of Thy Hand— A Poem . . Frank P. Foster, Jr. 422 

Intimate Life Story of Philo Penfield Stewart— Pioneer among the Indians— Anti-slavery 
leader and lifelong friend of colored race — Founder of Oberlin College, first 
institution for co-education and manual training — Practical reformer, utilitar- 
ian and inventor — Illustrated with portrait and written from notes of Mrs. Stew- 
art's literary executor ...... Eugene F. Atwood 423 

One Hundred Years Ago — A compilation ....... 436 

Money in Early America ...... George S. Roberts 437 

The Lexington — A quaint news poem in 1840 — Reprint from Charles W. Denison . 438 
Romance and Tragedy of Long Island Sound— The development of steam navigation- 
Graphic description of old time races for speed supremacy^and history of Ston- 
ington Line with anecdotes of captains and ships, recalling incidents of earliest 
steamboat accidents — Fifteen illustrations from rare prints C. Seymour Bullock 439 
Tragedy in History ...... Judge L. E. Munson 461 

First Sailing Vessels and Merchant-Mariners of the Connecticut River— Old ships and 
shipmasters in the foreign trade, many of whom lost their lives at sea— Mari- 
time history of the ports of Rocky Hill and Wethersfield, Connecticut, from 1639 
to 1830 with records of heroism and daring . Roger M. Griswold, M. D. 463 

Entered at the Post-Offioe at New Haven, Connecticut, as Mail Matter of the Second Class.— This Edition for THIRD 
QUARTER of 1906— July, August and September, 1906. 

|ere jjegjnnejjj the Cbjrfl Part of tfte Cgttft Book 

Showing the manner of Cite ana the 

Attainment thereof in the 

gonijnottgeajtj of a 

Diligent People 


//t^t-uus® //i^^e^^^c^^^L££^t^ 


Connecticut Magazine 





OGIVE me a day in the mild, mellow Autumn, 
When blue are the mountains, asleep in the sun; 
When over the noon-tide a spell of enchantment 
Both prayerful and pensive the cricket has spun. — 

A day when the Summer comes back in the twilight, 
And bends o'er the aster to breathe a good-bye, 
Or clings to a leaf of the old silver maple, 
Forsaken and faded and ready to die. — 

A day when the tides glide away in a ripple 
That leaves not a trace of its touch on the shore, 
But whispers of worlds that our dreams have begotten, 
Where beauty shall triumph and death is no more. — 

A day when the harvest waits, ripe for the reaper, 
When sorrow forgets in the purple and gold ; 
A day that is followed by stars in whose watches 
Our spirits a boundless Omniscience behold. — 

Yes, give me a day in the mild, mellow Autumn, 
When meadows and woodland lie peaceful and dim, 
A day when my soul slips away from its moorings, 
And life finds its own in an unbroken hymn. 

40 1 





Print by Randall from an old engraving 


first American Satirists « By UPintiifred B* King 

44 CHe Rartford WU represented a eoncentratioit of talent sucb as bad not bitDcrto 
existed in any American town" 

GOOD Dr. Edward Everett 
Hale, that grand old man of 
a past generation who still 
lingers with us, and whose 
reminiscences give us such a clear in- 
sight into the lives of the eminent lit- 
erary set that distinguished America a 
decade ago, recently expressed a de- 
sire to read a story regarding "the cir- 
cle of wit and learning and men of 
letters who lived in Hartford a hun- 
dred years ago." 

"Tell us," said the genial chaplain 
of the United States Senate, "more 
about those bright men who wrote 
such bright things between 1790 and 


In a letter a few days ago to the 
editor of The Connecticut Maga- 
zine, Dr. Hale said: "Do not fail to 
give us a series of papers on the lit- 
erary leaders of Connecticut, from 
Timothy Dwight down to the present 

I do not quite feel myself one of the 
elect who should undertake this nar- 
ration, but as my interests and re- 
searches were concentrated on this 
very subject at the very time when 
the patriarch of letters expressed his 
desire to hear all that could be found 
regarding them, I know no more ap- 
propriate time or place to record my 
investigations than here, knowing as 
I do that the venerable doctor must be 
a reader and lover of The Connecti- 
cut Magazine. 

Frequently has Dr. Henry A. 
Beers, the eminent professor of Eng- 
lish literature at Yale University, 
spoken of the period during and im- 
mediately following the War of the 
Revolution as the "Golden Age of Lit- 
erature in Hartford, when, for a brief 
period, the little provincial capital be- 
came the intellectual metropolis of the 
country and a focus of political influ- 
ence hardly less important than Bos- 
ton, New York, or Philadelphia. This 
temporary eminence it owed to the 

presence of a society of clever writ- 
ers, known as the Hartford Wits," 
says Dr. Beers. "They represented a 
concentration of talent such as had 
not hitherto existed in any American 

Here, on the bank of the Connecti- 
cut river, surrounded by forests from 
which came the cry of the wild beasts 
and through which still led the trail of 
the Indians, lay a little wilderness vil- 
lage in 1750 of less than three thou- 
sand inhabitants. At the time of the 
American Revolution but five thou- 
sand were gathered within its borders. 

That we may live again in its quaint 
atmosphere let us glance at the diary 
of Brissot de Warville, the French 
gallant, who traveled through the 
New World and recorded this de- 
scription of Hartford in 1788: "The 
environs of Hartford display a charm- 
ing cultivated country, neat, elegant 
houses, vast meadows, covered with 
herds of cattle of an enormous size. 
To describe the neighborhood of 
Hartford is to describe Connecticut. 
Nature and art have here displayed all 
their treasures; it is really the Para- 
dise of the United States." 

The distinguished litterateur, 
Charles Dudley Warner, who worked 
and died in Hartford during this last 
decade, humorously remarked of de 
Warville: "He lost his heart to the 
Connecticut girls ; he lost his head in 
the French Revolution," for it was 
this French traveler who exclaimed: 
"It is not rare to see an hundred 
charming girls, adorned with those 
brilliant complexions seldom met with 
in journeying to the South. You will 
not go into a tavern without meeting 
with neatness, decency, and dignity. 
The tables are served by a young girl, 
decent and pretty. On the road you 
often meet those fair Connecticut 
girls .... on horseback, galloping 
boldly, with an elegant hat on the 
head, a white apron, and a calico 


C ft e 


American Satirists 

gown A stranger takes them 

by the hand and laughs with them 
and they are not offended." 

This is the social setting in which 
moved America's most brilliant lit- 
erary men, the distinguished Hartford 
Wits. May we not see them to-day 
as they sat in the tavern drinking flip, 
their wigs full and curled, white pow- 
dered, red cloaks or roquelaures, and 
buckles at the knees and in the shoes ; 
or at the social tea gallantly convers- 
ing with the ladies in "rich brocade, 
with open skirt and trail, silk stock- 
ings, with sharp-toed slippers and 
high heels, the hair combed over a 
high cushion stuffed with wool and 
covered with silk, a head-dress that 
made necessary the wide and deep 
calash, out of the depths of which 
came the fascinating smiles that cap- 
tivated the cock-hatted and peri- 
wigged suitors." 

Here, then, we meet face to face 
those genial, quick-witted celebrities 
of a century and a quarter ago — • 
genial Joel Barlow, the affable Lem- 
uel Hopkins, the chivalrous David 
Humphreys, and the stately John 
Trumbull — sons of good nature and 
the souls of honest laughter, the echo 
of whose geniality comes down 
through the years and still stirs the 
heart to smiles. This jovial company 
frequently congregated at Richard 
Alsop's bookshop and discussed the 
affairs of the day. Alsop, the hospit- 
able country merchant of the times, 
was a brother-in-law of the elder The- 
odore Dwight. Joel Barlow was a 
country newspaper editor, having es- 
tablished his weekly gazette, The 
American Mercury. He was born in 
the little village of Redding, Connect- 
icut, in 1754, and came to Hartford to 
breathe its literary atmosphere. John 
Trumbull was born at Watertown, 
Connecticut, in 1750, the son of a 
Congregational clergyman, and took 
up his residence in Hartford in 1781 
as a young lawyer. Lemuel Hopkins 
was born at Waterbury, Connecticut, 
in 1750, and removed to Hartford to 


set up practice as a physician in 1784, 
while Colonel David Humphreys, the 
young military aide of General Wash- 
ington, was much at Plartford in 
1 786- 1 787, coming from Derby, Con- 
necticut, where he was born in 1752. 

Thus we have here gathered the vil- 
lage lawyer, the village doctor, the 
village editor, and a gallant colonel — 
all good-naturedly gibing the customs 
and the events of the times with their 
wholesome satire. Three of them 
were graduates from Yale College 
and it is probable this association that 
brought them together in weekly 
meetings of good-fellowship. It was 
on one of these occasions that Colonel 
Humphreys suggested satirizing the 
irregularities of the age and during 
the years 1786 and 1787 there ap- 
peared in the New Haven Gazette and 
Connecticut Magazine the series of 
satires called the "Anarchiad" which 
convulsed the country with their hu- 
mor and became the most popular 
writings that had ever appeared in the 
American press. Such notorious fol- 
lies as Shay's Rebellion and unlimited 
paper currency were mercilessly bur- 
lesqued and did much to prepare Con- 
necticut voters for the Constitution of 

i 7 8 7 . 

In the Wadsworth Athenaeum in 
Hartford to-day may be found a 
dingy little volume with fabulous 
illustrations, a reprint of the papers 
of the "Anarchiad" collecting into a 
volume the satirical poems leveled at 
the political disruption preceding the 
establishment of the Federal Consti- 
tution and pretending to be a story of 
early emigration by a body of Britons 
and Welsh, whose descendants still 
existed in the interior of the conti- 
nent. It also alleges that in digging 
among the ruins of one of their an- 
cient fortifications an old heroic poem 
in the English language has been dis- 
covered. This was the ' 'Anarchiad, 
and the essays were supposed extracts 
from it. It is not easy to identify the 
work of the several clever authors. 
It is not the literary quality, however, 

CD e 

first American Satirists 

that is important in the satires of 
these wholesome wits. It is the keen 
sense of humor, of incongruous situa- 
tions, of absurd political attitudes. It 
is the happy faculty of holding up the 
follies of the times to the scrutiny and 
ridicule of the people that has given 
them a place in the literary annals of 
America. Peter Finley Dunne, in his 
creation of the philosophical "Mr. 
Dooley" has done a similar service to 
our present-day literature. 

The individualities of the four 
young wits who aroused the risibili- 
ties of the nation about a century and 
a quarter ago are possibly of even 
more historic interest than the literary 
quality of their keenly penned satires. 
None of this company of poetic wits 
remained long in Hartford and the 
lives of some of them were later filled 
with adventures. 

Let us grasp the hand of David 
Humphreys, a military man of bold 
impulses, of honest pugnacity, and of 
wholesome delight in his own jokes, 
of elaborate compliments and elephan- 
tine repartee; the son of Rev. Daniel 
Humphreys, pastor of a Presbyterian 
Church in Derby, who in 1 767 entered 
Yale College, from which he was 
graduated in 1771. During his col- 
lege life he formed the intimate ac- 
quaintance of Trumbull and Dwight. 
Soon after leaving college he went to 
New York state, where he resided 
with the family of Colonel Phillips, of 
Phillips Manor. At the beginning of 
the War of the Revolution he entered 
the army as captain, and in October, 
1777, became major of a brigade un- 
der General Parsons. At the time 
of the capture of Fort Montgomery 
he formed an acquaintance with Gen- 
eral Putnam, and in 1778 he was one 
of Putnam's aides. Two years later he 
was appointed aide and military secre- 
tary to General Washington, in whose 
military family he remained, enjoying 
his confidence and friendship until the 
close of the war. On the surrender 
of Cornwallis, after the defeat of 
Yorktown, the captured British stand- 

ards were delivered to the charge of 
Colonel Humphreys, and in Novem- 
ber, 1 78 1, Congress resolved: 

"That an elegant sword be presented, in 
the name of the United States, in congress 
assembled, to Colonel Humphreys, aide-de- 
camp of General Washington, to whose care 
the standards taken under the capitulation 
of York were consigned, as a testimony of 
their opinion of his fidelity and ability, and 
that the board of war take order thereon." 

The sword was presented to Colonel 
Humphreys by General Knox in 1786 
with a highly complimentary letter. 
Throughout his career Humphreys 
was a special favorite of Washington, 
and through his influence he was ap- 
pointed, in 1784, secretary to the com- 
mission which was sent abroad to ne- 
gotiate treaties of commerce with for- 
eign powers, and which included 
Thomas Jefferson, John Adams and 
Benjamin Franklin. Humphreys re- 
mained abroad, residing chiefly in 
Paris and London until 1786. On his 
return he was sent to the legislature 
from the town of Derby. It was dur- 
ing this time that he became a leading 
member of the literary coterie in 
Hartford and originated the famous 
"Anarchiad" satires. Colonel Hum- 
phrey's sojourn in Hartford was 
brief. In 1787 he commanded the 
regiment engaged in suppressing the 
outbreak known as "Shay's Rebel- 
lion," and in 1788 he was invited by 
Washington to go to Mt. Vernon, 
where he continued a member of the 
latter's family until 1790. During 
this period he wrote, at the request of 
Washington, his "Essay on the Life 
of General Israel Putnam," a work 
which has been sharply and severely 
criticised by historians. In 1790, 
Humphreys was appointed the first 
American minister to Portugal. He 
resided in that country from 1791 to 
1794, and on his return home was 
made minister plenipotentiary to 
Spain. Altogether he resided in Por- 
tugal and Spain nine years, during 
which time he concluded treaties with 
Tripoli and Algiers. In 1795 he mar- 

Z b e 

first American 


ried Miss Bulkley, an English lady of 
wealth, and daughter of a merchant 
established in Lisbon. During his 
last years Colonel Humphreys 
brought into America the first merino 
sheep and devoted much time to 
breeding. On the outbreak of the 
war of 1812 he took command of the 
militia of Connecticut. He received 
the degree of LL.D. from Brown 
University in 1802, and from Dart- 
mouth College in 1804, and was a Fel- 
low of the Royal Society of London. 
He published numerous poetical 
works, including "An Address to the 
Armies of the United States" (1782), 
"The Happiness of America," "The 
Widow of Malabar: A Tragedy," 
translated from the French, and a 
"Poem on Agriculture." He also 
wrote several political tracts and ora- 
tions. Collections of his works were 
published in New York in 1790 and 
1804. Colonel Humphreys died of 
an organic affection of the heart in 
New Haven, Connecticut, February 
21, 1818. Of Colonel Humphreys' 
verse it must be said that, like all the 
verse of all his confreres, it is in the 
monotonous, eighteenth century coup- 
let, and in his case is diversified by 
extraordinary rhymes. He is sin- 
cerely in love with America, but, like 
many other lovers, wearies his listen- 
ers with too much praise. It was this 
bombast which called forth a com- 
ment of Robert Southey's, repeated by 
Dr. Mitchell. Southey, who himself 
never really caught the divine efflatus, 
said of Humphreys: "His poetry is 
worse than anything except his criti- 
cism." Yet, despite the fire and thun- 
der of this Connecticut Boanerges, he 
is quite sincere in his praise of all 
things American. For instance, he 
undoubtedly meant it when he once 
said of Trumbull, in a way which 
illustrates his own rhyme, rhythm, 
and whole-heartedness : 

" Than whom more humor never man did 
Possess— nor lives a soul more candid." 

And now, let us make the acquaint- 

ance of John Trumbull, indeed, all 
that his comrades claimed for him, 
and more, too. He came from a fam- 
ily that produced governors, the first 
commissary-general of the Continen- 
tal Army, and an artist of trans-At- 
lantic fame. Trumbull was born the 
son of a Watertown clergyman, who 
eked out his scanty income by tutor- 
ing boys for Yale. From these schol- 
astic surroundings and from the men- 
tal pabulum of the "Spectator" and 
Watts' "Lyric Poems" young Trum- 
bull imbibed such nourishment that, at 
the marvelous age of seven, he was 
ready to enter Yale, but his entrance 
upon collegiate life was deferred until 
the lad reached the age of thirteen. At 
college Trumbull found plenty of 
"solid learning," the dry bones of 
classicism and mathematics, but be- 
fore he finished his course, he was 
swept into the vortex of a college up- 
heaval, when more modern courses 
were added to the curriculum. Fi- 
nally, out of the melee, came Trum- 
bull as tutor with more reforms. 
This victory Trumbull celebrated in 
1772 by his "Progress of Dullness," 
wherein are set forth the respective 
adventures of Tom Brainless, Dick 
Hairbrain and Miss Harriet Simpeo 
of the Colony of Connecticut. Tom 
Brainless typifies Dullness, vho, fed 
on the husks of the classical course, 
grew into a slothful automaton ; Dick 
Hairbrain's history is that of the per- 
fect coxcomb, concerning whom the 
author wittily says : 

"As noonday sun, the case is plain, 
Nature has nothing made in vain ; 
The man that was not made to think, 
Was born to game, to swear, to drink." 

The third of the happy trio, illustra- 
tive of the "Progress of Coquetry," is 
devoted to dress and dancing, "the 
mint and cummin of women's educa- 
tion." The unfortunate ancestress of 
the modern Vassar girl is debarred 
from all serious learning since 

"The studious eye but faintly tv/inkles, 
And learning paves the way to wrinkles." 


Reproduction by Randall from painting by Stuart at Yale University 




IN 1750 





IN 1750 


Reproduction by Randall from paintings 
by Trumbull at Yale University 

Art Supplement of The Connecticut Magazine 

CD e 




and is condemned to making tent- 
stitch portraits of her relatives, or 
wax works of "goodman Adam, the 
serpent, and gay, gallanting Madam 
Eve," presumably for her spiritual up- 

The poem, despite its trip-hammer 
rhythm, gives a picture of the times 
worth reading. In rapid portraiture 
we find few things better than the 
sketch of Dick in long-waisted, short- 
skirted coat, rubied brooch, ruffles 
peeping through his open vest, and 
narrow hat to match the owner's 
brains. We learn, too, an interesting 
item about the method of certifica- 
tion for college in 1772, when Tom 
Brainless was heralded into college by 
a strangely familiar excuse: 

•' He had but little time to fit in." 

The letter of recommendation con- 
tinues : 

"Examinations, too, must frighten. 

Depend upon't, he must do well, 

He knows much more than he can tell. — " 

It is, however, as the author of 
"M'Fingal" that Trumbull must be 
best known. When the Revolution 
was in the air Trumbull was in Bos- 
ton, studying law in the office of John 
Adams and lodging with Thomas 
Gushing, delegate to the first Con- 
gress. While there the Connecticut 
youth wrote the first part of "M'Fin- 
gal," called forth by the battle of Lex- 
ington and subsequent events. The 
poem is a boisterous satire against the 
Tories, being the history of one 
Squire M'Fingal, a pompous loyalist, 
who stirs up a brawl around a liberty 
pole. This mock-Homeric scuffle 
ends in poor M'Fingal's suspension 
from the pole. From this he is cut 
down, more dead than alive, and 
tarred and feathered. The next scene 
is in the cellar of M'Fingal's house, 
where, still tarry and sore, the old 
Tory describes to his cronies a baleful 
vision of the downfall of British do- 
minion in America and the final vic- 
tory of the colonies. Needless to say, 

this vision was added after the close 
of the war. The immense popularity 
of the poem and high opinion of its 
excellence may be attested by the fact 
that many persons declared it to have 
been written by an Englishman. Crit- 
ics have called it Hudibrastic. It is 
full of local hits and exaggerations, 
no doubt, but is seldom dull. Trum- 
bull's favorite adjective is "Brobdin- 
garian," and somehow the cacophonic 
epithet suits his writing. Still, the 
satire is never harsh, for such would 
belie the kindly eyes of the por- 
trait painted by the poet's cousin, the 
John Trumbull who was Benjamin 
West's friend. John Trumbull's 
fame is that of an author, but his liv- 
ing was gained by law. He was made 
state's attorney for Hartford county, 
1789-95, and was elected a member of 
the legislature in 1792 and 1800. He 
became judge of the Connecticut Su- 
perior Court 1801-19, and of the 
Court of Errors, 1808-19. Yale Col- 
lege, of which he was for some time 
treasurer, gave him the degree of 
LL.D. in 1818. His daughter had 
married W. Woodbridge of Michigan, 
afterward judge, governor and sena- 
tor, and resided in Detroit, where 
Judge Trumbull joined her in 1825. 
His health gradually declined and he 
died there May 10, 183 1. 

Kindly old Donald G. Mitchell, the 
present dean of American letters, who 
is now spending the evening of his life 
on his farm at Edgewood in the sub- 
urbs of New Haven, Connecticut, 
takes much interest in reading the 
satires left to posterity by the Hart- 
ford Wits. He speaks of John Trum- 
bull as "the dean of the club of good 
fellows at Hartford," and says he con- 
siders "M^Fingal much better reading 
for an American than Butler's famous 

Now let us look upon Joel Barlow, 
the man of affairs, the man who aban- 
doned literature for finance and ad- 
venture. Donald Mitchell, in speak- 
ing of the Hartford Wits, says that 
Barlow's life seems to have been "full 


CD c 

first American Satirists 

of grit, full of Yankee capacity for 
bargaining, full of ambitions." "There 
were little poetic uplifts in it," re- 
marks Dr. Mitchell, "but none of them 
were very high." 

Charles Burr Todd, the historian 
and biographer of Barlow, who to-day 
lives in the town of Redding, Con- 
necticut, where Barlow was born, says 
that in his researches into Barlow's 
life and work, he has found him to be 
"the first American cosmopolite, who 
twice averted a foreign war, was the 
godfather of the steamboat and the 
canal, the sponsor with Jefferson of 
internal improvements, and the first 
to propagate the idea of a national 
university with its seat at the Capitol 

Barlow, nevertheless, had his ene- 
mies, especially in politics. I cannot 
refrain from repeating what the dig- 
nified John Adams said of him when 
in the heat of argument he exclaimed : 
"Tom Paine is not more worthless." 
Barlow's friends in Hartford once felt 
that their comrade was pulling away 
from them and tending toward Jeffer- 
son in politics and Paine in irreligion. 
To me, Barlow's life — successful 
though it was — seems, most of all, pa- 
thetic. His was a vain endeavor to 
serve the God of the Market Place 
and the Divinity of Poesy both in the 
same prayer. They tell us of the host 
of unburied dead in the depths of the 
ocean, but it cannot compare in num- 
bers with the shipwrecked lives of 
men and women who have fought the 
old, uneven fight to serve two masters. 
He was the youngest of ten children. 
His father, Samuel Barlow, a respect- 
able farmer, died while he was in at- 
tendance at school, leaving him just 
about enough property to defray the 
expenses of his education. In 1774 
he went to Dartmouth College, but re- 
mained there only a short time, when 
he exchanged it for Yale. Here he 
displayed talent in poetical composi- 
tion, which attracted the notice of Dr. 
Dwight, at the time a tutor in the col- 
lege, and whose encouragement had 

much to do with fixing the character 
of his after life. The Revolutionary 
War was raging at this period and 
young Barlow, being patriotic, was 
awakened to much enthusiasm, and, 
entering as a volunteer the militia of 
the state, went into the field during 
vacation, and is said to have seen act- 
ive service on several occasions, and 
even to have fought at the battle of 
White Plains. In 1778 he was grad- 
uated from Yale, when he delivered a 
poem on the occasion of commence- 
ment, which was called, "Prospect of 

Barlow early determined to be rich ; 
as the family treasury was small. He 
tried chaplaincy, law, political pam- 
phleteering, journalism, psalmody ; 
he fostered a Western "boom" syndi- 
cate, which went to pieces at home 
while he was exploiting it in France ; 
he was prominent in an English soci- 
ety for the propagation of Constitu- 
tional reform ; he was sent on an em- 
bassy to the Bey of Algiers to secure 
American sailors from Moroccan 
slavery; he was a merchant in France, 
and was minister to Napoleon. In 
his own part of all these enterprises 
he succeeded, except in the last; in 
that he died. But through it all, in 
college, in the army, at home and 
abroad, he carried the ambition to be 
a poet. In those days of very young 
America, all educated men were look- 
ing for a poet who should make their 
land great in thought as she was in 
things. Every man who could turn 
out regular, ten-syllabled couplets se- 
cretly said to himself: "I am the 
man!" Barlow, as a boy in college, 
caught a far glimpse of such a vision, 
' ' The Vision of Columbus, " which he 
carried with him in the midst of his 
multifarious schemes, until at last, 
years after, he had it published in nine 
good books and dedicated to his Most 
Christian Majesty, Louis XVI, King 
of France and Navarre. Not content 
with this, Barlow revised the work 
some twenty years more, and again 
crave it forth, this time in ten books — 

t be 

i r $ t 

H m e r 1 c a w 


a great, beautifully bound volume of 
French make, dedicated to Robert 
Fulton, since his Christian Majesty 
had long since gone the way of the 
guillotine. But the "Columbiad" is a 
failure. It is big, strong, sometimes 
lofty, but for several reasons it is not 
poetry. Thus Barlow cherished al- 
most for a lifetime a sweet hope of 
singing his country's glory, and just 
where he most longed to succeed he 
failed, for his poem is very dull. But 
one day, away off in Chambery, in a 
little Savoyard inn, mine host set be- 
fore his American guest a smoking 
dish of something, which, for all its 
French name, Barlow recognized as 
good old Yankee hasty pudding. 
Then, amid green fields and pleasant 
farms like those at home in Connecti- 
cut, the one moment of poetic inspira- 
tion came to the man who had sought 
for it all his life, and he wrote the 
poem of "Hasty Pudding," a poem 
free from the stiffness of the "Colum- 
biad," with the blue glint of Savoyard 
skies in it and the genuine homesick- 
ness of a man who had spent the best 
years of his life in a foreign land, and 
he never knew, I suspect, that it was 
the best thing that he had done. 

Of Barlow's experiences we have 
interesting relics. His chaplaincy in 
the callow days after graduation is de- 
scribed in letters written to his friend, 
Noah Webster, and to his New Haven 
fiancee, "Ruthy." I take it that the 
chaplaincy was for bread rather than 
for souls. He writes quite frankly: 
"The worst difficulty is, the Sabbath 
days come rather too thickly," and "I 
have left that blank in the line for 

He received the degree of M.A. in 
1781 from Yale, and about the same 
time married Ruth Baldwin of New 
Haven, a sister of Abraham Baldwin, 
who afterward represented the state 
of Georgia in the senate of the United 

Of his army life he writes humor- 
ously, or complacently: "Trumbull 
grows red and fat, and I black and 

handsome." His portrait testifies to 
the latter adjective. 

Barlow revised the quaint old Bay 
Psalm Book and made it quite poetic, 
but, alas, his revision fell into disre- 
pute, perhaps through a Puritan fear 
that anything so smooth and pleasant 
as Barlow's verses must be wicked, 
and certainly because suspicions had 
arisen about his orthodoxy, since the 
"Upas-air of Paris" had smitten him. 
Indeed, it must have made the rest of 
the Hartford Wits shudder when, in 
the violence of feeling caused by the 
French Revolution, Judas Iscariot 
was said to be but a foible compared 
with Barlow and Tom Paine. 

In London and Paris, Barlow 
wrought hard for liberty and what he 
thought to be the principles of the 
French Revolution. Such unenviable 
prominence did he win as to be driven 
out of England and to receive, as his 
wife ironically writes, "much honora- 
ble mention from Edmund Burke." 
Poor lady ! Not even being a toast 
in Paris compensated for her hus- 
band's political embarrassments, and 
in one letter she begs him "to go home 
and be respectable." But the passion 
for radicalism had seized him. He 
was made a French citizen by the Na- 
tional Convention, an honor at that 
time conferred upon no other Ameri- 
cans but Washington and Hamilton. 
Altogether he fared well in France 
and was able to help Robert Fulton 
in his search for a patron. Charming 
are the letters which "Hub" wrote 
from Paris to Piombieres, where 
"wife," under the escort of "Toots," 
alias Robert Fulton, was enjoying an 
outing with her gray ponies. 

At last Barlow came home to "Kalor- 
ama," an old estate lying on the road 
between Georgetown and Washington, 
but he was soon summoned hence to 
serve his country again, this time as 
ambassador to Napoleon. Napoleon 
was then engaged in his unhappy Rus- 
sian Campaign, and Barlow followed 
the emperor as far as Poland. There 
news came that the eagle had suffered 

t ft e 




tremendous disaster, and that Napo- 
leon was retreating. Barlow was 
warned to leave the country before he 
should be swallowed up by the hoards 
of Cossack pursuers, and with a few 
companions he hurried through the 
terror-stricken districts. Finally, in 
the unpronounceable little town of Zar- 
nowiec he succumbed to the intense 
cold and pain of the journey, and died 
on the day before Christmas, 1812. 

All his life he had cherished a love 
of poetr^, and all his life he had been 
"too busy," like many others, to give 
his imagination time to kindle, except 
for the brief, homesick lines of "Hasty 
Pudding." His, indeed, is a life of 
accomplishment and power, but one 
that went far astray from its early in- 

The fourth of these literary com- 
rades that made Hartford the Ameri- 
can metropolis of wit and letters is 
Lemuel Hopkins, who, unlike his three 
friends, was not educated at Yale Col- 
lege, but is said to have had the quick- 
est fancy of them all and was "a gen- 
tleman of no mean parts." Although 
a Waterbury farmer's son, he re- 
ceived a thorough education, and, 
after completing the study of medi- 
cine at Wallingford in 1776 he began 
practice at Litchfield. For a while he 
served as surgeon in the revolution- 
ary army, and in 1784 removed to 
Hartford, where he resided until his 
death. Although in early life he was 
decidedly inclined to the teachings of 
French "infidel" philosophers he sub- 
sequently became a staunch upholder 
of Christian theology and defended 
it in many of his best poems. No- 
ticeable among these polemic pieces 
are his famous lines on General Ethan 

"Lo, Allen 'scaped from British jails, 
His tushes broke by biting nails, 
Appears in Hyperborean skies 
To tell the world the Bible lies. 

Behold, inspired from Vermont dens, 
The seer of Antichrist descends 
To feed new mobs with hell-born manna, 
In Gentile lands of Susquehanna; 

And teach the Pennsylvania Quaker 
High blasphemies against his Maker." 

In personal appearance Hopkins 
was "tall, lean, stooping and long- 
limbed, with large features and light 
eyes." His manner, too, was quite as 
forcible and erratic as his verse. On 
one occasion he was called to attend 
a child sick with scarlet fever, and, 
finding it loaded with bedclothes in a 
hot and close room, he seized it in his 
arms without a word and rushed out 
of the house into the cool shade, where 
he treated it with wine to its eventual 
recovery. Among his other poems 
may be mentioned his famous version 
of the 137th Psalm, beginning: 

''Among the Banks where Babel's current 

and his "Llypocrite's Hope," a clever 
satire. No separate collection of his 
writings has ever appeared, but many 
of them were included in Elisha 
Smith's collection "American Poems". 
(1793). Dr. Hopkins wrote much on 
medical quackery, holding firmly to 
the opinion that death is often has- 
tened by so-called cures, and yet he so 
dosed and bled himself to ward oif ex- 
pected attacks of pulmonary disease 
that he passed into an early decline. 
He died at Hartford, Connecticut, 
April 14, 1 80 1. 

I do not feel inclined to turn upon 
these royal good fellows, who did 
such notable service to their fellow- 
men, the penetrating searchlight of 
modern criticism. I like to look upon 
them as four jovial, whole-hearted 
fellows who gave much to American 
literature, even if they did not give 
the best that was in them. It must be 
said of them that they were all bril- 
liant men and I doubt if they ever in- 
tended to receive a permanent place in 
letters. In fact, their fame has un- 
doubtedly followed them down the 
decades much farther than they could 
have ever dreamed. Critics are in- 
clined to seek weaknesses, and to 
those so inclined I confess that in the 
Hartford Wits there is that which is 

Cft e 




open to sharp ridicule if one joys in 
the use of the weapon. I confess the 
carelessness of Trumbull when, in the 
science of rhyme, the word "nui- 
sance" is made to do duty with "con- 
stitutions ;" there are, also, disheart- 
ening constructions, such as in 

"Gazettes no sooner rose a lie in 
But straight he fell to prophesying." 

Moreover, the satirical, ten-sylla- 
bled verse of the eighteenth century, 
always hard for the modern reader to 
appreciate, had already passed out 
even in the day of the Hartford Wits, 
and Burns, Wordsworth and Cole- 
ridge were teaching the world a new 
taste ; the Hartford Wits were far be- 
hind their own age in England. In 
passing, notice these lines from Hum- 
phrey's "Epiogne to the Widow of 
Malabar" : 

"She views with equal eye, sublime o'er all, 
A lover perish — or a lap-dog fall," 

and compare with the more famous 

lines from "The Rape of the Lock," 

written three-quarters of a century 

' * Not louder shrieks to pitying heaven are 

When husbands, or when lap-dogs, breathe 
their last." 

But even if these men were setting 
their verse after a fashion gone out in 
England they were far ahead of the 
times in their own country. Here and 
there a feeble, classic strain might be 
heard, but it was the Hartford Wits 
who sang the lusty song of American 
freedom and growth. "To exhibit the 
importance of this country in every 
point of view as the noblest and most 
elevated part of earth," such was their 
patriotic, if not very modest aim, and 
if they did it with a good deal of noise 
and bluster and some provincialism, 
we, at least, ought not to blame them. 
They were industrious purveyors of 
more or less even heroic couplets, but 
they were something more. First, 
they were honest, sturdy patriots ; 
second, they were genuine lovers of 
art and science, and, above all, they 
were earnestly looking for the light of 
poetry to dawn upon their native land. 
To the Connecticut born, especially, 
and to the stranger within her gates, 
the Hartford Wits are honored in the 
succession of men who kept the altar 
swept and garnished until greater 
souls came to light the fire. 

As we cannot laugh at our own follies, so we cannot endure being 
laughed at. A scribbler tossing at us from a garret a few lightning- 
bugs of jocularity can set our whole population in a flame . . . Great 
satirists, appearing- in the decay of an old order of civilization, descend 
on their time as ministers of vengeance . . . when the state has become 
an embodied falsehood, and the church a name; when society has 
dwindled into a smooth lie, and routine has become religion ; when 
appearance has taken the place of reality, and wickedness has settled 
down into weakness . . . No government can long exist after it has 
ceased to excite respect and begins to excite hilarity . . . Tyrannies, 
which have feared neither God nor man, in the very bravery of their guilt, 
have been smitten by the shaft of the satirist, and passed from objects 
of hatred and terror into targets of ridicule and scorn . . . Armies cannot 
protect it then ; and walls which have remained impenetrable to cannon 
have fallen before a roar of laughter or a hiss of contempt 

—Edwin P. Whipple 


(eremacausis SLOW burning) 



THE autumn fires o'er hill and valley burn 
With lurid flames, as day succeedeth day ; 
The timid flowers lie sear along the way, 
And circling close the aftermath doth yearn. 
Afar we see the red and yellow glow, 
Where tree and shrub and vine are wreathed in flame, 
Their leaves, though emerald-hued ere autumn came, 
Like embers fall whene'er the wind doth blow ; 
And yet, these fires that desolation leave, 
Come to insure sweet summer blooms to be ; 
Shielded the root, the bulb, the tiny seed, — 
Dreaming, the woodland life for which we grieve, — 
Only the chaff is gone, — can we not see, 
Nothing is lost for which we shall have need ! 



In a recent letter from Dr. Edward Everett Hale, the eminent scholar, now in his eighty-fifth year, who has con- 
tributed some fifty volumes to American literature, he states that his latest work entitled " Tarry at Home Travels," 
is about to be published by Macmillan and will contain a chapter on " Connecticut." This chapter appeared a short 
time ago in " The Outlook," that weekly commentary disseminating the best thought in America and edited by Dr. 
Lyman Abbott and Hamilton Wright Mabie. With full credit to the publishers, Dr Hale's observations on ''Connec- 
ticut" are herewith recorded in The Connecticut Magazine. It is also appropriate to here recall some of the facts 
in the long and active life of Dr. Hale. He was bjrn in Boston, April 3. 1822. Captain Nathan Hale, the patriot of 
the American Revolution, born at Coventry, Connecticut, June 6, 1755, was his great uncle. The father ot Kdward 
Everett Hale was Nathan Hale, owner of the Boston " Advertiser" and a pioneer in the first railroads io this coun- 
try. Edward Everett Hale entered the Boston Latin School at nine years of age. Harvard at thirteen, and immedi- 
ately after his graduation in 18 }q became a teacher in the Latin School, where he continued two years, devoting part 
of his leisure to studying for the ministry and in his father's newspaper office in typesetting and editorial work. He 
was licensed to preach in 1842 In 1846 he settled over a church in Worcester, Massachusetts, remaining ten years 
and resigning to accept a call to the South Congregational Church of Boston. Dr Hale's theory of a minister's work 
is that "the man who is to preach to men of affairs must live among them, read what they read, and, to a certain 
extent, know what they know," or, as he has elsewhere expressed it, he mu«t " do active work for the improvement of 
the people around him; be the miniscer of the town as well as of one particular parish." In pursuance of this theory 
he prepared a series of public letters on Irish immigration, which proved the inspiration of much subsequent state 
legislation. He helped to found the Worcester Public I ibrary, acted as a member of the executive committee of the 
Emigrant Aid Company during the Kansas trouble and as an officer of SaliKnac's dr ill corps in the hrst years of the 
Civil War, wrote the story of "A Man Without a Country," edited the " Christian Examiner," " The Sunday-School 
Gazette," and "Old and New," assumed the leadership of the "Lend a Hand" clubs, which grew out of his stories, 
"Ten Times One is Ten," and "In His Name," and identified himself early with the Chautauqua Literary and 
Scientific Circles as one of the counselors. In 1886 he became editor of the " Lend-a-Hand " magazine, in 1889 co- 
editor with Edwin D. Mead, of the newly established " New England Magazine," and later engaged in rejuvenating 
the old Boston "Commonwealth." Dr. Hale is now chaplain of the United States Senate, and as an octogenarian is 
still a prolific writer. — Editor 

EVERY political advance, every 
sane constitution of govern- 
ment, every crisis, or every 
step taken for human free- 
dom, goes to the maintenance of 
happy homes. This is George Fris- 
bie Hoar's central statement. For us, 
the laws of Alfred, Magna Charta, the 
fight at Naseby, the Bill of Rights, the 
Declaration of Independence, consti- 
tutional government, the union of 
states, all have meant that men should 
have happy homes. 

Connecticut has perhaps worked 
her name into history as the state 
which is most successful in this busi- 
ness. Compare Switzerland with her 
in that line, if you choose. Compare 
Vermont. But Connecticut is older 

than Vermont, and her history from 
the beginning has been the history of 
groups of men who came together in 
different places, and lived together, 
and made laws, each community for 
itself, simply that they might have 
happy homes — home rule. You see. 
they have as yet no piling up of people 
in prison cells called "Apartments," 
nor any crowding together in bar- 
racks called "tenements" — or they 
have not many such. I have heard a 
man say that in their largest city — in 
New Haven or in Hartford — a man 
can get more out of life than he can in 
any other city in the world. I am not 
sure but this is true. 

The "land of steady habits," people 
used to say ; and before they said that 



they used to make up absurd codes 
and say that they were the "Blue 
Laws of Connecticut." These "Blue 
Law" codes, as they are printed, were 
fictions; but the fiction itself implies 
what is true — that in the making of 
laws in their little assemblies these 
people always had the fundamental, 
idea of right. It was not for expedi- 
ency, it was not for profit, but it was 
to fulfill the law of the living God, 
that the first generation legislated. 
Well, from such a little state as that 
large things have followed. The 
Western Reserve in Ohio was a new 
Connecticut, where the land was fer- 
tile and the winters were not cold, 
where every seed would bear fruit an 
* hundredfold. And Connecticut may 
well claim the credit for what the 
Western Reserve has done; in our 
own time, for Giddings and Hayes 
and Garfield and Grant; I must not 
say for the Church of Latter-Day 
Saints which I suppose the Western 
Reserve perhaps would be glad to for- 
get. Mr. Calhoun once said that he 
remembered a session of the National 
House of Representatives when 
nearly half of the members of the 
house were graduates of Yale Col- 
lege or natives of Connecticut. I 
think the minority of such people was 
only five less than the majority. 

Somewhere in the fifties of the last 
century a French gentleman called on 
me who had been sent out from 
France by Louis Napoleon, or some- 
body, to study American education. 
As in duty bound, he had gone first 
into Canada. He had learned all he 
could about education in Canada and 
then he had been attracted, as La Salle 
was, to the Valley of the Mississippi, 
and he had done the ancient Louisi- 
ana, that is, he had gone through all 
the states of our Middle West on what 
people call an "educational" visit. He 
had reserved New England for the 
end. And he said to me: "Every- 
where I found that the teachers in the 
American schools, whether of Canada 
or the Mississippi Valley, are from 

two provinces, Massachusetts and 
Connecticut. I said to myself: This 
is unheard of in history — that all the 
people in a large nation shall be edu- 
cated in two of its smallest subdivis- 
ions. And I asked for the statistics 
for the birth of the teachers and no- 
body knew anything about it. But I 
said: When I come to Connecticut 
and Massachusetts I can obtain the 
statistical information on this subject. 
And now I have come here nobody 
knows anything about it and nobody 

I promised to provide for him some 
sort of official report on this business 
and I asked a dear old sachem, a near 
friend of mine, how many of the 
young people of his particular town, 
when they left school, began as teach- 
ers somewhere or other. He heard 
me with some impatience and then 
said: "Why, all of them, of course!" 
This exclamation of his corresponds 
quite nearly with what at one time 
was the Southern impression regard- 
ing the New England schoolmaster. 
He was a Connecticut man. In the 
southern part of the nation there is 
many an old joke or epigram or anec- 
dote which belongs to the period when 
a Connecticut Yankee was spoken of 
as talking through his nose and roll- 
ing his r's and "teaching school." 

One may say in passing that that 
abominable expression is pure Yan- 
kee and it is heard nowhere but in the 
purest Yankee literature. 

In our day Connecticut feels, as all 
the rest of New England feels, the 
wave of European and Canadian emi- 
gration. The old-line rulers of Con- 
necticut, the sons of her own soil who 
grew up used to home rule, are wor- 
ried more or less by finding voters 
who neither know nor care whether 
they live in Connecticut or in Dakota 
so far as history goes; who are citi- 
zens of the United States, but do not 
know what the three vines on the seal 
of Connecticut mean, nor who in- 
vented the motto of the state of Con- 
necticut. But, for all that and all that, 





they retain steadfastly in Connecticut 
some of the old stand-by habits of 
home rule. It is worth while to say 
this if I am writing for people who 
come from the West and South to en- 
joy the seashore at Watch Hill, at 
Saybrook, at New Haven, or any- 
where on the Sound. We cannot do 
enough to awaken local pride by the 
study of local history in regions which 
are valued by people who have no lo- 
cal pride and know nothing of local 
history. I have said this whenever 
I could in public schools and in these 

Our newspapers would be a great 
deal better if some of the people who 
wrote for them knew more of the tra- 
ditions, even the language, of five 
thousand different centers of Ameri- 
can life. 

Remember, for instance, that in that 
critical struggle of the Revolution 
which we like to go back to, there 
was, strictly speaking, no revolution 
in Connecticut; every form of gov- 
ernment went on without a break of 
a hair as it had done before. The 
elections were the old colonial elec- 
tions. Governor Trumbull was cho- 
sen as every other governor had been 
chosen in every other Connecticut 
election from the beginning. Ran- 
dolph and some of the other English 
governors were commissioned as gov- 
ernors of New England, but they ex- 
ercised no power in Connecticut ex- 
cept, perhaps, sending a catch-poll to 
hunt up a fugitive. When the Revo- 
lution came, Connecticut had her gov- 
ernor and her army; she knew how 
to commission her officers and to arm 
her troops. Ethan Allen took Ticon -■ 
deroga in 1775 and told the com- 
mander that he did it in the name of 
the great Jehovah and the Continental 
Congress. This was a very imagina- 
tive use of language. The only com- 
mission he had was from the state of 
Connecticut, and she used such power 
exactly as she had vised it in commis- 
sioning colonels for one hundred and 
fifty years. 

Chastellux, who was Rochambeau's 
favorite aide, naturally had many oc- 
casions in the Revolution to cross 
from Newport to the Hudson and 
eventually to Yorktown and back 
again. The journey was always, if 
you will observe, on horseback. Chas- 
tellux says early in his book that in all 
the time when he had been in Amer- 
ica he had never seen a man of mili- 
tary age who had not served against 
King George. This is good testi- 
mony as to what Connecticut was. It 
shows the other side of the appeals we 
have from Washington to "Brother 
Jonathan" when he wanted troops of 
a sudden; and the admirable military 
records of Connecticut, which have 
been so well printed and edited, show 
how Connecticut became ready to an- 
swer such appeals. When Washing- 
ton was sure he must fortify New 
York he sent the Connecticut General 
Ward, the same who had been at 
Louisburg, to garrison the city with 
his Connecticut men. It was Knowl- 
ton, who was killed within the limits 
of our Central Park, who led the Con- 
necticut regiment that day of which 
Washington said in a general order 
that the behavior of this corps was 
worthy of any army in any time. My 
kinsman, Hale, belonged there, but he 
was in prison in New York, if indeed 
he were not already dead. 

I forget which of the French gen- 
tlemen it is who tells that nice story 
about Greene's early training. Roch- 
ambeau, with a great staff, was riding 
across country when somebody's 
horse's feet wanted attention. So 
they stopped at a Connecticut town 
and sent for a blacksmith. While the 
blacksmith was at work some one 
asked Rochambeau what he "did ter 
hum." Now the truth is that in 
times of peace a French marechal of 
Louis XVI's Court did not do much 
after he had fanned young ladies or 
offered snuff to princes. But Roch- 
ambeau answered that he was a Mare- 
chal de France. Then the curious 
Yankee followed up his questioning 


by asking what marechal meant, and 
some very bright English-speaking 
man on the staff answered that mare- 
chal meant blacksmith. This pleased 
the Yankee. "It's an excellent trade," 
he said ; "it's an excellent trade. Our 
General Greene is a blacksmith." 

I have intimated in another article 
that if you will go up into northwest 
Connecticut, into the neighborhood of 
Canaan Falls, you will find Asaph 
Hall, the same who discovered the 
moon of Mars, and he will show you 
the glories of hills and valleys and 
waterfalls on this earth. If you will 
spend a week or two at Norwich — 
they call it the Rose City — you will 
find a group of charming people who 
would never let me name them, and 
you would have a chance to see how 
an independent town governs itself 
and how all the delights of the highest 
civilization may be found without the 
clatter and frills and smoke and dust 
of a great city. In Hartford, as I 
said, or in New Haven, men say that 
you can get more out of life in twenty- 
four hours than you can anywhere 
else in the world. This is sure, that 
in either of these places, if you sigh 
for a crowd, you may go to New York 
in three hours. If you sigh for the 
wilderness, the White Mountains and 
the Adirondacks are not much farther 

I was at New Haven on the second 
centennial of the beginning of the col- 
lege. It was a good time to see the 
matchless loyalty of the different 
classes as they made rendezvous in 
their old home. Wherever you meet 
these men it is interesting to see how 
they really think that there is no other 
university in the world than theirs. 
They have a fine quotation from some- 
thing in an original document which 
says that the college is created "for 
the bringing up of men who may be of 
service to the state." I was pleased 
the other day when, in trying to find 
out something about their Governor 
Hopkins, one of the patrons of Har- 
vard College while there was yet no 

Yale College, I found the same ex- 
pression. He died in 1659 in London, 
and in his will endowed some New 
England academies and gave to Har- 
vard College the money with which to 
this hour she gives the Deturs every 
year to deserving pupils. Worthy re- 
mark, is it not, that the money which 
he left, which was distributed to the 
legatees about the time of the Treaty 
of Utrecht, now yields one hundred 
per cent annually for the uses of this 
trust? Remember this, ye gentlemen 
of Connecticut who live at home at 
ease, when you send down for your 
friend to ride up from his office and 
make your will. Men die, but univer- 
sities have a good chance to live. 
There are many Hopkinses in Amer- 
ica. I wish that some one of them 
would tell me where our Governor 
Edward Hopkins was born — not in 
Shrewsbury, as Cotton Mather said 
he was. 

It was thirty years ago that one of 
the most distinguished graduates of 
Yale College said to me that it had a 
great advantage over other institu- 
tions because it pleased the Lord God 
always to send into the world exactly 
the right person to be president at 
precisely the time when he was need- 
ed. This prophecy of his has been 
confirmed as the generation has gone 

I was about to say that I had two 
grandfathers in Yale College in the 
seventies of the eighteenth century. 
Nathan Hale, whose statue looks out 
on Broadway, was not my grand- 
father. He never had any children, 
but he was the brother of my grand- 
father, Enoch Hale, and they were to- 
gether in college. Nathan Hale was 
only a little more than a year younger 
than my grandfather. I have the let- 
ter in which their father, Richard 
Hale, told them that their mother had 
made cloth enough for their winter 
clothes and one of them might ride 
over to Coventry to be measured for 
both. Nathan Hale took a leading 
part in the "Beggar's Opera" when 


his society acted it before the college 
government of that day. The tradi- 
tion says that his notes for that mys- 
terious visit to New York which end- 
ed his life were written in Latin, and 
that he had appeared in New York as 
a Connecticut schoolmaster. 

My children have a great many 
more Yale ancestors than I. Bright 
and wise men go to Hartford for their 
wives, and I followed that good ex- 
ample. So Lyman Beecher comes into 
our line, and so is it that the later 
Beechers, who did their duty so well 
a generation ago, are Connecticut 
born or bred. I do not remember if 
this story of Roxana Beecher has ever 
slipped into print. When she and her 
husband were young married people 
on Long Island, the father of one of 
her pupils gave to her what I suppose 
was the Edinburgh Cyclopedia as a 
present. When the young family 
moved up into the mountains of 
Litchfield County the cyclopedia went 
with them. When the first winter re- 
vealed to them the severities of that 
high altitude Mrs. Beecher studied the 
pictures of Russian stoves in the cy- 
clopedia and constructed the first of 
such comforts for the parsonage. As 
I write these words I remember that 
John Pierpont, the poet, who moved 
from Litchfield to Boston at about 
that time, invented a new stove which 
he put upon the market, and when the 
ecclesiastical council was called to de- 
termine whether he had or had not 
done things which a minister should 
not do, the invention of this stove 
came in among the complaints of his 
enemies. Ministers ought not to in- 
vent stoves any more than they ought 
to write poems for theaters. Yet I 
remember in later days Dr. Bushnell 
invented a stove and no one took ex- 

If you want to have a pleasant 
summer home, and, at the same 
time, be within an easy ride of New 
York, you will not go wrong if you 
look up a house in that Litchfield. The 
famous Gunnery is not far away. 
I believe that the wonderful water- 

fall at Bashbish is within the 
present line of New York. It was 
once in what they called Boston Cor- 
ner and was part of Massachusetts. 
But as no Massachusetts sheriff could 
arrest a man in Boston Corner with- 
out having to carry him through New 
York or Connecticut as they went to 
the jail, Boston Corner seemed likely 
to become a place without law and we 
Massachusetts people gladly added it 
to the territory of New York, though 
we have not much territory to spare. 

New England's first war, one is 
sorry to say, was in Connecticut, and 
the savage for the first time knew who 
his master, was when the train-bands 
of Massachusetts stormed the pali- 
sades at Mystic. 

Old Dr. Dwight, president of Yale 
College, wrote the first guide-book of 
New England, and that is excellent- 
reading to this day. In early life, 
when he was in his poetical vein, he 
wrote "The Conquest of Canaan," and 
when Washington and the army were 
besieging Boston in 1775 and '76 the 
Yale College tutor came to camp and 
modestly asked the different gentle- 
men there to subscribe for the print- 
ing of his poem. My great-uncle, 
Nathan Hale, was there, a lieutenant 
on Winter Hill. He had told his men 
that they should have all his pay as 
bounties if they would enlist when 
their terms expired. But all the same 
he subscribed for "The Conquest of 
Canaan." Alas! before the book 
came to the press Hale was dead. 
Dear Dr. Dwight, as he was to be, 
wrote in these additional lines in 
memory of his pupil-patron: 
* ' So, when fair Science strove in vain to 
Hale, doubly generous, found an early- 
grave. " 
In the same poem, I forget how, Dr. 
Dwight brings in the Connecticut 
river. How it got into "The Con- 
quest of Canaan" is not of much im- 
portance, but it is here that he says : 
' • No watery gleams through fairer valleys 
Nor drinks the sea a lovelier stream than 


At that moment the only streams 
which he could have seen were the 
North river, the Pawtuxet river, the 
Charles river, and possibly the Mer- 
rimac. But we will grant him a poet's 
privilege and even if we have seen a 
thousand other streams drunk up by 
the sea we will stand by Dr. Dwight. 

I am afraid that dear Dr. Dwight 
is more often spoken of now as the 
president of the university than as the 
leading poet of his time. But Con- 
necticut people in particular, and their 
descendants of two, three and four 
generations ought not forget his 
verses. As I go over the railway I 
am almost sorry to see that Stafford 
Springs is becoming a great manufac- 
turing town. But the dear old hotel 
where the invalids of a century ago 
retired in their own carriages with 
their own spans of horses and their 
own negro drivers is still extant, and, 
if you will ask at the right place, they 
will show you the signboard which 
used to be displayed over the bath 
house with this verse of Dr. Dwight' s : 

" O health, thou dearest source of bliss to 

I woo thee here, here at this far-famed 

Oh, may I ere long welcome thy return ! 
Irradiate my countenance with thy beams, 
And plant thy roses on my pallid cheeks ! " 

To tell the whole truth, I never 
think of Dr. Dwight as the theologian 
encountering Voltaire and Volney in 
the lists of battle, but as a dear old 
poet with the roses of Stafford 
Springs beaming on his cheeks once 

Maynard, the accomplished creator 
of the school of agriculture at Am- 
herst, said to me once that whenever 
Massachusetts wanted to raise her 
own breadstuffs she could do it in the 
valley of the Connecticut; and I do 
not dare say how much leaf tobacco 
the valley of the Connecticut will send 
to the market this year — the best, I 
believe, that the market will have to 
offer. They are just now trying their 

experiments of raising it, so to speak, 
under canvas. 

It is to us people who live in Massa- 
chusetts bay an interesting thing to 
see that from the very beginning we 
have depended on the West for our 
bread. "Give us this day our daily 
bread, good God, and we will send for 
it wherever thou shalt require." Our 
first governor, John Winthrop, had to 
send back for meal and corn by the 
very ships which brought him and his. 
They arrived in England in a time 
really of famine. But they executed 
their orders. They bought meal of 
different grades in the highest mar- 
ket of that day and dispatched the 
John and Mary as promptly as might 
be. In the John and Mary, by the 
way, arrived a certain Robert Hale to 
whom this writer is much obliged, and 
a certain Roger Williams. The John 
and Mary came up the bay when a 
Fast day had been ordered by the 
board of assistants. She broke open 
her hatches, and the board ordered the 
Fast day changed to a Thanksgiving 
day, the first Thanksgiving day 
known in the bay. That lesson was 
enough for Winthrop, and with that 
spring (1631) he sent the first trading 
shallops into this valley of the Con- 
necticut to buy for us the grain which 
he would turn into meal for feeding 
his fifteen hundred people for the next 
year. And from that day to this day 
the bay has bought its breadstuffs 
from the West. Just now I think an 
occasional carload slips in from Cali- 
fornia. I know that Ventura County 
in Southern California supplies the 
baked beans for my Sunday morning 

This, then, is the history of the 
Connecticut Valley. And to this valley 
as early as 1634 such men as Hopkins 
and Haynes and Hooker and the first 
pioneers of Hartford crossed the wil- 
derness of Massachusetts. Three 
weeks the journey took which I take, 
when I choose, in three hours. 

They are always having picturesque 


things turn up in Connecticut. There 
is not in history anything more dra- 
matic than the story of the "Amistad" 
which worked itself to the denoue- 
ment here. The "Amistad" was a slave 
ship. She had brought from Africa 
to Havana a cargo of negroes. At 
Havana some Spanish planter bought 
the cargo, pretty much as it stood, 
made perhaps some additions there, 
and they were to be carried in the 
"Amistad" to his plantation. The poor 
fellows had had enough of slave ships 
and they rose on the Portuguese crew 
and turned the tables. The blacks 
were in command and the whites were 
the prisoners. Then where were they 
to go? Some divine inspiration, I do 
not know what, bade them steer north. 
They understood American politics 
better than Mr. Van Buren did at that 
time and they knew that North meant 
freedom. So they sailed north and 
north and north till a revenue cutter 
stumbled upon them off Long Island 
and brought them into a Connecticut 

Who says there is no Providence 
when he reads that Connecticut farm- 
ers received these poor waifs strug- 
gling to be free? Well, things were 
not then just what they are now. Mr. 
Van Buren, a Northern man with 
Southern principles, was president. 
He hated to bid his Connecticut mar- 
shal set these people free. He did his 
very best to have them returned to 
Cuba. Say what you like to-day 
about him and his, you have to account 
for that "Amistad" business some- 
how. But thanks to King Alfred and 
Runnymede, John Davenport and 
Hooker here in Connecticut, we have 
something which is called habeas cor- 
pus, and so our "Amistad" negroes 
can sue out their habeas corpus in a 
Connecticut court, and so Martin Van 
Buren and the whole Southern crew 
will be put to trial. And Roger Sher- 
man Baldwin — a good name for the 
business, and John Quincy Adams, a 
name as good — had to defend the 
right of freedom in all the courts. And 

so at last it comes to Washington and 
the crisis comes before the Supreme 
Court. Send over to the public library 
and get John Quincy Adams' diary 
which tells the story of that trial. 
Adams had not appeared in court 
since he was a youngster. Now he 
had the freedom of fifty-three men to 
maintain and he had a court, half of 
whom had been appointed by such 
men as Van Buren and Jackson liked 
to put into it — Southern men with 
Southern principles. The morning 
comes of the day of decision, and, as 
John Quincy Adams rises from his 
bed, they bring him a newspaper 
which announces to him that the night 
before one of the leading Southern 
judges has died of apoplexy. In that 
death the balance of the court is 
changed and the fifty-three black men 
were set free. Their children are 
freemen to-day in the valley of the 
Congo. Let one of my young friends 
who wants a theme for a tragedy try 
his hand on this story. 

Do not tell me that what Mrs. 
Richmond says of workshops does not 
admit of poetry or dramatic incident. 
Take such an invention as that of 
Goodyear's india-rubber, born, bred 
and perfected here in Connecticut. 
Find somebody to tell you the story 
of the growth of that mustard-seed 
into comfort for the whole earth so 
that the Norwegian girl who is pick- 
ing her way across a peat bog at the 
head of a fjord would bless Mr. Good- 
year and his wife and his children if 
she knew to whom she owed her dry 
feet of that morning. Go over to 
Salisbury and wake up some of the 
memories of the times when they 
stamped our first copper cents, or 
when Knox bade them cast cannon 
and they did so. They say dear 
Roger Sherman was a shoemaker. I 
do not know, but I do know that every 
central suggestion in the American 
Constitution, "the wisest work of 
men's hands that was ever struck off 
in so short a time," is the suggestion 
of this shoemaker, Roger Sherman. 


There is a kind of promptness about 
these people which comes out in the 
most charming way in history. As it 
happened, and I have always been 
glad of it, I was in the room with 
Grant when somebody told him a 
story how, six months before Lexing- 
ton, General Gage seized a powder- 
house of ours in sight of Beacon Hill, 
and how the news ran like wildfire 
down into Connecticut, and how, 
without any order from any governor, 
the freemen of the town in which 
Grant's grandfather lived marched to 
the relief of Boston, and how his 
grandfather was among them. That 
is the sort of story which you can pick 
up any day in any town if you will go 
to the right person and if you care 
about the realities of history. Take 
Pomfret and Israel Putnam. What 
boy does not remember the wolf's 
den ? Pomfret is well known by hun- 
dreds of people who find it a pleasant 
summer home, as well as by other 
hundreds who live there. The cave 
in which Israel Putnam killed the 
wolf is still a cave where a wolf could 
be killed if a man with a gun entered 
behind him. And who is there of 
imaginative turn who will be much 
distressed if it prove that a hundred 
and fift)^ years have somewhat exag- 
gerated the perils of the position? 

Why one of the early Hales went 
to Connecticut I do not know. All I 
do know is that in 1634 people whose 

name begins with H went over and 
established Hartford; and now I 
know that if you go to Glastonbury 
you will be glad to make a visit to the 
great peach plantation of J. H. Hale, 
whose peaches one or two hundred 
thousand of my readers have eaten 
since last June. 

In the Civil War we had in New 
England a little company of men who 
were, so to speak, the "literary bu- 
reau" of the time. I could set type 
and was son of an editor, so it was my 
good fortune to sit in their councils 
and another person who sat in their 
councils was a man named Ralph 
Waldo Emerson. Well! pretty much 
every Connecticut man who was 
worth his salt was off with Hawley 
and the rest lugging a musket around 
Florida or somewhere else among our 
old masters. So the political canvass 
in Connecticut of that summer de- 
volved on old gentlemen who were too 
old to lug muskets. And so it was 
that the literary bureau had its part to 
play, and so it was that Ralph Waldo 
Emerson wrote two little tracts for 
that canvass. One of them is a very 
good picture of what we gain in daily 
life because there is no customhouse 
at the frontier of every state. Look 
among your old pamphlets, my dear 
cousins, and find that tract without 
the author's name. It is by the 
"Buddha of the West," the "New 
England Plato." 




SWIFT phantom strokes, borne from a distant bell, 
Peal sweetly — as the shadowy clock of Time 
Numbers the years in soft, melodious chime. 
Truthful the tale their brazen voices tell 
Of many summers spent, or ill or well, 

Of sorrows mingling thick with joys sublime, 
Angelic deeds with whisperings of crime, 
And marriage music merged in funeral knell. 

The time for preparation overpast, 

Behold the heritage the years have given ! 
A vision broad, to view and understand, 
A courage brave to face a work so vast, 
A willing hand to lift earth nearer Heaven, 

Broad mind, brave heart, and ever-ready hand. 


(to r. b. f.) 



W LONG for the touch of thy hand 

mgm ; In the silence of the night; 

IIIJJj For the whispered word of hope and faith, 

LJl And the long-lost sense of sight. 

I 8-^^i Sometimes I dream that I see you smile 

In the old familiar way, 

And a pageant of memories flood my thoughts 

Of a well-remembered day. 

Writ deep in my heart of hearts thy name 

Is carved by the chisel of God, 

Aud branded in my memory 

Is every path we trod. 

New faces come and go, Beloved, 

Strange hands are clasped in mine, 

But they are like shadows at eventide, 

And the noonday sun was thine. 


Intimate Of* Story of Pbilo Penfield Stewart 





There probably is no writer living who has a more intimate insight into the life and character of the distinguished 
philanthropist, Philo Penfield Stewart, than Mr. Atwood, who was appointed literary executor by Mrs. Stewart, after 
the decease of her husband, edited the memoranda left by the philanthropist and prepared much material relating 
to his life-work. In his active literary years, Mr. Atwood made extended researches into Americana, especially into 
the lives of men who had contributed to the growth of the American Republic. Inevitably his researches led him back 
to Connecticut which he found to be the hub from which the shafts of genius seemed to radiate. "Whatever line of 
historical investigation one follows," he recently remarked, "at some crossroad all sign-posts point to Connecticut." 
Mr. Atwood began a thorough research into Connecticut history, visiting nearly every town in the state to gather 
material for the preparation of an authoritative historical work on the lives of the men and women, who, as he 
explains it, "have made Connecticut the greatest state in the Union in all departments of learning and doing." Mr. 
Atwood lectured extensively on the subject, but impaired health finally forced him to lead a pastoral life and a few 
days ago he wrote: "I have had to set aside my ambition and give up all literary work, and am now beginning life 
over again as a florist and market gardener." The following notes are those of a matured scholar, still devoted to his 
old love — historical and biographical literature. — Editor. 

IT was years ago, while in Oberlin 
College, that I first became inter- 
ested in the life and work of that 
remarkable composite of material 
and spiritual genius, Philo Penfield 

One day I chanced to find a quaint 
little volume at Oberlin, entitled, 
"P. P. Stewart: A Worker and 
Worker's Friend," with a "word of 
introduction by an old friend." The 
name, "Stewart," had already become 
one to reverence. No one can re- 
main long at Oberlin without hearing 
it mentioned frequently and reveren- 
tially. The biography interested 
me with its quaint sketch of the 
intellectual face of Mr. Stewart — 
high cheek bones, forehead marked 
with the deep lines of years of consci- 

entious labor, long hair flowing down 
to the shoulders. 

Upon leaving Oberlin I became a 
clergyman, and, during pastorates in 
this grand old state of Connecticut, I 
became intensely interested in Con- 
necticut history, especially its bio- 
graphical material. It seemed re- 
markable, even marvelous, to me that 
this little commonwealth had contrib- 
uted so many great men to the nation 
— men heroic in character and achieve- 
ment. I turned to my little biography 
of Philo Stewart and became so in- 
terested in his life that I visited Mrs. 
Stewart at the old family home in 
Troy. We had many entertaining 
conversations and became firm friends. 
She was much interested in my work 
and I in her reminiscences. After 


this first acquaintance I visited her 
many times. One day she said to me : 
"I want you to be my literary execu- 

It came to me as a pleasant surprise, 
for I held the Stewarts in high esteem. 
She placed in my possession manu- 
script and memoranda relating to the 
life of her husband in all its details, 
from the deep affection of his domes- 
tic relations to the ambitions and final 
accomplishments of his long and ac- 
tive life. This first installment of ma- 
terial was sufficient to make a fair- 
sized volume. 

In the papers and correspondence 
that fell under my supervision were 
many of vital interest, many that will 
never be published; for instance, one 
dwelt upon Mr. Stewart's loss of 
$30,000 through the failure and 
alleged dishonesty of the corporation 
that undertook to manufacture the 
cook stove he invented. I told her 
then, and I still feel, that it was a mat- 
ter the public would not care to hear 
discussed, and those concerned being 
dead, a blow might fall on innocent 

The material also included the diary 
of Mrs. Stewart, telling of her car- 
riage ride in 1827, from Pauline, Ver- 
mont, down through western Con- 
necticut, New York, Pennsylvania, 
Virginia, and on to Mississippi (re- 
quiring eleven weeks), when, before 
her marriage, she was appointed a 
missionary of the American board to 
the Choctaw Indians. Several young 
ladies accompanied her; also Mr. 
Stewart, who was returning to his 
work among the Indians of the South- 
west. She also related her courtship 
in the wilderness of the Southwest 
and her marriage to Mr. Stewart ; her 
failing health and consequent return 
of both to the North. 

None of the Stewart family is now 
living; they left no children. It is 
with pleasure that I here briefly re- 
cord the main facts in the life story of 
Mr. Stewart, a man of forceful char- 
acter, vigorous individuality, indomit- 

able will and rich accomplishments. 

It requires considerable capability 
in a man to occupy many con- 
flicting capacities in life and yet per- 
form the duties of each with equal 
ability. A mechanic, teacher and 
missionary; an inventor, education- 
ist, reformer and philanthropist — such 
was Philo Penfield Stewart, born July 
6, 1798, in the town of Sherman, Fair- 
field County, Connecticut. He loved 
liberty with an intensity that knew no 
abatement ; tyranny and slavery found 
in him an implacable foe. He labored 
unceasingly, doing all the good he 
could among his fellow-men with 
whom he came in contact, and giving 
his zealous support to the organiza- 
tions of freedom and philanthropy. 
He became actively associated with 
the abolition leaders of the day, James 
G. Birney, John G. Whittier, Theo- 
dore Weld and others. Stewart was 
a true philanthropist and sought to 
gain money chiefly for the good he 
could do with it for his fellow-men. 
Surely such a man as this deserves 
permanent place in history; too many 
historians fail to recognize real worth. 
Stewart was not great in war ; he 
was great in peace. 

In traveling through the Green 
Mountain region, tarry for a day at 
Pittsford, Vermont, and in the village 
cemetery find a white marble monu- 
ment bearing this inscription: 


Died at Troy, N. Y. 
Dec. 1 2th, 1868, aged 70 years and 

five months, 

Distinguished in life as an Inventor 

and Philanthropist. 

A leading reformer and public 


An earnest practical Christian worker. 

His energies and means were devoted 

to the service of God and the 

good of mankind. 

"A missionary among the Indians of the 
southwest, one of the two pioneers who were 
the founders of Oberlin College and village. 
A prominent laborer in the Anti-Slavery 


movement, and a life long friend of the 
colored race." 

"A friendly hand erected this memorial 
of his magnanimity and usefulness." 

It is the shrine of a true man — a 
man whom four states can proudly 
claim: Connecticut, because she gave 
him birth ; Vermont, the home of his 
youth and the last resting-place of his 
mortal remains; Ohio, because of 
the great institution which he origi- 
nated, and which is the best monu- 
ment of his zeal and forethought; 
New York, because here he wrought 
as an inventor and manufacturer for 
more than twenty-five years, the most 
prosperous years of his eventful life. 

The early Stewarts in America are 
supposed to have been of royal Scot- 
tish stock and descended from one 
who settled in Lancaster, Massachu- 
setts, in the pioneer days. An old 
tombstone in that town bears this in- 
scription : 

"Here Stuart sleeps, and should some 

brother Scot 
Wander this way and pause upon this spot, 
He need not ask, now life's poor show is 

What arms he carried or what plaid he wore; 
So small the value of illustrious birth, 
Brought to this solemn last assay of earth ; 
Yet unreproved his epitaph may say, 
A Royal soul was wrapt in Stuart's clay, 
And generous actions consecrate his 

More than all titles, though of Kingly 


It is not of the Stewart ancestors, 
however, that I am to tell, but of a 
Stewart descendant, a man who did 
practical things in a practical age. 
Like most of the boys of his times he 
was the son of a large family, of 
which I will only state that his good 
mother was the daughter of John 
Penfield of Fairfield, Connecticut, 
who had five sons and five daughters, 
all born in Connecticut, and all but 
one removed to other states. John 
Penfield moved to Pittsford, Ver- 
mont, where he died in 1829. His 
daughter, Sarah, married Philo Stew- 
art of Sherman, Fairfield County, 
Connecticut, where Philo Penfield 

Stewart, the subject of this sketch, 
was born. He was the second son 
and third child in a family of seven 
children. One girl died early; the 
others lived to a good old age. When 
young Stewart was about six years of 
age his father removed to Poughkeep- 
sie, New York, and died April 19, 
1812. About the time the family re- 
moved from Connecticut young Stew- 
art went to live with his Grandfather 
Penfield in Pittsford. When his 
father died, his mother with five chil- 
dren came home to her father's house, 
and Philo, who was then fourteen 
years old, was sent to Pawlet,Ver- 
mont, to serve an apprenticeship of 
seven years at the saddlery and har- 
ness-makers' trade with his uncle, 
John Penfield. His mother married 
again in Pittsford, General Thomas 
Hammond, whose sons and daugh- 
ters were well distributed through 
Vermont and northern New York. 
We judge him to have been a man of 
means, for he gave Mrs. Stewart's 
two younger sons a full course in 
Middlebury College, John afterward 
taking a course at law, and Amasa 
studying theology at Andover. John 
always wrote his name Stuart. 

As a child, Philo Penfield Stewart 
was marked by a strong desire for 
making things. He was constantly 
whittling and his crude 1 attempts were 
looked upon as a waste of time and 
material. His mother, whose mem- 
ory he always cherished with pro- 
found regard, encouraged him. When 
asked if he would like to live with his 
grandfather, he remarked: "Yes, if 
there is plenty of pine wood growing 
in Vermont." 

In those early homes, when many 
children were the rule, the precept 
"that children should be seen and not 
heard" was rigidly enforced. His 
father was especially severe on his 
children for any bantering or imagi- 
nary tales ; thus the imagination was 
dwarfed or allowed to grow without 
any training. Young Stewart did not 
find any encouragement to build air 


castles in those early days in Ver- 
mont; hence, he became a man of 
very few words. His mechanical ex- 
periments were the subject of ridicule, 
though he desired to make something 
of practical use. He did make for his 
companions little carts, sleds, ploughs, 
whistles, and, later, a family wheel- 
barrow and a water wheel and mill on 
his grandfather's place. He loved 
music and made a clarionet and joined 
the band, but left it because of the 
drunkenness of some of its members. - 
He was judged as was Eli Terry by 
the inhabitants of Plymouth, who for 
days would sit in the sun whittling, 
while his wife lacked fuel for the 
kitchen fire. Terry was expostulated 
with by his neighbors because he did 
not make better provision for his fam- 
ily, but still the shavings flew from his 
jack-knife. Queer little wheels piled 
up around him day by day, until one 
day Terry had the pleasure of calling 
his neighbors in to see the first clock 
made in Connecticut. He was now 
called a genius and a career and for- 
tune was open before him. 

It was similar with young Stewart. 
No friendly hand directed his un- 
skilled fingers; no kindly eye guided 
him, but if any difficulty arose in his 
uncle's machinery he was always 
called upon to solve the problem and 
apply the remedy. His aunt's kitchen 
was probably honored with the first 
apple-paring machine ever invented. 
Carpenters and cabinet-makers' tools 
were his delight and had greater at- 
traction for him than the awl and the 
needle of his dearly-bought trade. 

During these seven years of service 
Stewart was to have three months 
annual schooling at the Pawlet Acad- 
emy, beside his board and clothing. 
These years were fruitful ones. He 
had to assist his uncle before and after 
school. He did this willingly and 
considered it an essential part of his 
education that he should pay his way 
while obtaining it by manual labor. 
There were pupils of both sexes in 
this school, and, because he prized his 

opportunity so much, he came to feel 
that co-education was the only right 
education. Here he made the ac- 
quaintance of John J. Shipherd, his 
life-long friend and co-laborer in edu- 
cational plans. Levi Parsons was the 
teacher. In short, this little academy, 
unknown to fame, became his ideal 
school, and, later in life, he modeled a 
school after it which outgrew its re- 
stricted curriculum and became a 
great university. 

I wish I could point you to some in- 
dication of greatness, but this slow- 
speaking saddler's apprentice was 
probably the last one of all that band 
of students at Pawlet Academy who 
would be selected as the one to 
achieve true greatness. He was not 
satisfied to be a farmer, his love for 
practical mechanics was too strong, 
but the putting together of leather for 
harness and saddlery was too monot- 
onous for his spirit. The age of 
American machinery had not yet in- 
fluenced the Green Mountain region. 
Like Eli Whitney, he began life as a 
school teacher; he desired to acquire 
influence; he saw the men about him 
who exerted most influence were men 
of property; he hoarded money and 
the little that was given him to spend 
on general training days he carefully 
hid away. He once said: "Nature 
made me a miser, but the grace of 
God has taught me to love to give." 

While this question of property was 
being debated a distant school was 
looking for a teacher. Stewart was 
of age now, and he applied for the 
school, but, upon learning that the 
teacher must take his pay in grain, he 
refused the offer or declined to make 
an engagement as this would interfere 
with his resolve to make money. Upon 
reflection, he declared that his heart 
was not right ; his will was not in full 
subjection, and that he was "in danger 
of worshiping mammon." It takes a 
strong man to discover his own weak- 
ness. Stewart declared: "I profess 
to be a follower of Christ. He was 
rich, yet for my sake He became poor. 


He went about doing good and had 
not where to lay His head. I profess 
to want to make myself useful among 
men and to be willing to deny myself 
and to suffer shame for His sake. 
Here, now, is a capital chance to do 
good, but I refuse it, because I am 
to receive my pay in grain instead of 
money; this is not Christ-like. I ab- 
hor myself and repent in dust and 
ashes. I will accept this opportunity 
and trust in God. From this time 
henceforth I will hold myself and ev- 
ery dollar I possess in readiness to be 
employed or given up, as duty calls, 
for Jesus sake, as long as I live." 

As soon as he reached this conclu- 
sion his sinking spirits revived. The 
idea that he must possess wealth in or- 
der to be useful vanished at once. He 
rode back to the village, accepted the 
terms offered, and spent a very happy 
winter seeking to make himself useful 
in every way. His term closed satis- 
factorily to all and the committee 
raised the money instead of the grain. 
He left the district with the hearty 
respect and good will of all the people, 
old and young. 

Stewart called this his second con- 
version because he had been convert- 
ed from the love of money. He 
offered his service to the American 
board as a teacher to the North Amer- 
ican Indians and was sent to a station, 
called Mayhew, in Mississippi, to la- 
bor among the Choctaw tribe. 

At the age of twenty-three he start- 
ed on horseback with all his effects in 
his saddle-bags and traveled alone 
nearly two thousand miles through 
the wilderness. Often the forests 
were unbroken and he was guided by 
blazed trees, with here and there a sol- 
itary dwelling. He endeavored to 
reach settlements before night should 
overtake him where he would find en- 
tertainment among the families and 
would compensate them for their 
kindness by entertaining them with 
the story of the cross, incidents of his 
life, and an account of his mission. 
When he arrived at his destination he 

found that of the seventy dollars 
given him by the board for his travel- 
ing expenses he had used only ten for 
the keeping of himself and horse. 
Thus he placed sixty dollars to the 
credit of the board. 

Stewart entered heartily into the la- 
bors of the mission, his soul filled with 
joy and satisfaction because of the op- 
portunity to relieve the careworn mis- 
sionaries. Here his inventive genius 
found full play in kitchen and work- 
shop. He made and repaired tinware 
and shoes, renovated old saddles and 
harnesses, clocks and watches ; 
flagged the walks and built a large 
brick oven for baking the cornmeal 
bread, which was the only bread they 
had. He sought to improve the qual- 
ity of this. As the corn was pounded in 
mortars by the children of the school, 
Stewart saw how imperfect this proc- 
ess was, and he set himself to con- 
struct a grist-mill to be propelled by 
horse power. He superintended the 
framing of the mill and the setting of 
the machinery, and, though his first 
experience, it was pronounced by ex- 
perienced judges the most perfect 
they had ever seen. It was of incal- 
culable value, not only to the mission, 
but to the whole region round about 
the station. 

During the season the Indian mis- 
sion was visited by one of the secreta- 
ries of the board, Jeremiah Evarts, 
father of United States Senator Ev- 
arts. He was much pleased with the 
improvements made, and, on his re- 
turn, he reported among the friends 
of the mission that Philo Penfield 
Stewart was the most useful man on 
the ground. For three years Stewart 
labored, teaching and preaching by 
interpreters to the villages about, su- 
perintending the boys in their labors 
in shop and on the farm, gathering 
ideas from practical experience re- 
garding manual labor and school 
work. Never sparing himself he 
sought to benefit others. One duty, 
which was especially arduous, fell to 
his lot, that of preparing and pre- 


serving the meat for the station. This 
had to be done in the cool of the 
night; on account of the hot climate 
the meat had to be turned frequently 
to insure the salt taking hold before 
the meat spoiled. Broken of his sleep 
and rilled with the noxious vapors of 
the semi-tropical night, these, to- 
gether with other labors, overtaxed 
his strength and he was laid low with 
fever. As soon as he was able he 
started for New England to recruit. 
On his journey home by slow and 
weary stages, weak and ill in body, he 
did not find the hospitality so dear to 
the heart of a Western man, and re- 
solved then, if ever able, to establish a 
home for returned missionaries and 
broken-down ministers, which he did 
in after life. Often imposed upon, he 
ever kept an open house, lest some, 
like himself, should feel that the 
Christian world did not appreciate the 
labors of those who did their work. 

Home at last, welcomed among kin- 
dred, his friends were unable to do 
too much for him. He enjoyed the 
precious privilege of the sanctuary 
and had the best of medical skill, but 
he did not rally. At last he proposed 
to his brother-in-law, a farmer, to 
work for his board until his strength 
should return; by doing a little, then 
resting, he gradually grew stronger, 
so that, at the end of the season, he 
could do a day's work in the garden 
or field. Rest and exercise, with 
proper diet, did what medicines could 
not do, and he abandoned drugs for 
the rest of his life. Founding a hy- 
gienic institute in Troy several years 
later on this principle he held to judi- 
cious exercise and simple diet as the 
means for restoration of health and 
preserving life. 

A part of three years was spent in 
recuperating, and, later, in acting as 
agent for the American Board, col- 
lecting funds and obtaining subscrib- 
ers. At length, much to his satisfac- 
tion, the board requested him to se- 
cure a number of assistants and return 
to his field. He obtained four women 

and one man. At Newburg, New York, 
he fell in with another missionary and 
four women, returning to the same 
field, and the whole party kept to- 
gether. Stewart had three horses; 
when the roads were good he rode 
one; when they were bad he har- 
nessed it with the others; generally, 
however, he would ride on ahead of 
his companions and make arrange- 
ments for the entertainment of the 
party. It was not uncommon for the 
minister of a village to have a dispute 
with his parishioners as to who should 
have the honor of extending hospital- 
ity to the party. Sometimes they 
would spend a day in holding mis- 
sionary meetings and were able, in 
this way, to take up several collections 
to send back to the board. After 
eleven weeks of pleasant, though 
wearisome traveling, they arrived at 
the open door of the mission house. 
On estimating their expenses it was 
found to be twelve dollars apiece, as 
much for six persons and three horses 
as the board allowed for one person. 

Prudence and economy were ever 
decided traits of Stewart's character. 
He observed that the waste, needless 
and wanton from the table and ward- 
robe of Christians would more than 
pay the salaries of all the missionaries. 
A favorite sentiment often expressed 
by him was: "Nature is prodigal, but 
never spendthrift; she husbands her 
resources that she may be able to dis- 

On the twenty-third day of June, 
1829, Stewart took to himself one of 
the best of wives that ever helped a 
man, Eliza Capen, who was born in 
Maine, and at six years of age re- 
moved to Vermont. She accompanied 
him on his second missionary journey. 
At length she broke down and he was 
obliged to resign his commission in 
order to save her life. He refused to 
accept a salary from the board, 
though urged to do so, and retired 
from active missionary operations, 
though a missionary in spirit all his 


After his return East, Stewart de- 
voted much of his time to the recovery 
of his wife's health. Applying water 
he reduced her fever and thus proved 
his theory of, water cure, and was the 
first person in the United States to 
use the system and endeavor to popu- 
larize it. He did not know of Press- 
nitz's practice in Germany until years 
afterward. During his spare hours, 
while nursing his wife, he studied the- 
ology with a view of preaching in the 
West. From a child he had weak 
lungs and his early training was not 
favorable for public speaking. He 
would often say: "I am slow of 
speech and of a slow tongue, like 
Moses of old." In considering the 
subject further he thought he might 
do more good by aiding younger and 
stronger men to take up the work, 
which none knew better than he need- 
ed doing in the great West. 

With great reluctance Stewart de- 
cided to turn his attention to secular 
pursuits again. Money must be had 
to carry out his new project. He 
wrote to his childhood friend, Rev. 
John Jay Shipherd, of Elyria, Ohio, 
asking him if there was not a field of 
usefulness open for him in the West. 
The response from Shipherd was : 
"There is ; come at once ; the fields 
are ripe for the harvest and we will 
look around and find them." In the 
spring of 1832 Stewart accepted the 
invitation of his friend and went to 
Elyria and they began at once their 
deliberations and their seeking. Day 
by day the plan grew and the colony 
of Shipherd and the school of Stewart 
became one. One day while they 
were talking over the matter in Mrs. 
Shipherd's parlor Stewart had occa- 
sion to know that there was no stove 
in the room. He saw the need, and, 
not slothful in business, he immedi- 
ately set his skill and ingenuity to 
work to make one. He made it and 
set it up; it was just the thing and 
served them nicely through the sea- 
son. Mrs. Shipherd then suggested 
an oven, thus converting it into a 

cooking stove. This was added and 
this stove proved a great auxiliary to 
the comfort of the family for years. 
It was made of sheet iron and was 
Stewart's first experiment in stove 

This necessity of Mrs. Shipherd's 
proved to be the mother of inventions 
of untold value to thousands. Stew- 
art's next step was to invent, patent, 
and make a cooking stove which he 
called the Oberlin Stove. This was 
manufactured for the benefit of Ober- 
lin and used there and elsewhere for 
years. He also made a stove for 
heating the students' rooms. This 
little sheet iron stove, without a parti- 
cle of cast iron about it, proved to be 
the lightest, cheapest, and, for a mild 
climate where a fire is only needed 
occasionally, the best stove ever in- 
vented. I used the same pattern of 
stove forty years afterward in Ober- 
lin, until Council Hall was built for 
the theological department, where 
each suite of rooms was heated by an 
open grate; much pleasanter, but not 
nearly so economical, and on a very 
cold day not nearly as good a heater 
as the little oval Stewart stove. 

Stewart did not confine his atten- 
tion to stoves, for while he was here 
he made a model of a planing ma- 
chine. This model was put in opera- 
tion and exhibited to the public. 
Men familiar with such machinery 
urged him to manufacture it and 
bring it into practical use. At a sub- 
sequent period he took measures to do 

Here I must speak of Stewart as an 
inventor. In the spring of 1837, 
while in New York, he made arrange- 
ments with parties to make and put 
up his planing machine. They were 
to furnish funds, he to superintend the 
construction. Scarcely had they be- 
gun operations when the company 
failed. Another firm in New Jersey 
had the same experience. The year, 
1837, was one of great financial em- 
barrassment and he never did any- 
thing more with his planing machine. 


Stewart had no capital, and those who 
had were greatly embarrassed by the 
stringency of the money market. He 
went to New York in the autumn of 
1836 and his wife followed in May, 
1837. Not having rooms made ready, 
Mrs. Stewart went to Newark, New 
Jersey, and worked for her board five 
weeks. In June she joined her hus- 
band in New York. The struggles 
of Arkwright, Palisy, of Goodyear, 
and other inventors and benefactors 
were repeated in Stewart's case. A 
barrel containing a little cornmeal 
was their larder; a board across the 
barrel was their table, and a few other 
articles constituted their housekeeping 
outfit. Often would Stewart have 
left the city if he had possessed the 
means, but he was obliged to stay be- 
cause he could not get out. His he- 
roic wife traversed the city, an entire 
stranger, to find work by which to 
furnish food for this remarkable cou- 
ple. For the greater part of the time 
for six years, it was her hands which 
provided the little they needed to sus- 
tain life. At times they were reduced 
to cornmeal and water without salt. 
Stewart said afterward: "It would 
have saved me a great deal of unnec- 
essary suffering had I known that the 
human system did not need salt/' 
Later in life, with an income of thou- 
sands of dollars annually he did not 
use salt in his food to commemorate 
what he believed to be an important 
hygienic discovery. Not only did 
Mrs. Stewart labor for him, but she 
encouraged him to continue his la- 
bors. She did not doubt that some- 
time and 

" Somewhere, the narrow stepping-stone he 

The steep and terrible ascent of duty, 
Would change to velvet terraces, overspread 

With brightest emerald beauty." 

The tenrible straits of poverty 
forced Stewart to consider the econ- 
omy of fuel. He was so poor that 
only three sticks of wood as large as 
the arm could be used at a time. Pon- 
dering this one day he held his sticks 

on a sheet of paper ; if spread out they 
would not burn; if brought together 
they would only heat a part of his 
oven. As he held them he folded the 
paper and discovered the possibility 
and practicability of a fire-box with 
three heating surfaces instead of one. 
And thus the great discovery was pat- 
ented: "a fire-box hanging in the 
midst of the oven so as to heat front 
and back as well as the bottom of the 

I cannot go through the whole long 
struggle to get capital interested. 
Starbuck and Company of Troy, New 
York, took hold and failed. Then 
Fuller and Warren took up the manu- 
facture of his stoves and they at once 
threatened to drive all other stoves 
out of the market. 

His improvements were stolen, but, 
despite this, his fortune was inevita- 
ble. He was past forty before he be- 
gan to reap the rewards of his trials 
and labor, and still spent large sums 
of money in experimenting, until 
1859, when he patented his large sum- 
mer and winter cooking stove. Be- 
ing now past sixty years of age his 
whole life had unfitted him for the 
great financial strain of modern civili- 
zation. He lost $8,000 by signing 
notes, $15,000 by fires, and, at last, 
$25,000 by the sharp practice of a 
Connecticut firm in 1867 only a year 
before his death. So that at his 
death his wife had nothing left but 
the old home in the heart of the city 
of Troy. By renting this to another 
widow for a boarding-house, she re- 
taining the use of a suite of rooms on 
the second floor, was comfortably 
provided for in her declining years. 

Stewart estimated the number of 
cooking stoves made by him at ninety 
thousand, and of stoves of all kinds, 
200,000. In his prosperity he ever 
asked himself: "How can I, through 
these stoves, best serve God?" In 
mechanism they must be perfect as 
possible; they must be durable, and, 
above all, fuel-saving and labor-sav- 



From an old engraving treasured by Mrs. Stewart and now in possession 
of her literary executor 


Ing. Whether he made money by it 
or not, this was his standard. 

In a letter written in 1863 Stewart 
said: "The writer did not engage in 
the stove enterprise to make money 
for himself, but to provide a boon that 
cannot be reached by dollars and 
cents." The venerable president 
of Union College, Nott, another Con- 
necticut genius, himself a stove in- 
ventor of note, said, after careful ex- 
amination of the Stewart stove: "All 
that is of value in the modern cooking 
stoves is taken from the Stewart." In 
tracing out the inventions of Stewart 
in a connected and consecutive man- 
ner I have found it necessary to leave 
out many side lights of great interest 
which have only been given cursory 

Returning now to Stewart, the edu- 
cationist. At the home of Shipherd in 
Elyria,Ohio,we find these two men, so 
unlike in temperament. Shipherd was 
ardent, hopeful, sanguine ; disposed 
to underestimate difficulties and obsta- 
cles, while Stewart was slow and cau- 
tious, apprehensive of difficulties and 
inclined to provide for them in ad 
vance. Their co-operation doubtless 
involved some difficulty, though each 
had the utmost confidence in the other 
as to motive. Stewart wrote to Ship- 
herd soon after they had entered upon 
their project of founding the Oberlin 
Colony and school. "You acknowl- 
edge you are constitutionally inclined 
to go too fast and I acknowledge that, 
from the same cause, I go too slow. 
If this be true, a word of admonition 
now and then from each to the other 
may be salutary. But, after all, I 
would not have you like me if I could. 
I think we may balance each other 
and become mutual helps. If you 
should occasionally feel a little impa- 
tience at my moderation and I at your 
impetuosity, it would not be strange, 
but if we are always in the exercise of 
that charity which hopeth all things 
it will be well at last." 

When the final plan was settled 
upon they sought for a site ; several 

were offered. Some were too near 
other settlements to form a commu- 
nity which should be different from 
all others, in that this community sur- 
rounding this school of the prophets 
must be composed entirely of Chris- 
tian families. Each family should 
only possess as much land as it could 
till. The use of liquor was to be pro- 
hibited in the colony, likewise tobacco, 
and tea and coffee, except as health 
demanded them. 5 The dwellings and 
dress were to be simple and all sur- 
plus earnings to be devoted to the 
Lord's work. Especially was the 
community to support the school ; 
there was to be one heart and one aim. 
Having obtained a grant of five hun- 
dred acres of land in a section three 
miles square, eight miles southwest of 
Elyria, and fifteen miles east of Lake 
Erie, these two devoted souls rode out 
to view their purchase. Several 
years before surveyors had felled the 
trees about four rods wide for a road 
through the tract, which was level, 
but covered by a dense growth of for- 
est. The road now was thickly over- 
grown with bushes. At a certain 
point they hitched their horses to a 
tree and kneeled under another on the 
west side of the road and dedicated 
themselves to the work and asked for 
Divine guidance. That tree stands 
to-day in the southwest corner of the 
College Park and that cart-path 
through the wilderness is now Main 
Street, Oberlin. 

Let me quote again from a letter 
from Stewart: "My own as well as 
brother Shipherd's plan was very sim- 
ple. It involved barely two chief ele- 
ments : First, a Christ consecrated 
colony or community; second, a 
school or college which should em- 
brace the joint education of the sexes, 
based upon the family arrangement 
and the principle of self-support. The 
colony was brother Shipherd's plan. 
The school, as above indicated, was 
solely my own, but was heartily ac- 
cepted by him. The manual labor 
feature I regarded vital and without 


it would not, on any account, have 
consented to join the enterprise. Nor 
did I consider the admission of fe- 
males to all the privileges and immu- 
nities of the school less important. To 
prove in the strongest possible way 
my interest and confidence in the 
whole thing, as thus planned, myself 
and wife oledged the first donation to 
the enterprise by offering our per- 
sonal services, both of us, for five 
years. We asked no compensation 
except our bare food and clothing. 
The school was first organized with 
these several objects in view. He 
needed my school to grace his colony 
and I needed his colony to sustain my 
school. He left out his proposed 
'common property' feature and I 
added the collegiate feature to my 
school, and thus we combined and 
harmonized both plans." 

The people of Ohio had had one ex- 
perience of making a home in the wil- 
derness, and one experience was 
enough for a lifetime. Shipherd had 
to come to Connecticut first in order 
to complete the purchase of the land 
and then travel through Massachu- 
setts, New Hampshire and Vermont 
to obtain the requisite families, the 
men and the money to carry out the 
plan which, to his parishioners and 
ministerial friends, seemed visionary 
and impracticable. 

In October, 1832, he started alone 
on horseback, sustained by the prayer 
of his noble wife, Stewart and his 
wife, and perhaps one or two others. 
The next spring operations were to 
begin and the school was to open in 
December, 1833. Stewart was on the 
ground ; he was treasurer and general 
superintendent. A saw mill must be 
purchased, a brick-kiln laid, forests 
cleared, roads made, streets laid out. 
He often expressed fears that they 
should not be ready for the school to 
open that fall and counseled modera- 
tion on the part of Shipherd lest the 
people should come before they had 
accommodations prepared for them ; 
but so mightily grew this project that 

forty students were on the ground De- 
cember, 1833, and the school was 

Stewart, all the time working at his 
Oberlin stoves, had organized the 
board of trustees and met the colo- 
nists with encouragement when they 
came. As soon as the teachers and 
students arrived he had to provide the 
food, while his wife superintended the 
cooking with the help of the young 

One year from the opening of the 
school, the second since Shipherd 
started out alone on his untried mis- 
sion, we find a community of thirty- 
five families and a church of eighty 
members ; a school numbering one 
hundred students, with land and 
buildings valued at $17,000, and such 
a movement toward the school that 
large numbers of applicants had to be 
turned away. 

A charter was obtained from the 
legislature in February, 1834, and in 
October of that year the first college 
class was formed of four students. 
About the time Oberlin was instituted, 
Lane Theological Seminary was start- 
ed in Cincinnati by Lyman Beecher 
of Connecticut; Calvin E. Stowe, 
John Morgan, and one other profes- 
sor unknown to fame. Catherine and 
Harriet Beecher, with Lydia Sigour- 
ney, had transferred their ladies' sem- 
inary from Hartford, Connecticut, to 
Cincinnati. Under the direction of 
Professor Stowe a college of teachers 
was founded in Cincinnati with the 
patronage of the state and the high- 
est dignitaries of the church ; this con- 
tinued about ten years. 

Ten years before the founding of 
Oberlin, Stephen Treat, a home mis- 
sionary from Connecticut, had started 
a college for the Western Reserve in 
the town of Hudson, named from its 
founder, Squire Hudson, of Goshen, 
Connecticut. The friends of these in- 
stitutions would not naturally look 
with favor upon a successful rival. 
The co-education of the sexes was 
made the excuse for slander, but still 


the students came from the east and 

At this time the great subject of 
human slavery was beginning to agi- 
tate the country. Garrison's "Lib- 
erator" was awaking the conscience 
of the nation. The students of Lane 
Seminary, led by Theodore D. Weld, 
a student of the seminary, discussed 
this subject among themselves. Some 
of them were sons of slave owners. 
After eighteen consecutive nights of 
honest and earnest debate they adopt- 
ed, almost to a man, anti-slavery sen- 
timents. Professors Morgan and 
Stowe, with Dr. Beecher, were in the 
East on twelve weeks' vacation. Dur- 
ing this time the trustees of the semi- 
nary met, and, without consulting the 
faculty, forbade the discussion of 
slavery by the students, either in pri- 
vate or public. Just at this time Ship- 
herd visited Cincinnati on his way to 
the East. The students besought him 
to open a theological department at 
Oberlin and they would finish their 
course there. 

Rev. Asa Mahan, pastor of the 
Sixth Street Presbyterian Church, 
was recommended to Shipherd as 
president of the college, and John 
Morgan to a professorship in the col- 
lege. Shipherd immediately wrote to 
the trustees recommending these ap- 
pointments and that the school be 
open to all students without regard to 
color. To those on the ground this 
unheard of proposition came with 
great surprise and they did not concur 
in the recommendation. The result 
of their action was forwarded to Ship- 
herd in New York. Here he met 
Lewis and Arthur Tappan who recorrn 
mended their pastor, Rev. Charles G. 
Finney, to the professorship of theol- 
ogy and guaranteed his support 
and a liberal endowment of the insti- 
tution provided that the school be 
opened to colored students. Presi- 
dent Mahan, Professors Morgan and 
Finney would not accept their ap- 
pointment unless this platform was 
adopted by the trustees. Shipherd 

wrote a long letter to the people of 
Oberlin full of affection ; it recounted 
their covenant and their prosperity; 
it urged the reason for opening the 
gates to worthy persons of color who 
were needed to be leaders and educa- 
tors among the Africans forcibly 
brought to America, and, finally, he 
showed them plainly that the neces- 
sary endowment would be withheld, 
the help of these mighty leaders 
would be lost, and lastly, if they did 
not pass the vote, he must also with- 
draw his services. 

It will be remembered that the year 
1834 was the year when Connecticut 
imprisoned Prudence Crandall for 
teaching a colored youth, and that 
Alcott's famous Temple school was 
closed in Boston because he insisted 
on retaining a colored youth two 
years later. The trustees feared for 
the result if they accepted. Many of 
the colony were opposed to it and the 
result of action was doubtful, but fi- 
nally, after a long session, the vote of 
the board stood a tie and Rev. John 
Keep, chairman of the board, cast the 
ballot in favor of the measure. The 
resolution as drawn was ambiguous, 
but the die was cast and with the new 
teachers and students Oberlin College 
became the stronghold of abolition. 

Let us see what Connecticut had to 
do with this school. First, the land 
was donated by Messrs. Street and 
Hughes of New Haven. Second, the 
plan and foundation was laid by Philo 
Penfield Stewart of Sherman. Third, 
the one who made Oberlin known 
wherever the English language is 
spoken was Charles G. Finney of 
Warren. Moreover, Henry Cowles 
and his brother, J. P. Cowles of Nor- 
folk, and E. P. Barrows of Hartford, 
a classmate in Yale of Dr. Henry 
Cowles, were professors; Mrs. Dr. 
Dascomb, the first lady principal, was 
the pupil of Miss Grant of Norfolk 
who was the teacher and lifelong 
friend of Mary Lyon; Owen Brown 
of Torrington was a trustee as early 
as 1835, and his son John Brown of 


Harper's Ferry was not unknown to 
them as he had been engaged by the 
college in surveying some land in 
Western Virginia, a gift from Gerritt 
Smith of New York, and John Brown 
often visited his younger brothers and 
sisters who were students in the col- 
lege. Two colored men from Oberlin 
were with him in the Harper's Ferry 
raid; one was killed in the arsenal, 
the other was hung a few days after. 
And finally, Rev. Sherlock Bristol, a 
native of Cheshire, who had been ex- 
pelled from Phillips' Academy for ad- 
vocating abolition of slaves, had gradu- 
ated from Oberlin in the college class 
of 1842. While a student in Yale 
Theological Seminary he ably advo- 
cated the cause of Oberlin in a series 
of articles published in the Religious 
Herald and effectually answered the 
articles against that institution. Later 
in life, when the college was in great 
financial straits, at the urgent request 
of President Finney, he acted as agent 
of the college and tided it over one of 
its most trying periods. 

What has Oberlin College done? 
First: It revolutionized the Missis- 
sippi Valley, furnishing, on an aver- 
age, five hundred students a year as 
teachers who were the able advocates 
of a higher life and of the abolition of 
human slavery. Second: It demon- 
strated the rights of man as man with- 
out regard to color and prepared the 
way for such institutions as Yale and 
Harvard to put before the world as its 
class orator a son of Africa. Third: 
It opened all its departments to 
women; three young women gradu- 
ated from the full college course in 
1844 and were the first to take their 
degrees in the arts. In 1847, two 
young women were received into 
the theological department. To-day 
twenty-two colleges in our land open 
wide their doors to women in every 
department, and they are all patterned 
after Oberlin as the model. Finally, 
Oberlin is the mother of colleges, for 
Shipherd started another college and 
colony in less than ten years at Olivet, 

Michigan. He died in a few months, 
but the college survives with several 
hundred students yearly. More than 
a dozen Western colleges were started 
by Oberlin people and are taught by 
her graduates. The eight Congrega- 
tional colleges of the South sprang 
from the same Alma Mater. The 
first secretary of the American Mis- 
sionary Association was George 
Whipple, professor in Oberlin. M. 
E. Strierby was a graduate of both 
the college and seminary. Oberlin 
students have been connected with 
this work in large numbers. Twenty 
thousand students have availed them- 
selves of the privileges of Oberlin, be- 
side the thousands who have received 
the benefits of her numerous off- 
spring, and how many thousands will 
rise up to bless her founder and bene- 
factor in the years to come. 

Oberlin College in a few years 
found it impractical to superintend 
the manual labor of its students. Ezra 
Cornell, twenty-five years later, with 
better facilities and unlimited capital, 
found he could not succeed. The 
students still have opportunities for 
manual labor with private parties in 
Oberlin. In Stewart's time student 
labor was worth from four to seven 
cents an hour and board one dollar a 
week ; to-day Stewart's Hall in Ober- 
lin furnishes table board to young 
men at two dollars per week, and a 
student can find work at from fifteen 
cents to thirty-five cents an hour. 

In a letter written by Stewart, Jan- 
uary 2, 1 86 1, at a time when 1,300 stu- 
dents were in attendance annually he 
says: "In reference to the question 
whether or not the institute at Oberlin 
has served the purpose for which it 
was established, I do not especially 
trouble myself; under the guiding 
hand of Providence it has accom- 
plished more good than could have 
reasonably been expected." 

In another letter he said: "The 
most successful experiment ever tried 
in this country has been made at 


The life of Stewart teaches many 
valuable lessons. He was not per- 
fect in his day and generation, but his 
aim was to live with conscience void 
of offence toward God and man. He 
felt that the years of his pilgrimage 
were, like Jacob's, few and full of evil. 
But when we consider the full fruit- 
age of that life it is glorious. 

With Graham and others of that pe- 
riod he sought to benefit mankind by 
a rational diet. 

With men of greater wealth and 
more brilliant intellects he laid the 
foundations for the highest Christian 
culture to which were admitted pu- 
pils without regard to sex or color ; 
where the poor had equal advantages 
with the rich. 

A true friend of the working man, 
he made cooking machinery a 
science and the lot of women in the 
kitchen infinitely easier. 

He gave to educational and benevo- 
lent objects a fair-sized fortune. De- 
nying himself, he made many rich. 
Of him it may be said : What he gave 
he had, and what he kept he lost. 

The full three-score years and ten 
allotted to human life were filled with 
labors of love. Philo Penfield Stew- 
art fell on the ice and suffered nerv- 
ous prostration from which he never 
fully recovered. He lived until the 
next winter, when, in December, 1868, 
he was attacked with typhoid pneu- 
monia. He had not the strength to 
rally and "God took him." 


A CENTURY ago every "gentleman" wore a queue and powdered his hair. 
Villagers assembled at the inn on " post day" to hear the news. 
The church collection was taken in a bag at the end of a pole with a bell 
attached to arouse sleepy contributors. 

Virginia contained a fifth of the whole population of the country. 

Two stage coaches bore all the travel between New York and Boston. 

The Mississippi Valley was not so well known as the heart of Africa to-day. 

There was not a public library in the United States. 

A horseman who galloped on a city street was fined four shillings. 

Stoves were unknown. All cooking was done before an open fireplace. 

Six days were required for a journey between New York and Boston. 

The whipping-post and pillory were still standing in New York and Boston. 

Twenty days were required for a letter to go from New York to Charleston by 

A New England girl did not consider it proper to marry until she could make a 
loaf of bread and cut it in smooth, even slices while it was warm. 

When a Virginian started on a journey to New York he was considered careless, 
unless he made his will and bade farewell to all his friends. 

Dances in Philadelphia were given every two weeks, but young men under 
twenty and girls under eighteen were not admitted. 

money in €arly America 

By George $. Roberts 

IT is not unusual to hear persons be- 
come enthusiastic over "the fine 
old days" when the country was 
new. There was romance, such as 
could be obtained from a never-ending 
diet of peas, beans and Indian corn. 
Deer and bear were plentiful, but ven- 
ison and bear steak soon pall on the 
appetite. Shad and salmon were so 
commonplace and plentiful that the 
well-to-do were chagrined to be seen 
eating them. 

The only thing worth envy in these 
days was the lack of money, elimi- 
nating envy, hatred and malice. There 
was no worry, no living beyond one's 
means in public and scrimping in pri- 
vate for the purpose of making as fine 
a display as one's neighbor. 

But, although they had no money 
in the old days, they still had to buy 
and sell, or rather, to be accurate, they 
"swapped." In order that necessities 
might be obtained (they had few lux- 
uries) the magistrates fixed certain 
values for given quantities or weights 
of what the people produced, the basis 
of values being gold and silver. 

In 1660, the values of certain prod- 
ucts were fixed by the magistrates in 
New London, and while they might 
vary slightly in different places they 
were near the general standard of val- 
ues till changed by the magistrates. 

A bushel of wheat was equal to four 
shillings in gold or silver. 

A bushel of oeas, three shillings. 

A bushel of Indian corn, two shill- 
ings and sixpence. 

A barrel of beef, fifty shillings. 

A barrel of pork, seventy shillings. 

Then there was another system of 
values. A buck's skin was taken as 
the unit. A merchantable buck's skin 
was required to weigh four and a half 

A pound of buck's skin was equal 
to a pound and a half of hides. 

A pound of hides equalled two 
pounds of old iron. 

Two pounds of hides equalled one 
pound of old pewter. 

Salaries of ministers and teachers 
were fixed in pounds, shillings and 
pence, but were payable in the prod- 
ucts of the settlers' farms. For in- 
stance, the Rev. Thomas Hanford, 
the first minister of Norwalk, Con- 
necticut, was voted a salary, in 1652, 
of £60 a year, to be paid in wheat, 
peas, barley, beef and pork. If it was 
necessary for him to buy cloth for 
clothing, or linen for beds, from a 
neighbor, or some one in a neighbor- 
ing- settlement who made the needed 
articles, Mr. Hanford paid for the 
stuff in wheat, peas, barley, beef or 

Then there was a system of ex- 
change that was good all over New 
England. It was Indian wampum 
made of a certain shell, found, in its 
greatest perfection for the purpose, 
along the shores of Long Island 
Sound. It consisted of tiny cylinders 
but little larger than the lead in a pen- 
cil and half an inch long. They were 
bored the long way and strung on 
sinew. Generally speaking, the col- 
ors — by which the values were dis- 
tinguished — were white, blue and 
black. Occasionally, the blue was of 
a purplish tinge and sometimes pink- 

Three of the colored and six of the 
white were equal to a penny (a penny, 
not a cent). They were strung in 
fixed numbers to represent fixed val- 
ues in shillings and pence. 

The white represented a penny, 
threepence, a shilling, and five shill- 
ings. The colored, twopence, six- 
pence, two and sixpence and ten shill- 

When an Indian committed a crime, 
not capital, in Connecticut, he was 
imprisoned and fined in wampum. 
One evil doer was given the great fine 
of 100 fathoms — 600 feet — of wam- 
pum. This punishment was inflicted 
for the burning of a settler's home, 
and the fine was so great that the 
whole tribe had to pay it. 








I saw her loose from the anchored quay 

And proudly steer on her wintry way, 

Her banners of smoke and fire on the gale, 

.Like a living thing that might never quail. 

I saw her sweep by the ships and shore, 

With her dashing wheels and her fiery roar; 

And the landmen said, as she passed them by. 

"Though she hath not wings she doth almost fly.' 1 

I saw her out on the stormy sound, 

And she leaped a score of waves at a bound; 

The landward hills grew faint and dim, 

And the lighthouse rose with its distant glim. 

It seemed as in pride she bore along 

Her freight of wares and her mortal throng; 

But they little thought, in their gladsome cheer, 

That the barque they trod would become their bier. 

I saw her ranks to their cabins crowd. 

And their step was free, and their laugh was loud; 

And they cried, as they heard and felt the boat, 

"How swiftly and gaily we onward float!" 

I saw a cloud from the deck arise, 


And quietly soar to the evening skies; 

1 Twas a little cloud, as aloft it sped. 

But another rose and beneath it spread; 

They grew, and up rolled on the nightly air. 

'Til the flames burst forth with a frightful glare. 

And oh! what a scene did I see there then, 

'Mid that crowd of children, and women, and men! 

What sounds I heard in that awful hour 

When fire and frost were in sovereign power! 

How wild and dread was the shriek I heard, 

More shrill than the cry of the storm sea-bird; 

Ah, louder and deeper than roaring flame, 

Afar o'er the windsand waves it came! 

Their step was bound, and their laugh was still. 

And the blood in their hearts grew clammy and chill; 

For before was a tomb of consuming heat, 

And a freezing grave was beneath their feet. 

Then down sank they all in a mass that night, 

Lit on to their couch by pale starlight; 

'Twas the couch of death; 'twas a bed of waves; 

And their sleep was the sleep of old Ocean's graves. 


Romance and tragedy of Cong Island Sound 




Mr. Bullock, through his remarkable series of articles in The Connecticut Magazine, has become the recognized 
historian on the subject of steam navigation. A quarter-century of investigation has given him a deep knowledge of 
the men, inventions, and incidents that have made the United States a foremost nation in the conflict for the com- 
mercial supremacy of the world. Mr. Bullock's first article in the series on "The Development of Steam Naviga - 
tion" appeared in Volume Nine, Number Three, of The Connecticut Magazine, and told the story of John Fitch, 
the Connecticut Yankee, who first gave practicability to the idea, and the initiatory part taken by Connecticut in the 
science of navigation. His second article was presented in Volume Nine, Number Four, and establishes the fact that 
Connecticut holds six prior claims to distinction in the mastery of steam for the propulsion of vessels against wind and 
tide The third of the series in Volume Ten, Number One, relates the story of the first steamboats to sail inland 
waters when the invention of a machine capable of carryingpassengers against- stream by power of "elastic vapor 
was considered visionary. The fourth article in Volume Ten, Number Two, tells of the first steamboats to sail the 
Connecticut River when the United States Supreme Court declared the waters.of the nation to be free for navigation. 
The article herewith is the fifth, and in it Mr. Bullock traces the history of the "Stonington Line," with anecdotes 
and incidents of navigation on Long Island Sound. — Editor 

COULD the incoming tide of 
Long Island Sound relate its 
own experiences there would 
be tales of romance and 
tragedy that the weird imagination of 
the novelist could never intensify. 

To the hundreds of thousands who 
have lingered through sultry summer 
days on its shores, and to that great 
migratory family that sails its waters, 
little is known of the genius that has 
labored itself into the grave to solve 
the problem of riding its waves, of 
fortunes that have been gained and 
lost on its restless bosom, of its abund- 
ant joys and its overwhelming griefs. 
There are undoubtedly those of my 
readers who treasure in their memo- 
ries sweet hours on its white-capped 
billows, and those to whom every dash 
of the waves on its shores means a 
sad, sad story of loved ones whose 
lives have gone down in its dark 

The story which I am now to relate 
in my series on the "Development of 

Steam Navigation" is one of deep 
human interest as well as historical 
record. While I shall recall incidents 
of romance and tragedy, such as the 
burning of the "Lexington," which 
was the first awful disaster on Long 
Island Sound, the loss of the "Atlan- 
tic" and the "Rhode Island," and the 
thrilling races that took place be- 
tween the steamboats in the early 
days, I shall make it my duty to trace 
the development and perfection of 
steamboat building, and here give 
especial attention to the history of the 
"Stonington Line," which has been an 
important factor in navigation. 

In the year 268 B. C, Archimedes, 
who seems to have been as clever 
in designing ships as he was in 
destroying them, devised a marvel- 
ous ship for Hiero, of Syracuse, 
to whom it is said he was re- 
lated. -The mighty galleys used for 
commerce and for war were not what 
he would have for so great a king. 
Timbers that would withstand the 







strain and woods that could be pol- 
ished were assembled from all parts 
of the country. Three lofty masts 
were brought from distant Britain 
and exquisite stones were gathered 
from Sicily. When the king was 
ushered in state to see the wonderful 
production he found luxuriously fit- 
ted sleeping apartments and ban- 
queting halls whose floors were 
paved with agates and precious 
stones. On the floors of some of the 
other rooms there were cunningly 
inlaid scenes from the "Iliad." 
There were stables for the king's 
choicest horses, ponds that were 
stocked with live fish, gardens 
watered by artificial rivulets and hot 
plunge baths for pleasure. All that 
the king most enjoyed was provided 
in this magnificent vessel. 



Compared with this wonderful cre- 
ation, simply from the view-point of 
beauty, the first multi-legged boat, 
or even the later boats, that John 
Fitch put upon the Delaware, and 
the boats that Fulton, some twenty 
years afterward, put on the Hudson, 
were as the crude products of a 
child's hands by the side of the fin- 
ished work of a master. But we 
must remember that one was the 
climax; nothing more could be ex- 
pected from Archimedes, while the 
multi-legged boat built by John 
Fitch of Connecticut, was the proto- 
type in the development of which 
there lay the magnificent " Hendrick 
Hudson," just brought out by the 
Albany Day Line, and the " Luci- 
tania," now a-building for the Cunard 
Atlantic service. 

The cost of Fitch's boat has come 
to light in the effects of "Brooks 
and Wilson, Shipbuilders, Kensing- 
ton, Philadelphia," where a ledger 
entry has the following: 




Nov. 23. To building a steamboat, 45 £ s. d. 

feet at 207 45- 1- 

A coat of stuff 1-10- 

6 pieces timber at 2 s. 6 d. per 

piece 0-15-0 

13^> day's work at 5 s. per day 3- 7- 6 

50-12- 6 
155 feet of board at 2 d. per ft. 1- 5-10 

51-18- 4 
16- 8 

51- 1- 6 





Not very much of beauty could be 
expected in a boat whose total cost, 
so far as the hull was concerned, was 
inside of three hundred dollars. And 
when we turn to the "Clermont," 
which is spoken of by Fulton's biog- 
raphers as having been "converted 
into a floating palace, gay with orna- 
mentalpainting, gilding and polished 
woods" before she began her second 
year's trips in the month of April, 
1808, and by Fulton, in his letter to 
our own Eli Whitney, dated April 4, 
1 8 1 1 , as offering ' ' a conveyance from 
New York to Albany which, for ele- 
gance, convenience and rapidity is 
superior to any conveyance on this 
globe," we find at best only a more 
brilliantly decorated canal boat to 
which had been added masts for 
sails, a smoking chimney and two 
big water-splashing wheels. Profes- 
sor Renwick, in a letter to Cap- 
tain Edward Sabine, secretary to 
the Royal Society of England, de- 
scribes the wedge-shaped bows with 
plane surfaces, and later says that 
after Fulton's boats had been im- 
proved, they were " flat-bottomed, 
their bows forming acute curved 
wedges, the several horizontal sec- 
tions of which were similar." 

It was not until a boat was de- 
signed for the Long IslandSound that 
anything like beauty really entered in- 
to steam boat architecture, and then 
the change seems to have been 
brought about through the efforts of 



Captain Elihu Bunker, who, withCald- 
well and Emmett, eminent members 
of the bar, and others, all friends of 
Fulton, entered into an agreement 
to build a boat to which they gave 
Fulton's name. We were at that 
time having a little "tiff" with Eng- 
land and the new boat was put on 
the Hudson, temporarily, under an 
arrangement by which the Fulton- 
Livingston monopoly was to receive 
three dollars of the ten charged 
each passenger to Albany and pro- 
portionately for passengers carried 
to and from way-landings. It was 
hoped that the new boat would 
be able to make the run to Albany 
in thirteen or fourteen hours, but she 
never did it in better than sixteen or 

Captain Bunker was always doing 
the unthought-of thing. It was he 
who advertised, the year after the 
advent of the "North River," (Cler- 
mont) that he would run a " pack- 
et, "the first seen on the river, be- 
tween New York and Hudson, and, 
as an inducement for travelers, 
to go his way agreed that they should 
be furnished bed and bedding. Be- 
fore then travelers who looked 
for any comforts during a voy- 
age that lasted anywhere from 
twenty-four to seventy-odd hours had 
to furnish them or go without. It 
was this same Captain Bunker, too, 
who with Captain Sherman, built the 
"Hope" and the "Perseverance." 







\ * '" 

*zML^$0sT"* * 

. ... W- 


ft*ir ' 



the first steamboats to attempt to 
break the Fulton-Livingston monop- 
oly as found in the transfer of the 
rights originally granted to John 
Fitch by the bill passed March 19, 
1797, and for their temerity had the 
misfortune of seeing their confiscated 
boats destroyed at Albany after a 
long, fruitless wrangle in the courts. 

Note:— The act of 1798, giving exclusive privileges 
to Fulton and Livingston, is entitled : " An act 
repealing an act for granting and securing to John 
Fitch the sole right and advantage of making and 
employing the steamboat by him lately invented 
and for other purposes. 11 And yet Cadwallader Col- 
den, Fulton's earliest biographer, from whom all the 
later ones have most liberally drawn, tells us of the 
jeering that greeted Dr. Mitchell's introduction of 
a steamboat bill in behalf of the Livingston-Fulton 
monopoly. The penalty for using " any boat or 
vessel moved by steam or fire 1 ' was the "forfeiture 
of such boat and her engine " 

I have already given a description 
of the "Fulton," with a picture as 
she appeared after the pilot-house 
had been added and some other slight 
alterations made, and have also 
shown an illustration of the " Con- 
necticut" after one of her stacks and 
her masts had been removed (Vol- 
ume X, Number i). These two 
boats set the type for all their imme- 
diate successors on the Sound. 

The "Connecticut," built for the 
Emperor of Russia for service on the 
Baltic, was much the larger and 
faster of the two, and when she first 
appeared carried three copper boil- 
ers, three stacks, and was rigged 
with three masts set much like those 
on the "Chancellor Livingston" 
which came onto the Sound a short 
time afterward. She was built by 
Adam Browne, who built Fulton's 
first vessel, and had an engine with 

a thirty-six inch cylinder and a five- 
foot stroke. Her wheels were six- 
teen feet in diameter with buckets 
four feet long and ten inches wide 
that dipped two and a half feet in 
the water. Painted white, decorated 
with gold and trimmed with green, 
this boat made a very handsome 

It was while these two boats were 
running on the New Haven route 
that the first library of books for the 
benefit of passengers was introduced. 
In the New York Post, July 3, 182 1, 
it is stated that: 

The steamboats, "Connecticut" and "Ful- 
ton" of the Sound have on board a well chosen 
library of 500 publications for the use of their 
passengers. We learn that the North river 
steamboats intend to follow this example. 

The "Connecticut" was a favorite 
boat for newly-wed couples on their 
" honeymoon, "and, on one occasion, 
just before the outbreak of the yel- 
low fever in 1822, when all of New 
York lay south of Fourteenth street, 
she had carried from New Haven a 
pair of the most devoted of all de- 
voted lovers. They were going to 
see her sister, whose husband was 
one of the carekeepers on the estate 
of Mrs. Murray, mother of the gram- 
marian, Lindley Murray, living in a 
little house that was somewhere near 
what is the present Forty-second 
street, and their cornfield was where 
the Grand Central Station now 
stands. There were no horse cars 
in the city then and it was quite a 
walk from where the steamboat made 
her landing to the sister's home. 
After the visit had come to its close 
they started for home as they had 
gone. Fully two hours before time 
for the boat to leave, Henry, for that 
was the name of the masculine half 
of the couple, brought Sairy Ann 
down to the pier, where the big hulk 
of the vessel bumped lazily up and 
down, and deposited her in a shady 
spot with orders not to move till he 
returned. Henry went up the street 
and became interested in a store that 


had strange little doors swinging 
both ways and Sairy Ann's curiosity 
began to assert itself with more and 
more vehemence as the time dragged 
on and no Henry came. Finally, 
she plucked up courage and walked 
over to where she saw others going 
aboard the boat and then she disap- 
peared. Just as the gang-plank was 
dragged aboard a man came tearing 
down the dock, frantically waving a 
red bandanna handkerchief to at- 
tract attention. He rushed on board 
and then thought of his little Sairy 
Ann. Running up to the captain he 
endeavored to tell him his predica- 
ment, but there was no time then 
for long stories and the signal was 
given for the casting off of lines. 
The boat moved out into the stream 
and Henry, maddened to despair, be- 
gan crying: "Let me off! let me 
off, I say! I can't go without my 
Sairy Ann ! " Finding onl> deaf ears 
turned to his appeals he cast discre- 
tion to the winds, stripped off coat 
and vest, and prepared to plunge 
from the boat. " I'll not be sepa- 
rated from my Sairy Ann," he cried, 
as he struggled with the men who 
held him back from taking what 
would have doubtless been a fatal 
leap. Just then the innocent cause 
of all the commotion pushed her way 
through the excited crowd, and, 
catching sight of him, she said: 
"Why, Henry! Why, what is the 
matter?" There was no answer but 
a smacking kiss that sounded some- 
what like the bursting of a toy bal- 
loon, and the two words, "Sairy 
Ann!" When her Henry was once 
more "clothed and in his right 
mind " she explained to him how 
she had gone down into the cabin 
and forgotten all about her promise 
to wait for him on the dock in the 
indentical spot where he had left her, 
and when the boat started she had 
come up on deck and became fasci- 
nated with the working of the en- 

On the morning of August 27, 

1 82 1, the "Robert Fulton"— built for 
David Dunham, a New York mer- 
chant and others, to run to Havana, 
Cuba, touching at Charleston and 
New Orleans — steamed into the 
harbor at Newport. This was the 
first steam vessel actually built for 
ocean service, a staunch boat of 
750 tons, built by Isaac Webb's firm, 
" entirely of oak, locust, cedar and 
Georgia pine, copper fastened. " She 
made her first trip from New York 
April 25, 1820, and proved a com- 
plete success, usually covering the 
2,225 miles between New York and 
New Orleans in about ten days' time. 
On August 9, 1821, she left New 
York for a trip around Long Island, 
via Sandy Hook, the Fishing Banks 
and New London. One hundred 
and seventy-five people took advan- 
tage of this, the first deep-sea excur- 
sion, and paid ten dollars for the trip 
which covered three days and two 
nights. The "logs " of two passen- 
gers were published in the New York 
Post of August 11 and 13. Later it 
was announced that on August 27 
there would be an excursion to New- 
port and Providence, an account of 
which is also given in the Post of a 
subsequent date. It is this visit of 
the "Robert Fulton" that so many 
writers have taken as the introduc- 
tion of steamboats to ports lying be- 
yond New Haven, but they have 
wrongly attributed the honors to the 
steamboat, " Fulton," which was at 
this time running between New York 
and the " Elm City," explaining the 








discrepancy in the early records by 
saying that the use of the name 
"Robert Fulton," was "a natural 
error arising from the fact of her 
[the "Fulton"] having been built 
by Robert Fulton," an explanation 
that needed explaining. The Manu- 
facturers' and Farmers' Journal, 
speaking of the event, says: 

The "Robert Fulton" left New York on 
Thursday afternoon at five o'clock and arrived 
below at nine on Saturday morning. As soon 
as the tide would permit she came up to town, 
where she was the admiration of crowds of visi- 
tors. She brought eighty passengers, among 
whom was John Quincy Adams. Secretary of 
State, who immediately proceeded to Boston by 
land. At about two o'clock the "Fulton "de- 
parted on her return to New York, where she 
will probably have arrived at an early hour this 

One of the passengers has left a 
description of this event that had in 
it so much of prophecy for the future, 
a description worthy of a permanent 
place in the story of the past. 

On Friday, at a quarter before 8:00 p.m.. we 
ranged alongside the dock at Newport, music 
playing as we entered the harbor, and passed the 
fortified island. Such a scene of tumult as was 
here witnessed I never saw before. The wharves 
were lined with people of all ages and condi- 
tions, who pressed forward, and, immediately on 
our landing, took complete possession of the 
ship. The band and many of the passengers 
went on shore, and Governor Gibbs and some 
of the principal families in town were sere- 
naded. When the party returned to the ship 
they were scarcely able to get on board, and the 
tumult lasted till one o'clock in the morning. 

We started at 5:00 a.m. next day for Provi- 



dence. As we approached, the scene became 
truly interesting. The inhabitants had antici- 
pated our arrival and every hill was covered with 
an admiring assemblage. ... At 3:00 p.m. 
the "Fulton" left the wharf amid the loud 
shouts of thousands." 

The following winter the Sound 
was frozen over for the first time in 
forty years. Teams crossed on the 
ice at Sands Point, a distance of 
eight miles, and all kinds of produce 
was carried over in sleds from the 
Powles* Hook (Jersey City) to Cort- 
land Street in New York. Hun- 
dreds were to be seen skating in the 
middle of the river and men walked 
from Long Island over to Staten 
Island. A like phenomen on occurred 
in the winter of 1852 and again in 
1 856-5 7 when for thirty eight days 
New York was completely ice-bound 
and all communication by way of the 
Sound and the North river ceased. 
The ice at this time was so heavy 
that light-ships at Bartlett's Reef, 
Cornfield Reef and Stratford Shoal 
were carried from their stations and 
were not replaced for more than a 
month. In 1867 there was another 
cold snap and the Sound was again 
closed. During January ice-bridges 
formed in the East river and people 
walked from New York to Brooklyn. 
On the twenty-fifth several venture- 
some ones walked across the Hudson 
near Forty-second street. During the 
winter of 1875 the Sound was again 
ice-locked for about ten days and 





four of the big "Sound-boats" were 
held fast at Hell Gate for three days. 
But to get back to the story of 
steamboats! If at any time prior to 
the organization of the "Rhode 
Island and New York Steamboat 
Company" on July 12, 1822, the 
owners of the original "Fulton" had 
any thought of opening up communi- 
cation between New York and some 
port farther east than New Haven, 
nothing was done in that direction 
till after the retaliatory legislation in 
our state when the Fulton-Living- 
ston people were prohibited from 
further sailing in the waters of Con- 
necticut. After the opening of the 
line to Providence at this time the 
two boats continued to make one 
round trip each week, and when the 
"Fulton" was withdrawn for the 
winter, the "Connecticut" main- 
tained a weekly service until the ice 
so closed the Sound against naviga- 
tion as to make sailing dangerous. 
During the next year they ran as 
they had the year before and the 
packet owners had two bills offered 
in the Rhode Island General Assem- 
bly to protect their interests. In one 
of these bills they sought to prohibit 
the landing of passengers from 
steamboats anywhere in the state, 
and, in the other, demanded the im- 
posing of a fifty-cent tax on all who 
came into the state by any vesse 
moved by steam Neither bill, how- 
ever, became a law. 




It was during this year, 1823, that 
there was considerable interest cre- 
ated in one of the trips of the "Con- 
necticut." On the way down, as the 
boat was approaching Nayatt Point, 
there was quite a commotion on the 
shore. It was a bright, sunshiny day 
and soon two skiffs pushed out toward 
the steamer. In each boat there 
was a man rowing as if his strokes 
would break the oars and on the 
stern-seat of each sat a figure that 
rose at times and gesticulated wildly 
to the captain. Captain Bunker 
turned his boat in the direction of 
the leading skiff and soon the ex- 
citement had spread from the shore 
to the deck of the "Connecticut." 
"Will you take us on board, sir?" 
piped up a shrill, musical voice from 
the figure that now stood up bravely 
in the foremost bobbing little craft. 
There was no answer, but a line was 
thrown from the big boat, now come 
almost to a standstill, which was 
caught by the man who had been 
rowing, and, amid the hearty cheers 
of the passengers, the two who were 
fleeing from the old roof-trees to seek 
some happy Gretna Green that they 
might abide under a roof-tree of 
their own, soon clambered over the 
side. Captain Bunker, totally obliv- 
ious to all the cursing of the two men 
in the outdistanced boat, gave the 
order to "Go ahead," by pounding 
his cane to the floor which was just 







over the engineer's head — there were 
no bells in use for signalling at this 
time — and the empty skirl floated off 
on the Sound. 

During the next year there was no 
change in the status of things save 
that a diminutive craft, of which 
scarcely any more is known than the 
name, "New York," and that she 
ran for a while to Norwich, attempted 
to break into the rapidly increasing 
business of the monopoly. But with 
the year 1825 things were different. 
In this year Captain Bunker brought 
out a new boat, which was described 
in the Providence Journal of May 16, 
the day after her first appearance, as 
a "floating palace, combining all the 
elegance of naval architecture with 
the most luxurious accommodations. " 
This was the "Washington," the first 


OF 1840 




boat on the Sound that had two inde- 
pendently connected engines so ar- 
ranged that one could be reversed 
while the other was turning for- 
ward. She was about a hundred and 
eighty feet long, with a single cabin 
beautifully fitted up for passengers, 
which also did service as a dining- 

For the first part of the year the 
" Washington " ran as an independ- 
ent line, but later in the season the 
three boats, the " Fulton," under 
Captain R. S. Bunker; the "Con- 
necticut," under Captain Comstock, 
and the " Washington," with Cap- 
tain E. S. Bunker in command, came 
under one head and ran as the "Ful- 
ton, Rhode Island and New London 
Steamboat Lines to Boston. " A sep- 
arate line had then been started from 
New London, and the Providence 
boats thereafter ran direct to New 
York without making intermediate 

This was the only change of mo- 
ment during the year and the follow- 
ing season, 1827, had little out of 
the ordinary except the running, for 
a short time only, between Dighton 
and New York, of the " Marco Boz- 
zaris," named for the Greek patriot 
whose assault on the Turkish camp, 


our own Fitz- Greene Halleck has 
made the subject of a poem, begin- 

At midnight, in his guarded tent, 
The Turk was dreaming of the hour 

When Greece, her knee in suppliance bent, 
Should tremble at his power. 

But troubles were brewing for the 
4 'Old Line." The " Chancellor Liv- 
ingston " had been taken from the 
Hudson and was undergoing repairs 
to fit her for service on the Sound. 
This, beyond all question, was the 
finest boat in all the world. She had 
been designed by Stoudinger and was 
fitted up regardless of cost. The 
main cabin, fifty-four feet long, con- 
tained thirty-eight berths ; the ladies' 
cabin, thirty-six feet long, contained 
twenty-four, and the forward cabin, 
thirty feet long, with a seven-foot 
ceiling, had fifty-six. In addition to 
these, there were twenty-three 
berths for the officers and crew, giv- 
ing a total of one hundred and thirty- 
five good sleeping accommodations. 
The hull, which was 165 by 32 by 
7-3, was built by Isaac Webb as 
under-contractor for Henry Eckford. 
The joiner-work was done by Cook, 
a Connecticut Yankee, and the en- 
gine was furnished by Allaire. 

Henry Eckford's home on Love 
Lane, near the present Twenty-first 
street, was at this time quite out of 
the city. Drake, the poet, had mar- 
ried Eckford's daughter and the old 
homestead thus became the gather- 
ing place for the literati of the day. 
Webb came from old Connecticut 
stock. His grandfather had gone 
with Thomas Hooker to settle 
Hartford, and from there the family 
had moved to Norwalk, finally set- 
tling in Stamford where Isaac was 
born. At the complimentary dinner 
given to George Steers, when, amid 
the applause of four hundred men 
seated at the tables, George Law 
presented to the great yacht-builder 
a silver service inscribed : 

Presented to George Steers, Esq., 
As a testimonial of respect for his me- 
chanical skill as evinced in the 
construction of the yacht, 
December, 1851. 

The names of Henry Eckford and 
Isaac Webb were painted above the 
dais with this motto: " New York — 
the skill of her naval architects ac- 
knowledged by the world." 

When the "Chancellor Living- 
ston" made her trial trip on March 
29, 1817, she ran to Newburg "in a 
few minutes less than nine hours, of 
which time the tide was in her favor 
only three hours. In returning, the 
same distance was run in eight hours 
and fifteen minutes, the greater part 
of the time against a flood-tide and 
headwinds." It was calculated that 
she would be able to go to Albany in 
twenty hours, and, on December 5, 
181 7, she astonished the world by 
actually covering the distance in 
eighteen hours (forty years later the 
" Daniel Drew " made the run in five 
hours and fifty-one minutes). 

While the * ' Chancellor Living- 
ston" was making ready for her new 
run on the Sound, the "Washington " 
was given a thorough overhauling 
and when she came out again it was 
announced, with a great blare of 
trumpets, that she had between sixty 
and seventy berths in her under- 
cabin and a cabin on deck for the 
accommodation of ladies. 

The "Chancellor Livingston," 
bright with new paint and gay with 
colors, came onto her new run in 
March, 1828, and reduced the fare 
from ten to six dollars. The old 
line met the cut at once. Things 
were becoming lively and the con- 
tagion spread. Even the "Citizens' 
and Commercial Line " of stages felt 
the new spirit in the atmosphere and 
changed the gait of their horses in 



the cuts in newspapers from a gentle 
trot to a furious gallop. 

In June the " Long Branch " made 
a spasmodic attempt to break into 
the fight for business, but nothing 
came of it, and in September the 
' • Benjamin Franklin " appeared. 
The new boat was 144 by 21 by 10 
and had two engines and three masts. 
She had been designed by Captain 
Elihu Bunker to eclipse everything 
then afloat. At the head of the 
stairs going into the ladies' cabin 
there was a small inclosure within 
which all the machinery was con- 
cealed. With this exception the en- 
tire deck was open and free from en- 
cumbrance from stem to stern. The 
dining-room, in which there were 
two long rows of tables, was seventy- 
five feet !long and twenty-four feet 
wide. There was a ladies' cabin, 
with damask curtains, Brussels car- 
pet and furniture to match. The 
bar was away up forward ; so usually 
were most of the men. Altogether, 
she was considered the best boat on 
the Sound, but it was claimed that the 
"Chancellor Livingston" could beat 
her time. On October 9, 1828, her 
owners decided to settle this ques- 
tion, too, and started in for a race 
from Providence to Newport which 
called out the following editorial in 
the Providence Journal: 

By eleven o'clock the dense columns of smoke 
which blackened the heavens gave note of the 
dreadful preparation. All was life and anima- 
tion. The passengers and even the spectators 
partook of the feelings of the owners and com- 
manders of the two boats, and, in fact, the boats 
themselves seemed animated for the occasion 
and alive for the race. Before the clock struck 
twelve the "Franklin" parted her fasts, appar- 
ently impatient for the encounter. She moved 
slowly down the stream and came to Fox Point 
Wharf, waiting the departure of the " Chan- 
cellor." At the usual hour the " Chancellor" left 
the wharf and the " Franklin " at the same time 
set her wheels in motion, but, being too far to the 
westward, she unfortunately grounded and the 
" Chancellor " passed her. In about six minutes 
the "Franklin" was again in motion, proceed- 
ing rapidly on her voyage. 

1 1 should be remembered that the ' k Chancellor ' ' 
was not prepared for the race. Just before the 
" Franklin " started her commander received a 
note from the captain of the " Chancellor," say- 
ing that the latter's piston was cracked in such 
a manner that it would prevent putting on the 
usual quantity of steam. The "Chancellor" 
was also prepared for her regular trip to New 
York with a large number of passengers and her 
wood was stowed as usual upon her upper deck. 

Had the " Chancellor " been prepared, the result 
would have been more favorable ; as it was, she 
was beaten about three miles or from twelve to 
fifteen minutes. With regard to the two boats 
we entertain but one opinion. They are both 
first-rate steamships, and, with the "Washing- 
ton," we think there are not three better boats 
in the country. 

The "Benjamin Franklin" came 
at once into favor and continued as 
one of the most popular boats on the 
Sound. On one of her trips from 
Providence in May of the next year, 
1829, she had as a passsenger George 
Washington Adams, the eldest son 
of the nation's chief executive. 
About two o'clock in the morning 
Mr. Adams, who had complained of 
not feeling well, left his berth and 
went out on deck. About an hour 
or so afterward his hat and coat were 
found where he had thrown them 
aside, but whether he fell or jumped 
overboard was never known. 

During this year (1829), the famous 
"President" was built for Captain 
Robert S. Bunker, who at once took 
command. Speaking of her the 
Providence Journal said : 

What further improvements yet remain to be 
made in steamboats we cannot imagine, but to 
us and our generation the " President " must ap- 
pear to be the neplus ultra. 

Yet, notwithstanding all this 
praise, this paragon of perfection, 
the first steamboat on the Sound to 
dispense with masts and sails was 
within the next ten years offered for 
sale to the highest bidder and adver- 
tised as follows : 

For Sale.— The steamboat, "President," 600 
tons, built of live oak. Two-beam engines with 
48-inch cylinder and 7-foot stroke. Also the 
steamboat, "Benjamin Franklin," 500 tons, built 
of live-oak, locust and cedar. Copper fastened 
and coppered, two-beam, with 44-inch cylinder 
and 7-foot stroke. Engine or boiler of either 
will be sold separately if desired. 

No one wanted the boats as they 
were and the hulls were too good to 
send direct to the grave-yard, so 
they were converted (perverted ?) 
into coal barges. Alas ! 


To what base uses may we return, Horatio? 

Imperious Caesar, dead and turn'd to clay, 
Might stop a hole to keep the wind away. 

By the time navigation was at its 
best the next year (1830), there were 
eighty-six steamboats on the Hudson 
river and the Sound. The year 
passed without anything of unusual 
interest. The boats that had been 
on the route between New York and 
Providence the year before were 
again in their places and the inter- 
ests of New London and Norwich 
were cared for by their own lines. 
But the following year, 1831, was a 
memorable one. This was the year 
that the "Chancellor Livingston" 
ran into and sank the ' * Washing- 
ton." The boats were just off Mil- 
ford and the captains, according to 
the custom, had "turned in," leav- 
ing the pilot in command. Through 
bad steering on the "Chancellor 
Livingston " the two boats crashed 
together and the smaller one went 
down. The fifty-two passengers and 
the crew were safely transferred to 
the other boat and were later put 
aboard the " President," which was 
met off Sand's Point, Sunday morn- 
ing, about eleven o'clock, eastbound, 
and reached Providence Monday 

For some months after the loss of 
the "Washington," which occurred 
on May 14, there were three boats 
running between New York and 
Providence — the "Franklin" and 
the " President," with the fare at 
six dollars and the ' ' Chancellor Liv- 
ingston " in opposition, with the fare 
at three dollars, and meals extra. 
But along toward the middle of the 
summer Captain Comstock brought 
out his new boat, the " Boston," to 
run with the two boats of the i ' New 
York and Boston Steamboat Com- 
pany. " The ' * Boston " was a ' ' two- 
beam engine" boat and was built with- 
out masts, the first on the Sound to be 
built in that way. She was 150 feet 
long, handsomely furnished, and de- 
veloped considerable speed, having 

made a record on four consecutive 
trips that averaged fifteen hours and 
six minutes each. After seven years' 
service on this run she was sold and 
rebuilt for service out of Boston 
Points in Maine. 

The opening of the year 1832 was 
roseate with promise, but along 
toward the middle of the summer 
cholera broke out in New York and 
the quarantine regulations of Provi- 
dence were so rigid that no one was 
permitted to enter who had been 
within the previous ten days any- 
where near the stricken city. The 
boats were put upon excursion routes 
in other cities or tied up to their 
wharves to await the lifting of the 
more drastic parts of the health ordi- 
nances. The "Boston" was sent 
down to Boston bay where she found 
a very remunerative opening in ex- 
cursions and won great favor for her- 
self and owners. 

In the fall of this year the ' ' Prov- 
idence," generally spoken of now as 
the " Little Providence," came onto 
this run. She was built by Brown 
and Bell, and, since 1824, had been 
running on the New Haven route 
with the "Hudson." The "Little 
Providence " had two copper boilers 
on the guards after the Stevens' plan 
on the Hudson river boats, and was 
the first single-beam boat on the 
Sound to have a visible "walking- 
beam." She was considerably 
smaller than the " President" or the 
" Benjamin Franklin," being adver- 
tised at the time of her sale in 1840 
as "433 tons," but she was faster 
than either and once raced the 
" President " from Newport to New 
York. There was a godly Quaker 
on board at the time from whom it 
was thought to get some particulars 
of the race, but all that he would 
admit knowing about it had to be 
taken from the words: " Oh, well, I 
will tell thee. It was quite exciting, 
I mean to some of the people, for it 
was a pretty fine race and we beat 
her just about an inch." 



During the next year the "Presi- 
dent " and the " Benjamin Franklin " 
formed one line and the " Boston " 
and the "Providence" formed the 
other. This was also the status of 
things in 1834, but in June of 1835 
Commodore Vanderbilt, who, in 
1832, had run one single trip from 
Providence with the "Hercules," 
appeared in the harbor with the 
1 * Lexington, " built especially for this 
route, with the motto: "Through 
By Daylight ! " She at once became 
the most popular boat, not alone be- 
cause of her speed, but because she 
was so perfectly furnished and 
offered the lowest rate for transpor- 
tation. In the severe gales of the 
next October, or, rather, the Octo- 
ber of 1836, she was well-nigh thrown 
upon her "beams' ends" and barely 
escaped complete loss. One of the 
tiller ropes broke and she became 
unmanageable. In the crisis Cap- 
tain " Ike" Dunstan, who was after- 
ward lost when the " Atlantic" was 
driven ashore on Fisher's Island, in- 
sisted on being let over the side of 
the boat and succeeded in fastening 
a new piece to the broken rope. In 
appreciation of his fearlessness the 
passengers presented him with a 
watch and pin valued at two hundred 
dollars. If at this time someone had 
only suggested the use of iron rods 
or chains for the steering-gear it 
might not have been necessary to 
have recorded the awful loss of life 
in the burning of this ill-fated vessel 
on that bitterly cold night of Janu- 
ary 13, 1840. 

At the opening of navigation in 
1836 the " Bunker Hill" came from 
the Connecticut river and ran for a 
time with the "Providence" as an 
opposition line, with the fare at eight 
dollars and freight at eight cents a 
cubic foot. Her stay was very brief 
and accomplished but little. She 
soon returned to her regular run be- 
tween Hartford and New York. 

On Saturday, April 2, 1836, the 
" Massachusetts " made her first trip 

to Providence. She left New York 
(Murray Street), at 5:03 p.m. and 
arrived in Providence at 7 135 the 
next morning. Her passengers for 
Boston arrived there about ten o'clock 
Sunday morning, making the trip in 
seventeen hours from New York. 
On Monday, April n, she started 
with the "Benjamin Franklin " and 
carried passengers at one dollar a 
head. On the following Friday, April 
22, she left New York at four o'clock 
and her passengers were in Boston at 
nine o'clock Saturday morning. 

The " Massachusetts " was the first 
boat that in any way came into re- 
semblance to the modern style of 
steamboats. This new marvel of 
architecture was built by Brown and 
Bell of live oak and cedar, and meas- 
ured 202 by 29 by 12, registering at 
713 tons. She had been built under 
the supervision of Captain William 
Comstock, who had commanded the 
"Chancellor Livingston," and was 
by him pronounced to be the finest 
boat afloat, and had two copper boil- 
ers with two low-pressure beam en- 
gines, each of 145 H. P., constructed 
by Allaire. Her cabin in the hold 
is described in an English publica- 
tion as follows: 

The principal cabin of the "Massachusetts," 
a vessel running on the line between New York 
and Providence, is 160 feet in length, about 22 
feet in maximum breadth and 12 feet in height, 
and what adds greatly to its convenience and 
capacity, it is entirely unbroken by pillars or any 
other obstruction throughout its whole area. I 
have dined with 175 persons in this cabin, and, 
notwithstanding its numerous assembly, the 
tables, which were arranged in two parallel 
rows, extending from one end of the cabin to 
the other, were far from fully occupied. The 
attendance was good and everything was con- 
ducted with perfect regularity and order. There 
are 112 fixed berths ranged round this cabin and 
about 100 temporary berths can be arranged in 
the middle of the floor. Besides these, sixty fixed 
berths in the ladies' cabin, and several tempo- 
rary sleeping places can be erected in it also. 

The owners of the "Massachu- 
setts " now bought an interest in the 
"Boston" and ran her with the 
"Providence" and their new boat 
under the title of the "Boston and 
Providence Railroad Line." This 


was the first step toward the organi- 
zation of the famous * 'Boston and 
New York Transportation Com- 
pany" which subsequently became 
the " New Jersey Steam Navigation 
and Transportation Company" and 
was, for years, the dominant factor, 
not only in Long Island Sound trans- 
portation, but also on the Hudson, 
where they controlled the Troy Line 
with some of the best boats on the 

The "Lexington" was at this 
time running in opposition to the 
five boats of the other company, for 
the "Benjamin Franklin" and the 
{' President " had been added to the 
transportation company's fleet and 
was carrying passengers at three 
dollars and making the trip in about 
eleven and a half hours. 

In August the "Rhode Island," 
built on very much the same lines as 
the " Massachusetts," was added. 
On Wednesday morning, September 
1, 1836, she left New York at 6:21 
(passed Grand street), arrived at 
Newport, where she stopped three 
minutes at 5 :oo p.m. and reached 
Providence at 6 140, making the run- 
ning time twelve hours and thirteen 
minutes. The papers of the day 
announced this as the " Fastest Trip 

But with all the beauty and speed 
of their new boat the "Transporta- 
tion Company " were not satisfied. 
The "Lexington" could beat her, 
and an order was given for a new, 
faster boat, and the " Narragansett, " 
built on new lines, came out to meas- 
ure lengths with her speedy compet- 
itor. The new boat was a disap- 
pointment for either the "Lexing- 
ton" or the "Cleopatra," another 
Vanderbilt boat running on the 
Sound, could easily sail away from 
her. She was of about the same 
general dimensions as the ' ' Rhode 
Island," but was sponsoned fore and 
aft of. the wheels. Her hull was 
stiffened by diagonal straps of bar- 
iron, the first use of a method that 

afterward became general in steam- 
boat building. When she went to 
Providence for her trial trip the 
directors, with a party of friends, 
were taken on board for a sail down 
the river and a dinner at the boat's 
expense. The guests were seated 
about the table when the "Nar- 
ragansett," which was awfully 
"crank," suddenly lurched over and 
lay down on her side. Some of the 
distinguished guests were thrown 
over backward and the dinner was 
spilled on the floor, but, aside from 
the broken china and glassware, this 
was the only damage done. Changes 
were at once made in the hull, but 
the boat was always a failure. Her 
engine, which was of the horizontal 
type, built by the Novelty Iron 
Works, developed 300 H. P. which 
was more than the hull could stand 
and she had frequently to be laid up 
for repairs. A foreigner visiting us 
at this time published a very full de- 
scription of the things he saw while 
here, and among them thus refers to 
this boat : 

The finest of these sea boats, and indeed, the 
finest steamer which I saw was the "Narragan- 
sett," plying between New York and Providence. 
It could hardly be credited that this vessel plies 
regularly between New York and Providence. 
It will be seen by inspecting the map that, dur- 
ing fifty miles of the voyage, extending between 
New London and Newport, she is quite exposed 
to the roll of the Atlantic ocean, and, notwith- 
standing this, she makes her passages with great 
speed and regularity. 

The opening of the * ' Providence 
and Stonington Railroad" in 1837 
naturally led to the formation of a 
Stonington Line of steamers. The 
Atlantic Steamboat Company was 
organized with John W. Richmond 
at the head. The first boat was 
named for the president of the com- 
pany and was built at Eddy's Point 
from plans furnished by Colonel 
John S. Eddy. She was 200 by 24 
by 1 2 and had a square engine, with 
a 48-inch cylinder and a stroke of 
eleven feet, built by the Providence 
Steam Engine Company. At first 

45 2 


the boilers were put on the guards, 
but when she quietly rolled over at 
her wharf and settled to the bottom, 
it was decided that it would be better 
to place them in the hold. 

Races on the Sound were the rule 
then, not the exception, and the old 
company at once ordered the " Nar- 
ragansett " made ready for a contest 
of speed. She succeeded in beating 
her new rival by more than an hour 
on the first trip from New York to 
Providence, but the joy was short- 
lived, for as soon as the stiffness of 
the new boat had worn away she 
could easily outsail her. In fact, the 
" John W. Richmond " proved to be 
a very fast boat and made some won- 
derfully quick trips, once going to 
New York in less than eleven hours 
and often covering the distance be- 
tween Providence and Newport in 
an hour and twenty minutes. She 
did not stay upon the run, however, 
for any great length of time, but was 
sold for $52,500 to run on the Ken- 
nebec river where she was burned in 
1843. Before she had gone, the rail- 
road people, to regain their lost pres- 
tige, offered Vanderbilt $60,000 for 
the " Lexington," provided she could 
beat the "John W. Richmond." The 
offer was not immediately accepted 
and it is stated that when the famous 
racer finally passed over to the con- 
trol of the old line it was at a figure 
that bordered close onto $72,000. 

In 1838 the steam-packet "Nep- 
tune," came onto the route with the 
announcement that she was "not run 
in opposition to any other boat and 
no racing would be permitted. " Cap- 
tain Pennoyer was in command. 
Later on she passed into the control 
of George Law who used her to open 
up a new line for the same run. In 
1846 she ran into a schooner off Strat- 
ford Light and was in temporary dan- 
ger of sinking. The passengers sought 
for the captain and were told that 
there was none on board. They 
asked for the mate and received the 
reply that the boat had sailed with- 

out one. When they wanted to know 
who was in command they were in- 
formed that it was hard to tell. Be- 
coming desperate they went to the 
pilot and demanded that he take them 
into New Haven, but he said that he 
had shipped for that trip only and 
didn't know the course into New 
Haven, but if "they wanted to go 
back to New York" he would "take 
them back as fast as the wheels could 
be made to churn water." And so 
back they went. 

The New Jersey Steam Navigation 
Company was organized in 1839 to 
run the Stonington Line and soon 
disposed of all their older boats. By 
1844 they had only the "Massachu- 
setts," the "Rhode Island," the 
" Narragansett " and the " Mohe- 
gan" left. The "Rhode Island'* 
and the "Narragansett" were sold 
in 1846 and the latter, when en route 
to New Orleans, went ashore on 
Mosquito Inlet, Florida, and became 
a total loss. The " Rhode Island " 
left Boston for San Francisco at three 
o'clock in the afternoon of January 
25, 1850, and on Monday morning, 
when in latitude 34.30, longitude 71, 
the hog-brace parted which threw 
the engine out of line so that it could 
not be used and the boat became 
helpless in the storm. Nine of the 
passengers and three of the crew, 
who had taken to one of the small 
boats, were picked up by the 
schooner, "Mary Wise," Captain 
Crockett, and were later transferred 
to the whaling bark, "Richmond," 
which reached Providence On the 
eleventh of February. Thirty-two 
passengers and all the rest of the 
crew were lost. 

In the fall of this year the " Mohe- 
gan," a smaller boat than any of the 
others in the railroad company's fleet, 
was added to the line. She had a 
Lighthall horizontal-beam engine and 
made good time, but it was very 
hard to keep her head up to the wind. 
On one of her trips to New York it 
seemed that she would be driven on- 


to Watch Hill Reef in spite of all 
that could be done to save her. 
Every man on board, passengers 
and crew, were set to carrying the 
freight from the deck down into the 
gentleman's cabin to relieve some- 
thing of the top-heaviness, and they 
kept her from wrecking. 

On the trip from New York on 
March 17, 1840, the cylinder-head 
blew out and she was towed into 
Stonington by the "Providence," 
which was en route to New York. Some 
of the passengers were badly scalded, 
but there was no fatality. 

The year 1840 was ushered in with 
the appalling calamity of the burning 
of the " Lexington." She had left 
New York for Stonington at four 
o'clock on the afternoon of January 
13, and at 7:30 in the evening, 
when off Eaton's Neck, was found to 
be on fire. On her last trip to New 
York there had been trouble with 
the blowers for the artificial draft 
used in burning hard coal which had 
just been introduced on her, and she 
had been pulled off for repairs, but 
the fact that she was the staunchest- 
built boat of the whole fleet led to 
an order that she be gotten ready for 
that Monday night trip on account 
of the ice which had thickened in the 
Sound. At the lowest estimate, she 
carried on this trip fully a hundred 
and fifty passengers, many of whom 
were seated at the supper-table when 
the alarm of fire was given. Of this 
total number only four were saved. 
In the United States Senate Docu- 
ment, for the Twenty-sixth Con- 
gress, containing an account of the 
government's investigation, the pilot, 
Stephen Manchester, one of the four 
survivors, says: 

I was in the wheel-house, at the wheel, when 
the alarm was first given ; It was about half -past 
seven o'clock in the evening. I was first noti- 
fied of the danger by someone who came to the 
wheel-house and told me the boat was on fire. I 
do not know who that person was. My first 
movement was to step out of the wheel-house 
and look aft. I saw the upper deck on fire all 
around the smoke-pipe and blazing up two or 
three feet, perhaps, above the promenade deck. 
The flame seemed a thin sheet, and, apparently, 
but just commenced; the blaze seemed to follow 

up the smoke-pipe and was all around it. I 
again went into the wheel-house, caught hold of 
the wheel, hove it hard aport and steered the 
boat-head to land. ... As I got the wheel 
hove over hard aport, Captain Childs came into 
the wheel-house, he put his hand on a spoke of 
the wheel, and at that moment, the rope gave 
way. ... I don't recollect seeing Captain 
Childs afterwards. I called to those on the fore- 
castle to get out the fire-engine and the buckets. 
The engine they succeeded in getting out, but I 
did not see any of the buckets, except two or 
three which we found afterward on the fore- 
castle. I believe that the ropes were not parted 
by the strain, but were burned off. 

He then told of helping to launch 
the life-boat after a vain effort to 
quench the flames and of making a 
raft of a spar and the flag-staff and 
portions of the guards, and continues : 

Among those who remained to the last was a 
Mr. Van Cott, Mr. Hoyt and Mr. Harnden of the 
express; they were all confined to the forward 
deck. At twelve o'clock, I left the wreck and 
eased myself down upon the stage or raft; from 
that I got on a bale of cotton on which was 
already one man. After floating around on the 
bale until daylight, about which time my com- 
panion fell from the bale and went down with- 
out a struggle— his sufferings from the cold were 
intense — the wreck, I think, went down about 
three o'clock. A short time after sunrise, I recol- 
lect seeing a sloop to the windward. I managed 
to put a handkerchief on a piece of board and 
raised it up. I was picked up by the sloop, 
"Merchant," Captain Meeker. I was taken to 
the house of Captain Godfrey at Southport. 

On board, as a passenger, was Cap- 
tain Chester Hilliard, who, some time 
afterward, visited Stratford and told 
his experiences of "that terrible night. 
In his testimony he says: 

When I saw the sloop, I waved my hat to ex- 
cite their attention and they bore down and 
picked me up. She was the "Merchant" from 
Southport, Captain Meeker. . . . It was about 
11 A.M. when I was picked up. They picked up 
two men alive and two dead bodies. One was 
Manchester, the pilot; the other was Charles 
Smith; he was on the wheel-house. The pilot 
was pretty much gone and I thought the other 
seemed better. Smith was a fireman on the 
" Lexington." 

Smith had taken to a bale of cotton about nine 
o'clock and drifted about in the vicinity of the 
steamer until half -past one. At that time there 
were a number of passengers yet clinging to the 
guards and floating about on pieces of wreck- 
age. Some time after one o'clock Smith drifted 
up to the doomed vessel and climbed aboard to 
get warm . He stay e d on boa rd till she sank, w hen 
he with four others, climbed onto the top of the 
wheel-house and drifted away. All except 
Smith, who was not taken from his perilous posi- 
tion until two o'clock the next afternoon, suc- 
cumbed to the intense cold and were washed 
away by the breaking waves. 



The most remarkable case of all 
was that of David Crowley, the sec- 
ond mate on the " Lexington." Soon 
after it was seen that the vessel was 
doomed, Crowley took refuge on a 
bale of cotton and was carried quite 
a distance from the burning mass. 
Fortunately, his bale did not roll and 
he burrowed into its side. With 
some of the loosened cotton he stuffed 
his clothes, making a thick pad, and 
this kept him from freezing. Mon- 
day night and all day Tuesday, Tues- 
day night and all day Wednesday, 
the bale of cotton was his " ark" on 
the swelling Sound. Wednesday 
evening, about nine o'clock, his bale 
bumped against the ice-bound shore 
of Long Island at a place called New 
Gully, about eighteen miles east of 
Old Field Point, and Crowley crawled 
out on land. Catching the rays of 
light that streamed from the win- 
dows of the home of Mrs. Mary 
Hutchinson, three-quarters of a mile 
away, he turned his feet thitherward 
and was received as one who had 
come back from the dead. 

There is an interesting sequel to 
this story. It is not that Mrs. 
Hutchinson was a widow, or that she 
had a lovely daughter, either of 
whom Crowley, in the real orthodox 
love-story way, subsequently mar- 
ried, but the bale of cotton on, or in 
which he had drifted more than fifty 
miles, was taken by Crowley, to 
whom the owners afterward gave it, 
to his home in Providence, where it 
was kept for years. When the Civil 
War broke out and cotton was at its 
highest and very scarce at any price, 
Crowley's bale was sold and made 
into bandages for dressing the 
wounded on the field of battle. From 
that bale came the famous "Lexing- 
ton Brand " of cloth. 

Several frozen bodies were found 
some days afterward in a boat that 
had drifted into one of the inlets of 
Long Island and others were picked 
up in the drift-ice that had frozen 
about them. 

The coroner's jury censured the 
steamboat inspectors and the owners 
of the "Lexington" for the awful 
loss of life and condemned the carry- 
ing of inflammable cargoes on pas- 
senger steamers. The officers of the 
boat, all of whom had perished with 
the exception of Captain Manchester, 
the pilot, came in for their share of 
the blame, but part of the jury were 
in favor of fully exonerating Captain 
Manchester as it was shown that, in 
his duties, he had nothing whatever 
to do with the receiving or stowing 
of a cargo. From the testimony 
given it was generally accepted that 
the fire started from an overheated 
smoke-pipe — which Captain Man- 
chester said he had often seen red- 
hot — igniting the woodwork of the 
promenade deck. It was shown that 
the " Lexington" had a good boiler 
for burning wood, but that it was not 
suitable for the burning of hard coal 
under a forced draft as had been 

The saddest feature brought out 
at the inquest was that the sloop, 
"Improvement, "Captain Tirrell, was 
within five miles of the burning 
steamer and did not go to her assist- 
ance because the captain thought 
' ' she would have boats enough of 
her own" and "if he stopped he 
might lose his tide over the bar. " 
If the " Improvement " had reached 
the " Lexington" even at midnight, 
five hours after the fire was discov- 
ered, fully a half of those on board 
when she sailed out from New York 
might have been saved. 

In an issue of the New World, pub- 
lished in New York at the time, the 
loss of the "Lexington," which the 
firemen Smith said has gone twenty- 
three and a half miles an hour, is 
fully described and here the name of 
Captain Tirrell is bracketed and un- 
derscored as that of a man dead to 
every principle of humanity and not 
to be mentioned as among the living. 

There was said to have been at 
least $30,000 of bullion on the boat at 


the time she was lost with a large 
amount of specie consigned to Bos- 
ton through " Harden's Express." 
Efforts for locating and securing this 
lost treasure have been as frequent 
and about as fruitful as the attempts 
to find Captain Kidd's buried pot of 

The mate, David Crowley, passed 
away some two years ago at his home 
in Providence, and the fireman, 
Charles Smith, whose home was in 
the same city, died within the last 
few months. 

Soon after the awful holocaust 
many of the papers printed cards 
similar to the following from the 
Bridgeport Standard: 

$100 KEWARD! 

A reward of $100 will be paid for the recov- 
ery of the body of Mr. Jesse Comstock, late clerk 
of the steamboat, "Lexington," and giving in- 
formation of the same in any New York paper. 
He was aged 20 years, about five feet, two or 
three inches in height, rather thick-set, light 
complexion and light hair, with a high forehead. 
His dress consisted of a black frock coat, dark- 
mixed pantaloons and figured woolen vest; a 
cotton shirt, marked J. C, or name in full, and 
knit lamb's wool, do., cotton drawers and cot- 
ton stockings. He had on his person a small 
gold watch and short gold chain. (Jan. 16, 1840). 

The completion of the Long Island 
Railroad having been made possible 
by the granting of a loan of $100,000 
from the New York state treasury, 
which was subsequently returned, that 
road was opened in July, 1844, and a 
through train service was inaugurated 
to Greenport with direct connection 
by boat for the Norwich and Worces- 
ter railroad, via Norwich, and for 
Boston, by the way of Providence, via 
Stonington. The "Worcester," "Cle- 
opatra," and "New Haven," three 
Vanderbilt boats, were used for cross- 
ing the Sound. A train left Brooklyn 
every morning at eight o'clock and 
ran through to Greenport in three and 
a half or four hours, then there was a 
sail of two hours across the Sound 
and four hours more by rail to Boston. 
This arrangement was continued 
through 1844, 1845 an d 1846 and was 
discontinued in March, 1847. In 
1873 a second attempt was made to in- 

stitute a somewhat similar arrange- 
ment and the "Jane Mosely" was built 
by Lawrence and Foulks, of Brook- 
lyn, to run between Greenport and 
Newport, in connection with special 
train service on the Long Island road, 
but the scheme was abandoned after 
one season's trial and the "Jane 
Mosely" was sold to a Baltimore com- 
pany for $85,000. The third and last 
attempt to reach New York by the 
way of the Sound and the Long Island 
Railroad was made by the New York 
and New England and the Housatonic 
railroad in 1891, when connection was 
made at Wilson Point, on the Con- 
necticut side, and with the Oyster 
Bay Branch, the entire train being 
carried across the Sound on the mag- 
nificent transport "Cape Charles," 
which left but a very short rail-run 
into Long Island City. 

It was about the time of the com- 
pletion of the Long Island Railroad 
that George Law entered into the 
steamboat interests of the Sound. 
Few men of his day cared or dared to 
enter the arena with him as an oppo- 
nent. At one time the New York 
Herald said of him : "He is one of the 
celebrities of the age and a character 
that does not appear in every genera- 
tion. Of the Americans who have 
preceded him, the late Henry Eckford 
perhaps, most resembled him; but he 
is in some respects, superior to Eck- 
ford, for his talents are more diversi- 
fied." We cannot boast of him as a 
Connecticut-born, but we did furnish 
him with the opportunity from which 
much of his later fame sprung. He 
was born in New York state, of 
Scotch parentage, at least on his fath- 
er's side, and when a boy left the old 
home and started out "on his own 
hook" and knocked about till that 
strange hidden "something" within 
that makes for success had come 
to the surface. He became inter- 
ested in digging canals and build- 
ing railroads and planning bridges 
and in the establishing of ocean steam- 
ship lines. He built the great "High 



Bridge" for the water supply of New 
York, one of the finest structures in 
the world, opened up a steamship line 
between New York and Chagres, and 
another between New Orleans and 
that port, in connection with which he 
ran a line of superior vessels on the 
other side of the Isthmus from Pan- 
ama to San Francisco, and finally built 
and owned the railroad that crossed 
the Isthmus of Panama from the At- 
lantic to the Pacific. He was a typi- 
cal exponent of our earlier institu- 
tions and in his self-made independ- 
ence could hardly have sprung up in 
any other country. 

In 1844 Law brought the "Nep- 
tune," which had been built by J. P. 
Allaire and others for a coastwise 
steamer, and started in for some of 
the business of the Stonington line for 
Boston. In 1845 he built the "Ore- 
gon," 318 by 35 by 10, with a draft of 
only six feet. Her engine was fur- 
nished by the Novelty Iron Works 
and had a seventy-two inch cylinder 
with a stroke of eleven feet. The 
wheels were thirty-four feet in diame- 
ter and the shaft, in true Hudson river 
style, was set forward of the engine. 
After making a few trips on the Hud- 
son she came onto this new run and 
was from the very first a great suc- 
cess. In one of the papers of the next 
year, 1846, we read: 

,, At four o'clock Saturday morning, April 18th, 
the Oregon," in passing Hurl Gate, was carried 
onto the Grid Iron which crashed through her 
timbers and she remained fast. Her length and 
the weight of her machinery make it doubtful if 
she will ever be released. She had three hun- 
dred passengers on board, all of whom were 
taken off safely. The " Oregon " cost over $125,- 
000 and was not insured. 

But she was released and for seve- 
ral years contributed no small interest 
to the story of steamboats. 

So fully satisfied was the owner of 
the "Oregon" with the doings of his 
boat that he went about with the tra- 
ditional "chip" nicely balanced on his 
shoulder and just itching to find some- 
one who would attempt to knock it 

off. He first threw down the gaunt- 
let to Commodore Vanderbilt and 
challenged him for a race with the 
"Traveller," which had already held 
down the "Oregon," in a test of 
twenty-five miles, but as Vanderbilt 
had at this time disposed of his inter- 
ests in the boat, he could not accom- 
modate his doughty friend. He next 
went out for the colors of the ill- 
starred "Atlantic," of the Norwich 
Line, and issued one of his character- 
istic challenges as follows : 

The friends of the "Atlantic" have claimed 
that she was faster than the "Oregon," and 
that they were ready to back their opinion, and 
that if I offered a bet it would be taken up before 
it was dry. For the purpose of testing their 
statements and their confidence in the speed of 
the " Atlantic," I now offer to back the " Ore- 

f>n " against the "Atlantic" to run from New 
ork to the Lightboat at Stratford for $5,000, to 
be run any day this week, two days' notice to be 
given, and the money deposited if this notice 
should be accepted. I will then show the public 
that I have kept my promise never to allow the 
" Oregon " to race on her regular trips to Ston- 

The offer was accepted and it was 
agreed that the race should be sailed 
during the month of December, but on 
November 25, 1846, the "Atlantic/* 
which had cost $150,000 and had been 
in service but a very short time, was 
driven onto the rocks off Fisher's 
Island and became a complete loss. 
About fifty persons, including Captain 
Isaac Dunstan, her commander, were 
drowned. Our Mrs. Lydia Huntley 
Sigourney of Hartford, Connecticut, 
has made the statement that the bell 
mournfully tolled by the swaying of 
the wreck was the basis of one of her 
most beautiful poems, beginning: 

Toll, toll, toll! 

Thou bell by billows swung, 
And, night and day, thy warning words 

Repeat with mournful tongue! 
Toll for the queenly boat 

Wrecked on yon rocky shore ! 
Sea-weed is in her palace halls, 

She rides the surge no more. 

Having thus been cheated out of 
the opportunity to race this boat, when 
the "Bay State" made her first trip on 
the Fall River Line, May 18, 1847, tne 


"Oregon" was waiting for her. When 
the boats passed through Hell Gate the 
odds were slightly in favor of the 
"Oregon," but as they got out into the 
Sound, the "Bay State" received an 
extra turn or two and soon forged to 
the front. Then the race was on in 
earnest. The new boat maintained 
the lead, in spite of all that the "Ore- 
gon" could do, until Stratford Shoal 
Light could be seen a-stern and then, 
that there should never be any dis- 
pute on the question, when she was off 
Bartlett's Reef, she deliberately 
crossed the bow of her out-sailed foe. 
There had evidently been something 
of pride in the record that the two 
boats were to make that day, for the 
log of the "Oregon" shows that she 
passed Corlear's Hook at 5:18; 
Throgg's Point, 6:07; Huntington 
Light, 7:26; Stratford Shoal Light, 
8:18, and arrived at Stonington at 
12:07 A.M. The "Bay State" made 
her run to Newport in nine hours and 
fifteen minutes, although the boats 
had an adverse tide through the 
greater part of the trip. 

This defeat of the "Oregon" 
seemed to haunt "Live Oak George," 
who was aboard at the time urging 
the engineer to "give her another 
peg" until there were no more "pegs" 
to give her, and he issued a challenge 
to race any and all steamboats having 
a record for speed and thus settle at 
once and for all time the question as 
to which was the fastest boat engaged 
in inland navigation. When the mat- 
ter was brought to the attention of 
Commodore Vanderbilt he came out 
with a "card" in which he said: 

Newton. Captain Comstock wanted till Thurs- 
day, it being necessary to see his owners. 

Now, I say, I will run the "C. Vanderbilt," 
untried as she is, against any boat afloat to any 
place they name where there is sufficient water 
to float her, for any sum from $1,000 to $100,000. 
This challenge is open until Saturday next, when 
I propose trying my boat. C. Vanderbilt. 

This is the first I have heard of the challenge, 
nor do I believe Mr. Law authorized its issue. 
The following proposition was made by my 
brother, J. H. Vanderbilt, on board the "Bay 
State," on Tuesday, the 25th inst., in presence of 
Mr. Law, Mr. Newton and Captain Comstock, to 
enter the " Hendrick Hudson," the "Bay State," 
the " Oregon" and " C Vanderbilt," or any other 
first-class steamer, for a race to test their speed, 
the three first-named steamers standing at the 
head of the list now in waters of New York. The 
proposition was to put in $500, or any other sum 
per boat, to run on any named day from the 
lower bay to Haverstraw bay and back. This 
was agreed to by Mr. Law and partially by Mr. 

This led to the famous race of June 
i, 1847, between the "Oregon," com- 
manded by Captain Seth Thayer, and 
the "Vanderbilt," in charge of her 
owner. The course was from off the 
Battery to Sing Sing and return. 
When the "C. Vanderbilt," which was 
fresh from the hands of her builders, 
came out into the river, the "Oregon" 
left her dock in the immediate vicinity 
and took her position on the port side 
of her antagonist. At eleven o'clock 
the signal was given and the two boats 
got away in good style. The tide was 
just at its ebb and for thirty miles the 
two boats ran bow and bow. When 
they came up to the stake-boat, the 
"Oregon" was half a length ahead 
and the engineer of the "C. Vander- 
bilt" gave her a further advantage 
here by stopping his engine entirely 
as she rounded the stake, instead of 
slowing her down as he had been sig- 
nalled from the old pilot house. But 
the two boats straightened out for the 
return trip, the "Oregon" quite a dis- 
tance in the lead. At Yonkers she led 
by a quarter of a mile, but her coal 
was all gone. There was $1,000 at 
stake, besides a great deal of pride, 
and to keep up the advantage she had 
gained, chairs and settees and mat- 
tresses, panel-work and state-room 
doors were used to feed the furnace 
flames. When the starting-point was 
reached the "Oregon" was an easy 
winner, having covered the 66.J6 
miles in three hours and fifteen min- 
utes, an average of 21.10 miles an 
hour, with a favorable tide one way 
and an adverse tide on the home- 

This was a race worth the seeing! 
There were not two better boats in the 
whole world and it is doubtful if 
another could have been found any- 
where to keep up with the pace they 



set at this time. Boats crowded with 
excursionists followed the two Nep- 
tunian horses up the river a ways and 
waited for their return. It was the 
only race ever sailed on the Hudson 
where any large sum of money was at 
stake and the sea-gods and the very 
sea-nymphs themselves were betting 
on the result. The day was all that 
one could have wished for and the 
outcome was so clearly beyond dis- 
pute that bets were quickly paid. 

On the same day the "Washing- 
ton," which was the first American 
built steamship to cross the Atlantic 
since the days of the "Savannah," 
sailed out through the Narrows for 

The "Hendrick Hudson," being 
about thirty feet longer than either 
the "Oregon" or the "C. Vanderbilt," 
they being nearly of the same dimen- 
sions, would have been "outclassed" 
in a race where they were contestants, 
though to a land-lubber it will always 
seem that a race is a race regardless 
of the size of the boats entered, as the 
sole question to be settled is : "Which 
of two boats is the faster?" There 
was thus an unsettled question to be 
answered as to whether the "Oregon" 
could run away from the "Hendrick 
Hudson," which was the largest boat 
then on the Hudson, as she had from 
the "C. Vanderbilt." Here was a 
foeman worthy of the steel, and 
George Law in another characteristic 
challenge offered "to race the 'Ore- 
gon' against the 'Hendrick Hudson' 
over the same route as the one select- 
ed in the race with the 'C. Vander- 
bilt,' or any other route to be agreed 
upon, for $2,000 against $1,000; if 
that should not be of sufficient inter- 
est, $3,000 to $2,000 ... or 
$100 to $75 on any amount up to 
$50,000." If neither of the above 
were accepted, he agreed to "race the 
'Oregon' with only one wheel against 
the 'Hendrick Hudson' for $1,000." 
The challenge was not accepted. 

The "C. Vanderbilt," 300 by 35-6 
by 10-3, was built by Bishop and 

Simonson and engined by Allaire. 
Some six years later the Illustrated 
News had an account of an innovation 
on the "C. Vanderbilt," although the 
ill-fated "Atlantic" had been lighted 
with gas, which makes interesting 
reading in these days of our newly 
invented "search-lights." 

The Stonington steamer, " C. Vanderbilt," 
has been furnished with an apparatus for pro- 
ducing what is called "Harris' Calcium Light." 
This light is produced by the combustion of hy- 
drogen and oxygen gases upon a small piece of 
calcium, and it is said, it has been seen twenty- 
five miles upon the Sound. The cost of this ap- 
paratus is about $350, and the cost of burning the 
light is ten cents per hour. The entire apparatus 
only occupies six feet square of room and can be 
placed in any part of the boat most convenient. 

She came onto the Stonington run in 
1847 an d was joined the next year by 
the "Commodore," 275 by 32 by 11, 
built by the same firm. In 1867 the 
"C. Vanderbilt," having come into the 
hands of Captain J. W. Hancox, with 
the "Connecticut," (second) built in 
1848, was taken to the Hudson 
and placed on the Troy Line 
where she ran as a passenger and 
freight boat till July, 1872, when she 
was made into a tow-boat, as which 
she continued until broken up in 1885. 
Her "gallows frame" may yet be seen 
rising above the mud in Roundout 
Creek where she found a grave. The 
"Commodore" was sent to the Hud- 
son for a short time in 1856 and ran 
on the Troy Line. When she re- 
turned she was commanded by Capt. 
"Ed" Curtis, son of Capt. Kneeland 
Curtis of Derby. At ten o'clock on 
the night of December 27, 1866, she 
was caught in a severe gale, refused 
to answer her rudder and was thrown 
on "beams' end." In this position she 
was blown across the Sound and came 
to anchor off Horton's Point. Here 
she was found to be leaking so badly 
that the cables were cut and she drift- 
ed onto the shore and became a com- 
plete wreck. 

In 1847 the "Fall River Line" was 
opened by the Bordens, but we have 
not to deal with the boats of other 


lines than those that touched at places 
in Connecticut, and we pass that story 

In 1848 the "Oregon" was sold for 
service on the Hudson, where she ran 
for several years. In a collision off 
Weehawken with the "City of Bos- 
ton," one of the two boats with which 
the Norwich Line opened in 1861, this 
old favorite received a blow from 
which she never recovered. Perhaps 
it were better thus ! To sink to a soft 
bed and there to rest after the years 
of fighting rather than to go to some 
fire-heap to be covered with oil and 
burned for the old metal, or to be dis- 
mantled and cut down for the lazy 
life of a dirty coal barge, or to be 
stripped of all one's beauty and left to 
rot, gradually falling away, till the 
bare ribs cast a shadow on the untrod 
sands and the bittern's cry is the only 
sound that proves all things else are 
not dead. 

While the "Oregon" was running 
to Stonington the "Knickerbocker" 
was taken from the Hudson, where 
she had been running with such boats 
as the "Rochester," the "South Amer- 
ica," and the "Hendrick Hudson," and 
was added to this line, which was ad- 
vertised as the "United States Mail 
Line." The "Knickerbocker" was 
built in 1843 f° r Daniel Drew and 
Isaac Newton and carried sixty-five 
state-rooms on the promenade deck, 
and in addition, twelve beautifully 
fitted state-rooms in the ladies' saloon. 
She was given the engine of the "De 
Witt Clinton," a once popular boat on 
the Hudson, which was then cut 
down and converted into a barge. 
Sometime after coming onto the 
Sound she was widened three feet 
forward of the wheels, which were 
then let back into the dimples or pock- 
ets made by the alteration, and more 
sleeping accommodations were added. 

In 185 1 the Commercial Steam- 
boat Company was organized and ran 
the "Pelican," "Osceola" and "Petrel," 
propellers, to Stonington by night, 
and in 1855 they started a day line 

with the "Curlew" and "Westches- 
ter." Later, they added the "Alba- 
tross," "Penguin," "Falcon," "Eagle," 
"Sea Gull" and "King Fisher." In 
1862 the "Albatross" and the "Pen- 
guin" were sold for $75,000 each to 
the Navy Department for blockade 
duty and the "Falcon," "King Fisher" 
and "Sea Gull" were chartered by the 
War Department for transports at 
from $340 to $390 a day. In 1864 the 
Neptune Line, which with the "War- 
rior," a 1500 ton side-wheeler, and 
the "Triton," had already begun ope- 
rations, was organized and bought up 
the remaining boats of the Commer- 
cial Steamboat Company. To these 
they added the "Electra," "Galatea," 
"Proteus," "Oceanus," "Metisthetis," 
"Doris," "Nereus," "Glaucus" and 

During the first nine months of 
1852, twenty-one steamboat accidents 
were reported in the United States, in- 
volving loss and life. Seven hundred 
and twenty-eight persons were killed 
outright or drowned and one hundred 

In 1855 the New Jersey Steam 
Navigation Company opened up a 
new line of boats on the Hudson 
and placed the "C. Vanderbilt" and 
the "Francis Skiddy" in service be- 
tween New York and Troy. This 
latter was one of the famous boats on 
the Hudson and was named for Fran- 
cis Skiddy, who had married Sarah 
Louisa St. John, daughter of William 
St. John of Norwalk, who had begun 
steamboating on the "Westchester" 
when she ran to Bridgeport, and was 
transferred to the "Rochester" as cap- 
tain, finally becoming one of the most 
widely known and best liked steam- 
boat men in the world. The New 
Jersey Steam Navigation Company 
only acquired at first a 16-20 interest 
in the "Francis Skiddy." In Sep- 
tember, 1864, a deal was consum- 
mated by which she was to have 
passed to their ownership and control, 
the vessel to be delivered at the close 
of navigation, but on the last trip 



prior to the proposed transfer, she ran 
onto a rock and was so badly dam- 
aged that she had to be beached. Her 
engine was removed and placed in the 
new "Dean Richmond" where it is 
still doing efficient service. 

In 1866 the Neptune and the Ston- 
ington lines were consolidated and 
took the name of Merchants' Steam- 
ship Company. This, practically, was 
the beginning of the famous "Bristol 
Line," whose days were few and full 
of trouble. To the dozen or so boats 
that had been owned by the Neptune, 
and the "Commonwealth," "Commo- 
dore" and "Plymouth Rock," owned 
by the Stonington Line, it was pro- 
posed to add two new boats, both of 
which should be more magnificent 
than anything that had gone before 
them. It was intended that they 
should bear the names "Pilgrim" and 
"Puritan," but the burning of the 
"Commonwealth," the loss of the 
"Commodore," and the wrecking of 
the "Plymouth Rock" crippled the 
company and they were sold while yet 
on the way, after $1,350,000 had been 
spent upon them, for $360,000. When 
they were finally launched by the com- 
pany that bought them they bore the 
names of the two cities, "Bristol" 
and "Providence," under which names 
they ran for several years. The 
stockholders were paid three cents on 
a dollar and out of the ruins of the old 
company three new ones came into be- 
ing. The "Nereus," "Glaucus" and 
"Neptune" were purchased and run 
by the Metropolitan Steamship Com- 
pany; the "Bristol" and "Providence" 
were completed for a new company 
that had obtained the charter of the 
Hope Navigation Company, of i860, 
and had it amended in name to the 
Narragansett Steamship Company, 
and the Neptune boats fell into the 
hands of the Providence and New 
York Steamship Company. 

In 1868 the Stonington Steamboat 
Company started in again with the 
"Narragansett" (second) and the 
"Stonington," two boats of four that 

had been intended for an outside line 
between New York and Philadelphia, 
and in 1875 consolidated with the 
Providence Line under the name, 
"Providence and Stonington Steam- 
ship Company." 

In 1873 the "Rhode Island" (sec- 
ond) was built by Henry Steers and 
run on this route and in 1877 she was 
followed by the "Massachusetts" 
(second), which was also built in 
Steers' yard at Greenport, N. Y. In 
1882 there was a third "Rhode 
Island" built for this route by Robert 
Palmer at Noank, where he also built 
the "Connecticut," 1889, the first large 
boat to be built for the Sound with an 
oscillating engine, and the last to be 
built of wood. 

The most serious accident that 
occurred in the later years was the 
collision off Cornfield Lightship of the 
"Stonington" and "Narragansett," 
sister ships of the line, during a dense 
fog, on the night of June 11, 1880. 
Twenty-seven of the passengers and 
three of the crew are known to have 
been lost and it is generally believed 
that as many more perished whose 
names were not known as the pas- 
senger lists of the vessels were very 
badly damaged when found after the 
disaster. The "Narragansett" took 
fire and sunk, but was subsequently 
raised and put on the line again. 

In 189a the single-screw propellers, 
"Maine" and "New Hampshire," with 
triple expansion engines, were built 
by the Harlan and Hollingsworth 
Company for the Stonington run. 

Gradually the "Consolidated rail- 
road," reached out for control of the 
maritime interests of the Sound. 
The "New England Navigation Com- 
pany" was publicly announced and the 
Stonington Line, with a history reach- 
ing back to 1837, passed into its con- 
trol. In my next article I shall 
trace the development of the lines that 
run to Norwich, New Haven and 
Bridgeport, giving glimpses of the 
boats that have sailed from New Lon- 
don, Derby and Norwalk. 

tragedy in Rlstory 

By Judge L €. munson 

WHEN one has lived through 
the allotted time and fol- 
lowed in the footsteps of 
progress, trying to keep 
pace with the vigorous and youthful 
generations that are crowding from 
behind, it is restful to stop by the way- 
side and turn the face back to the long, 
long road where, far over the hill, the 
journey was begun. 

It is impossible for people of this 
generation to realize the difference be- 
tween this age of comfort and luxury 
compared with the age of hardships 
and anxiety in the early settlement of 
this great country when the white man 
went to his fields with musket in one 
hand and hoe in the other to plant his 
corn in the uncertainty of reaping its 
harvest by reason of Indian massacres 
which crimsoned the land. 

King Philip's wars and the Narra- 
gansett Indians terrorized Massachu- 
setts and the Pequots dominated Con- 
necticut and paralyzed her industries. 
They were cruel, fierce, treacherous, 
blood-thirsty, and threatened extinc- 
tion of the white race in their sur- 
roundings. The white man had not 
only to earn his bread by the sweat of 
his brow, but to earn it in jeopardy of 
his life. 

There is an heroic figure that rises 
from the past when one ponders on 
these old days. It is John Talcott of 
Hartford, who resigned the treasury- 
ship of Connecticut, was appointed to 
the command of the army, marched his 
forces into Massachusetts and fought 
the Indians wherever he could give 
battle, always victorious. He seemed 
to have a charmed life free from bul- 
let, arrow or tomahawk. He was a 
sort of omnipresent being, appearing 
where least expected, with results as 
surprising in execution, as his appear- 
ance had been unexpected. 

Learning of an invading force of 
two hundred Indians entering West- 
ern Massachusetts, he marched his 
forces with quick step, struck their 
trail near Westfield, followed it 

through waters and over mountain 
and valley, overtaking them at night 
in camp on the banks of the Housa- 
tonic river. Here, before the morn- 
ing sun had tinged the top of the hills 
with its golden beams, he baptized the 
encampment with blood, wherein 
twenty-five Indians knew of no awak- 
ening from midnight sleep; some 
taken prisoners, and others fled for 
safety to parts unknown. This bloody 
victory was a discouraging blow to 
Indians for many leagues around, and 
from which they never recovered their 
prestige for blood-thirsty activities. 

It was a happy thought by the ladies 
of Great Barrington to rescue from 
forgetfulness the identical place where 
the bloody baptism occurred by erect- 
ing a boulder monument, with suitable 
inscription/ pointing out to the 
stranger the exact locality. A few 
rods from this locus in quo, near 
where the Congregational Church 
stands, was the wigwam of an Indian 
chief, who counseled and advised In- 
dians in their transit to and from Mas- 
sachusetts, Connecticut and State of 
New York over this ford-way. 

The Housatonic valley was an In- 
dian Paradise. Fish were abundant 
in stream and lakelet ; game gamboled 
on hillside; furry animals burrowed 
in woody glens and Indian tepees dot- 
ted the sunny landscape. After the 
Talcott episode they withdrew from 
the valley, occasionally returning to 
place a memorial stone over the burial 
place of an Indian maiden who leaped 
to death from the rocky walls of 
Monument Mountain for the love of 
her cousin, which the rules of her tribe 
forbid her to marry. Monument 
Mountain stands a physical fact in 
honor of the leap, and Bryant, in his 
book of poems, written in light reflect- 
ed from its rocky sides, poetized the 
event in charming lines to run parallel 
with the mountain history during the 

The first armed resistance among 
the colonies to the prerogatives of the 

4 6i 



king's government occurred in Great 
Barrington nearly a year before the 
first gun was fired in Lexington. Au- 
gust 16, 1774, was a red letter, historic 
day in Great Barrington, worthy to be 
canonized as the forerunner of the 
Revolution and of Independence Day. 
The people of the town from hill and 
valley assembled before the court- 
house on court day, locked the court- 
house doors and refused admittance 
to Judge Ingersoll, one of the crown 
judges, and when he sought admis- 
sion they opposed him, and, tradition 
says, "dragged his cocked hat and 
powdered wig in the mud ; placed him 
on an old dilapidated horse, face tail- 
ward to the horse, and rode him 
through the street amid the jeers of 
his escorts." 

Humiliated by experiences the day 
before, and reinforced by his sympa- 
thizers, he again sought entrance by 
force through the barred doors of the 
courthouse ; he was arrested and 
lodged in Litchfield county jail with 
injunction not to return to Great Bar- 
rington. Leaving jail he found his 
way to Hartford, mortgaged his 
homestead, then standing near where 
the Episcopal Church stands, went to 
England and died there in 1796 with- 
out ever again seeing his native town 
which he loved with intense nation- 

No more courts were afterwards 
held in Great Barrington under sem- 
blance of the king's prerogatives. 
This Ingersoll episode exampled other 
places to open resistance, and court- 
house doors were closed all along the 
lines in Massachusetts and Connecti- 
cut against English demands, which 
led up to the Revolution. 

It was a demonstration of no ordi- 
narv courage for the people of Great 
Barrington, but their patriotism and 
love of a free country was equal to the 

Judge Ingersoll was a born resident 
of the town, public-spirited, prominent 
in its affairs, a graduate of Yale, a 
lawyer of prominence in his profes- 
sion, representative to the General 
Court of Massachusetts by repeated 
elections, a devoted member of the 
Episcopal Church with close follow- 
ing of its rituals, a good citizen bar- 
ring his intense loyalty to the king. 
His property was confiscated by the 
government as the outgrowth of the 
scenes in front of the courthouse in 
August, 1774, followed by the first 
gun in Lexington, April 19, 1775. 

Paul Revere of Boston mounted his 
horse with bugle in hand with terrific 
speed, spread the news over hillside 
and valley that war had commenced. 
News reached Barrington April 20th. 
Captain King and his minute men 
the next day were on the march with 
quick step for the conflict, never fal- 
tering in patriotic emotion or devotion 
to duty's call. 

Government established, adherents 
to the king's cause were banished 
from New England by ship-loads 
from Boston to Canada, their proper- 
ties confiscated, including Benedict 
Arnold, who had been a brave general 
in the American army, who turned 
traitor after marrying a woman of 
English proclivities, and receiving 
from kingly sources British gold in 
amounts that dazzled his eyes and 
warped his judgment. 

Arnold went off in exile as a traitor 
after wearing the uniform of a brave 
general in the American army. He 
died in England in the agonies of bit- 
ter remorse that he ever changed his 
American uniform for an English 
shroud to rot in a traitor's grave un- 
honored and unwept. 

And yet, American history has 
thousands of such incidents as this, 
where strong men have gone down 
under the weight of the public opinion 
of a free-thinking country. 





For several years Dr. Griswold has been compiling a record of the old shipping interests on the Connecticut 
river and, as he states in his introductory lines, he has been assisted by important memoranda left by the distinguished 
antiquarians, the late Judge Sherman Wolcott Adams of Wethersfield, and Dr. Rufus White Griswold of Rocky 
Hill, which, with the records from the custom houses at New London and Middletown, have resulted in the valuable 
compilation presented herewith. Dr. Rufus Griswold was the editor of the old "Brooklyn Morning Journal," the "New 
York Empire City," and other publications during the first half of the last century. Later he became a prominent, 
contributor to American medical journals and one of the leading members of the medical profession in Connecticut. 
Judge Sherman Adams was a jurist and a scholar whose life was closely affiliated with the history of Connecticut 
He was one of the earliest contributors to the Connecticut Magazine. The annalist, who has had the advantage of 
their researches, is the son of the late Dr. Rufus Griswold, and himself a close student. His records are an invaluable 
supplement to the history of steamboat navigation which is now being recorded in this publication. — Editor 

THE story of shipping on the 
Connecticut river, long before 
the application of steam as a 
motive power, is one of the 
most entertaining of narratives. To 
me the adventures of the sailing mas- 
ters are even of greater interest than 
those of the steamship captains. 

Before beginning to relate the 
story, with its facts more fascinating 
than romance, I wish to state that my 
narration is based largely upon the in- 
valuable memoranda collected by the 
late Judge Sherman W. Adams of 
Wethersfield, and Dr. Rufus W. Gris- 
wold of Rocky Hill, both of whom 
were probably more familiar with the 
maritime history of these places than 
any men of their day. Their re- 
searches extended over a long period 
of years, and to them, more than to 
anyone else, is due the rescue from 
oblivion of the names and doings of 
many of the old shipping merchants, 
their vessels and masters, who made 
these two little towns famous as ports 
whose ships sailed to all parts of the 
world, and whose merchants traded 
with many foreign lands, 

First Vessel, with Cargo 

of Corn, Captured by Indians 

So far as we know, the first vessel 
owned in Wethersfield was the little 
schooner of John Oldham, who was 
killed by the Indians while in his boat 
off Block Island. It is not known 
just what he was doing there, but it is 
supposed he was on his way to Bos- 
ton with a load of corn. Neither is it 
known where the vessel was built, but 
probably somewhere in Massachusetts 

The next vessel of which we have 
record is the "Tryall," (Trial?) built 
by Thomas Deming at "his yarde 
upon ye Common, by ye landing 
place." This was in 1649, though 
other vessels had no doubt been built 
at Hartford as early as 1642, in which 
Wethersfield men were interested. 
Captain Larrabee was the first master 
of the "Tryall," but we find no record 
of her beyond two or three years after 
her building. 

From this time till the early part of 
1700 there are no official records of 
names of vessels owned in Wethers- 



field or Stepney, though we know 
there were many engaged in carrying 
to the West Indies pipe staves, salt 
beef and fish, dried corn, salt pork, 
meal, lumber, horses and mules, but 
all records of Connecticut vessels were 
destroyed with the customhouse, 
when New London was burned by 
Arnold in 1781, and the old cemeteries 
at these places bear record that, previ- 
ous to 1730, many men were "drowned 
at sea." 

In 1730, the only vessel credited to 
Wethersfield in the British Maritime 
Register was the sloop, "Thankful and 
Ann," of eighteen tons, and not till 
1756 have we any official record of 
vessels engaged in foreign trade. 
Then we find the ships "Lion" and 
"Leopard," both of ninety tons, sail- 
ing to the West Indies and Spain, but, 
for at least one hundred years previ- 
ous to that time, an extensive trade 
had been carried on, not only with the 
West Indies, but with Barbadoes, 
Jamaica and other Caribbean Islands. 

Beginning of Rich Trade 
With Foreign Lands 

Previous to 1700 most of the ship- 
building and trading had been carried 
on from Wethersfield, at that point on 
the river now known as "the Cove," 
but after this date, owing to changes 
in the course of the stream, this loca- 
tion became unsuitable, and the build- 
ing and commerce went to Stepney 
(Rocky Hill). Here for more than 
100 years was carried on more ship- 
building, and from this place went out 
more vessels to foreign ports, than 
from any place on the river. It was, 
in fact, one of the most important 
ports in New England. From here 
the merchants took their goods to 
Newington and Farmington, to 
Southington and Wolcott and to Ber- 
lin and Bristol, and here they brought 
their products for sale or shipment, 

Down to a date as late as i860 
there stood upon the river bank four 
great warehouses and three general 
stores as evidence of the great pros- 

perity of those olden times, and the 
writer has seen, when a boy, thou- 
sands of barrels oi; produce, great an- 
chors and quantities of ship timber 
shipped from the docks, where now 
hardly a single vessel is loaded in a 
year, while the old names of Grimes 
and Collins, Boardman, Griswold, 
Williams and Dimock, Woodhouse, 
Riley, Buckley, and many others, 
though perpetuated in many descend- 
ants of these old mariners, are none 
of them found classed as "sailors and 
traders," but as "merchants, profes- 
sional men, mechanics and agricul- 

Roderick Grimes and Abijah Col- 
lins were the last of these old ship- 
ping merchants. The ancestors of 
Grimes had been Connecticut river 
traders for generations, and it used to 
be said that the West Indies was the 
Grimes' family burial ground, as 
many of them had died and been bur- 
ied there. A common inscription on 
the stones in the Rocky Hill cemetery, 
not only of the Grimes, but of other 
old families, is : 

" Buried in the West Indies." 

Collins was one of the largest ship 
owners on the river. He lived in the 
large brick house built by Oliver Pom- 
eroy before the Revolution, still stand- 
ing near the river bank, nearly oppo- 
site the depot in Rocky Hill. At dif- 
ferent times he was whole, or part 
owner, in the schooner "Regulator," 
schooner "Friendship," ship "Enter- 
prise," sloops "Julia" and "James," 
sloop "Martha," sloops "Leader," 
"Flash," and "Falcon," "Pearl" and 
"Orbit," schooner "Avon," schooner 
"Francis Tryon" and schooner "Ex- 

First Privateers and Warships 
Fitted Out in Connecticut 

Before going into the history of the 
merchant marines of Wethersfield and 
Rocky Hill, it is interesting to note the 
number of privateers and other war 
vessels built, fitted out, or manned 
from these places during the wars of 


the Revolution and 181 2. In this con- 
nection it may be stated that the chair- 
man of the first naval commission ever 
appointed by Congress was Silas Dean 
of Wethersfield. By him was built at 
Rocky Hill the sloop "Revenge," com- 
missioned by Congress in 1776. She 
carried eight guns and sixty-four men 
and was destroyed by the British in 
the Penobscot river in 1779. 

In 1776 the privateer, "Ranger," un- 
der command of Capt. A. Riley, went 
out from Stepney. She had a crew 
of twenty men and carried fourteen 
small guns, called "swivels." These 
were mounted on a pivot, which 
allowed of their being fired in any di- 
rection. They carried a ball of but 
little more than a pound in weight, 
and one man usually handled a gun. 

Two years later Captain Riley was 
in command of the "Snake," a pri- 
vateer of four six-pounders and 
twenty men. 

In 1777 the privateer sloop "Enter- 
prise," built in Stepney, Capt. John 
Wright, master, captured the British 
sloop, "Hero," and brought her up the 
river. It is stated that she was load- 
ed with "velvets, broadcloth, bear- 
skins, silks, sagathy, chalon, linen 
checks, tar cloth, camlet, coating, 
gimp, lace, etc." Samuel Boardman, 
who owned the "Enterprise," turned 
the "Hero" into a privateer, of six 
guns and forty men, under command 
of Capt. Justus Riley, a brother of 
Capt. Ashabel Riley. 

The next year the "Enterprise," 
built at Rocky Hill, under command 
of Captain Burrows, captured the 
British sloop of war, "Boxer," off 
Portland Harbor, after a desperate 
engagement, in which the captains of 
both vessels were killed. Their bodies 
lie side by side in the old cemetery at 
Portland, Maine. 

In 1778, the privateer schooner, 
"Humbird," of four guns and twenty 
men, was commanded by Capt. Ozias 
Goodrich. After the war she was 
wrecked at St. Estrutia in 1786. 

Capt. Joseph Coombs of Wethers- 

field had charge of the privateer 
schooner, "Independence," in 1778, of 
four guns and fifteen men, and, in 
1780, Capt. Joseph Buckley of Rocky 
Hill commanded the privateer, "Ex- 
periment," a schooner of twelve guns 
and forty men. 

The "Lark," quite a celebrated pri- 
vateer, under command of Capt. 
Thomas Newson, had ten guns and 
fifteen men. 

The Celebrated Brig "Minerva" — 
Her Guns and Crew 

The celebrated brig, "Minerva," 
owned by Capt. William Griswold, 
was converted into a privateer. The 
following account of this vessel and 
her owner was recently contributed to 
the Berlin News by the writer : 

Captain Griswold followed the seas from 
his boyhood, and while still a very young 
man, returned from London to his native 
place in Rocky Hill, in his own ship, bring- 
ing with him his wife, a Miss Tapeley of 
London, who was a woman of wealth. 

Here he built the large house in Rocky 
Hill, on the main road from Hartford to 
Middletown, which afterwards became 
known as "Greens Hotel." Previous to 
1775, the "Minerva," up to that time the 
largest vessel built on the Connecticut 
River, being of no tons burden, had been 
under command of her owner and engaged 
in trade between West India ports, with 
one or more cruises to Spain and Portugal. 
In 1775 (Aug. 31st), she was chartered by 
the State (Colony) of Connecticut, for ^37, 
us per month, and converted into a priva- 
teer. She was first commanded by Capt. 
Giles Hall of Wallingford. She loaded her 
powder at Middletown, her balls from New 
London and 300 pounds of extra lead from 
Wethersfield. By the latter part of Septem- 
ber she was prepared to take on the re- 
mainder of her supplies, including 5,500 
pounds of bread, which had been baked at 
the house of Peter Goodrich, at Middletown 
Upper Houses, when the house burned and 
the bread with it. 

She was then provisioned by Jeremiah 
Wadsworth of Hartford, and a mutiny hav- 
ing arisen among her crew, was placed 
under command of Capt. Ephraim Bill. 
Her first cruise as a privateer lasted until 
the following June, and was not marked by 
any very extraordinary event. In April, 
1778, Captain Griswold sold the V Minerva" 
to the state, and she was fitted up with six- 
teen four-pounders and six six-pounders 


from the gun shops at Salisbury. In 1781 
she was owned or chartered by the United 
States, and carried sixteen guns and a 
crew of 100 men, and was again under her 
first war commander, Capt. Giles Hall. 

She was later commanded by Captain 
Saltonstall and had a crew of 120 men. 
What became of her after the close of the 
war is not positively known, but it is tra- 
dition that she returned by conveyance or 
purchase to the hands of her builder and 
first owner, Captain Griswold, and re- 
engaged in the West India trade, but so far 
as we know, there is no evidence that she 
was ever captured by the enemy. 

Roger M. Griswold, M. D. 

In 1777, the brig, "America," a pri- 
vateer, was commanded by Capt. John 
Nott of Wethersfield. In the same 
year the privateer, "Dolphin," built at 
Rocky Hill, was in commission. She 
had ten guns and sixty men, com- 
manded by Capt. C. Buckley, and the 
"Experiment," before mentioned, was 
again sent out with twelve guns and 
eighty men. In this year, also, went 
out the privateer brig, "Marshall," 
Capt. E. Buckley, with fourteen guns 
and eighty men. In 1782, the 
schooner, "Fair Trader," was out 
with four guns and fourteen men, un- 
der command of Capt. John Webb. 
In 1779, the privateer sloop ; "Betsey," 
of four guns and fourteen men, was 
under command of Capt. Burnham of 
Wethersfield. The "Betsey" was built 
at Rocky Hill. 

The brig, "Defence," in command 
of Captain Dudley, was in several im- 
portant engagements, and, in 1778, 
she, with the "Oliver Cromwell," 
fought and captured the British ships, 
"Admiral Keppel" and "Cyrus," and 
took them as prizes into Boston. The 
privateer sloop, "Active," was also un- 
der command of Capt. C. Buckley, 
with ten guns and sixty men. There 
was also the privateer sloop, "Spy," of 
which we find little record beyond her 
name. The brig, "Jason," of ten guns 
and twenty-five men, was built at 
Rocky Hill and commanded by Cap- 
tain Stillman, and later, by Capt. 
Moses Tryon. After the close of the 

war he became a captain in the regu- 
lar navy, and was with Decatur in the 
war with Tripoli as commander of the 
frigate, "Connecticut," built at Mid- 
dletown. One of the most celebrated 
privateers in the war of 18 12 was the I 
"Hornet." She was built at Siam, ' 
upper part of Portland (then Chat- 
ham), about 1810, and, in 181 1, was 
commanded by Capt. Seth Dickinson 
of Wethersfield. Her most important 
engagement was with the British brig- 
of-war "Peacock," which she sank off 
the coast of British Guiana after a 
desperate fight. 

In the early part of the Revolution- 
ary war, Capt. Chas. Butler of Rocky 
Hill had a privateer out, but her name 
is not positively known, but Capt. 
John Burnham, afterward master of 
the ship, "Hope," in 1792, was one of 
her crew. Capt. Gurdon Montague 
of Wethersfield commanded the Uni- 
ted States privateer, "Joel Barlow," in 
the war of 1812, and, in 1849, took the 
schooner, "G. H. Montague," from 
New Haven to California by way of 
Cape Horn. 

This does not, by any means, in- 
clude all the war vessels built or sailed 
by men from these two little river 
ports, who took part in pestering the 
commerce of the enemy in the wars of 
the Revolution and 18 12, but it showed 
that the Yankees of inland Connecti- 
cut not only had within them the fires 
of patriotism, but were not averse to 
taking a chance of making an honest 
dollar by the then honorable, and 
often lucrative practice of privateer- 
ing. That many of them paid for 
their daring with their lives and their 
vessels is but another indication of 
their hardihood and courage, for they 
went out in little ships, poorly armed 
and generally undermanned, to meet 
the large, well-equipped, and fully 
manned ships of the greatest naval 
power in the world. Of such caliber 
were the sailors of Wethersfield and 
Rocky Hill in the early days of the 

They made history, which we, their 


descendants, are prone to forget, and 
the only record left behind by many of 
them is : "died at sea." 

The Merchant Marine and Its 
Cargoes and Captains 

A history of the merchant marine 
of these places is an interesting study, 
but is replete with difficulties previous 
to 1795, as the records of the custom- 
house at New London, where all Con- 
necticut vessels were required to enter 
and clear their papers, before that 
date, were destroyed when that place 
was burned by Arnold in 1781, and 
the history of Wethersfield and Rocky 
Hill vessels, together with their own- 
ers, or captains, is mostly taken from 
the colonial and town records. Among 
the many vessels built or owned and 
run from these places, from 1736 up 
to the early part of 1800, we have first 
the record of the "Dove," owned by 
Williams & Co. Jonathan Trumbull 
of Lebanon, afterward governor of 
Connecticut, was a member of this 
firm, and most of the foreign goods 
sold in Lebanon and surrounding 
towns came to Middletown from the 
West Indies on the "Dove" and were 
teamed inland. In 1754, General 
Lyman of Suffield, Colonel Pitkin of 
Hartford, and Mr. Elisha Williams, 
Jr., owned the sloop, "Dolphin," 
which ran between Rocky Hill and 
the West Indies. Peter Dunham was 
master. She carried out general car- 
goes of nearly every thing the colony 
exported at that time, and brought 
back rum, sugar, molasses and salt. 
Both the "Dove" and "Dolphin" were 
of about forty tons burden. 

In 1750, the sloop, "Lark," Benja- 
min Tryan, master, was engaged in 
West Indian trade. Amasa Adams 
built both the "Dolphin" and "Lark" 
at Rocky Hill. In 1747, the sloop, 
"Windsor," owned jointly by Jona- 
than Tryon of Rocky Hill and Thomas 
Seymour of Hartford, was trading in 
foreign ports. The money for her 
building seems to have been largely 

contributed by Seymour, and she was 
in command of Tryon. 

These two Tryans (Tryons) were 
evidently brothers , though their 
names are spelled differently on the 
records, a common occurrence in 
those days. 

In 1767, John Webb had the sloop, 
"Fair Trader," in the West Indian 
trade. He sailed to Nevis, Antigua, 
and Cat island (San Salvador), and 
took out cattle, sheep, swine, bricks 
and shingles. An old list of the crew 
of the "Fair Trader" would indicate 
that she was a large vessel for those 
days, and includes the names of Luke 
Fortune, Simon Griswold, mate, Luke 
Osborne, Seth Belden, Hezekiah 
Blinn, James Luck, Prescott and Ste- 
phen Bulkley. 

Two round trips a year was about 
all that was made in those days be- 
tween Rocky Hill and the West In- 
dies, and, fifty years later, if a vessel's 
trip extended to nine months or a 
year (unless known to be on a trip to 
England or Spain), none but the crew 
and owners knew where she had been, 
and it was moderately safe to surmise 
that in her absence she had nosed 
along the West African coast and 
picked up a "live cargo" which was 
landed in Virginia or the Carolinas. 

It is supposed the "Commerce" was 
lost on such a trip when wrecked in 

As showing the difficulty of naviga- 
tion on the river at that time it may be 
noted that, on one trip in 1768, it took 
the "Fair Trader" two weeks to get 
from Saybrook Bar to Rocky Hill. 

Two other large vessels built and 
owned in Rocky Hill were the "Sea 
Island" and the "Archer," the latter 
owned by Capt. Joseph Bulkley. 
They were both in the West Indian 
trade. The "Two Brothers" plied be- 
tween this place and Pernambuco, 
stopping at St. Luca and Barbadoes. 
She had accommodations for several 
passengers and took much freight 
from Kensington, Middletown and 
Berlin, including tinware from the 


latter place. A record from the log 
of the "Two Brothers," after stating 
that she was, on one trip, several days 
aground on Glastonbury bar, con- 
cludes with, "Damn ye place." 

On this voyage, one of her crew, 
Noah Willoughby, died, and the log 
says : "We hove him overboard." 

The sloop, "Ann," was built at 
Rocky Hill in 1773 by John Ames and 
Joseph Dimock for Samuel Board- 
man. This vessel took Capt. John 
Hanmer's military company to New 
York just before the battle of Long 
Island. Boardman also built and 
owned the "Speedwell," which was a 
privateer in 1777-78. The sloops, 
"Polly" and "Hannah," the "Sea 
Flower," "Catherine" and schooner, 
"Industry," and the brig, "Betsey," also 
sailed to the West Indies from here, 
and another "Betsey" was a privateer 
in 1776-77, commanded by Capt. 
William Robbins. There was also 
the schooner, "Rosemary," the "Cap- 
tain Stillman" and the "Olive," all en- 
gaged in foreign trade just previous 
to the Revolution. The brig, "Com- 
merce," famous for its history, was 
another Stepney built vessel, and 
wrecked on the west coast of Africa, 
where her crew were captured and 
held for ransom by the Arabs. The 
last survivor of the crew of the "Com- 
merce," Mr. Horace Savage, died in 
Wethersfield in 1882 01 1883, aged 
82 years. 

The experience of the captive crew 
has been very interestingly told in 
"Captain Riley's Narrative" and the 
"Journal of Archibald Robbins" of 
Rocky Hill. 

There was the sloop, "Gull," of 
which Capt. Joseph Adams was mas- 
ter; the schooner, "Wanton," Cap- 
tain Lattimer, master, sailing to 
Charleston ; the sloop, "Prudence," 
owned by William Hines ; the 
schooner, "Archer," of which Benja- 
min Archer was master, and the brig, 
"Julia," all in foreign trade. The 
"Archer" and "Julia" were both laid 
up during the war of 1812 just below 

Hog Brook, a little south of the 
docks at Rocky Hill. The ships, 
"Huron" and "Harry," were built by 
Richard Belden in 1804 and 1807. 
Both were full, square-rigged, and 
traded to the West Indies, with occa- 
sional trips to Europe. There was, 
also, the "well-found and accommo- 
dating schooner, 'Marcus,' of 700 
tons," a very large vessel for those 
days, and the "new and beautiful 
sloop, 'Mary,' Samuel Buck, Jr., mas- 
ter, bound for Norfolk and Balti- 

Captain Josiah Deming was, in 
1795, master of the sloop, "Lora," 
owned by Thomas Belden and Jacob 
Williams; in 1797, of the schooner, 
"Prudence;" in 1798, of sloop, "J a Y-" 
In 1804 he was master of sloop, 
"Eliza," owned by Caleb and James 
Griswold, and later he was master of 
the schooner, "Swift." These vessels 
were all in the coasting trade, except 
the latter, which sailed to foreign 
ports. The schooners, "Leader," 
Capt. John Hurlburt, and "Matilda," 
Capt. Humphrey Woodhouse, and 
ship, "Boudeau," were all in foreign 
trade, the latter running to France 
and Spain and carrying passengers. 
There was, also, the brig, "Despatch" 
and schooner, "Nancy," running to 
southern and foreign ports : Capt. 
George Belden, who died in Martin- 
ique in 1794, at times commanded the 
"Despatch" and "Marcus." 

First Vessels Ladened With 
American Goods for World's Ports 

The large brig, "Connecticut," was 
a West Indiaman. She was built at 
Middletown, but commanded by Capt. 
Hosea Blinn of Rocky Hill. In the 
Tripoli war she was armed as a frig- 
ate, and under command of Capt. 
Moses Tryon of Rocky Hill. There 
was also the schooner, "Richmond," 
which ran regularly between Rocky 
Hill and Virginia ports. In 1794, 
Capt. Samuel Boardman had his ship 
in the port of Berbice, and, in 1797, 
was master of the brig, "Mary," run- 


ning to Bilboa, and, two years later, 
he had the ship, "William," running 
to Surinam. There was, also, the 
schooner, "Buck," sailing to St. Kitts, 
and the "Martha," sailing between 
Rocky Hill and Norfolk. Richard 
Grimes had the sloop, "Eagle;" Ed- 
ward Bulkley, the "Hope;" Allen 
Bulkley, the "Dean," and Francis 
Bulkley, the "Fortune," captured by 
the French in 1800 at Barbadoes. 
Captain Stillman had the brig, 
"Ontario," in foreign trade. 

Jonathan Bulkley was master of the 
"Emily," and after of the "Sally," and 
Stephen and Wait Bulkley owned the 
schooner, "George." Joseph Butler 
was captain of the ship, "Henry," 
built in 1807; Josiah Butler, of the 
brig, "Peggy," in 1803; Joseph 
Churchill, of the "Delight;" Captain 
Clapp, of the "Factor." Then there 
was the schooner, "Regulator," and 
the sloops, "Falcon" and "Martha," 
and "Orbit," and the schooners, "Ex- 
change" and "Francis Tryon," all in 
the foreign trade, owned by Abijah 
Collins, as before stated. Capt. Josiah 
Curtis had his ship, the "Mary," taken 
by the French in 1798. Capt. Asha- 
bel Belden had the schooner, "Ve- 
nus;" Capt. Jesse Belden, the 
"Fame." Capt. Josiah Griswold was 
in the European trade. He was 
noted as an athlete and "thrashed 
many a man bigger than himself," but 
the British caught him in 181 2 and 
kept him prisoner for a year. The 
sloops, "Polly" and "Siren," were 
under Capt. Jonathan Griswold in 
1795 and 18 16. Capt. James Gris- 
wold had the sloop, "Eliza." Captain 
Simeon Griswold was captured by the 
French and held a prisoner for a long 
time, and at different times Capt. 
Timothy Griswold was master and 
part owner of the "Milo," the 
"Science," the "McDonough," and the 

First American Vesse! to 
Make Voyage Around the Globe 

Capt. John Hurlbut was master 
of the "Neptune," the first Amer- 
ican ship that made the voyage 
around the world. Capt. James 
Hurlbut was master of the schooner, 
"Sea Flower." He was captured and 
taken to Barbadoes by the French in 
1799 while on a voyage to Martin- 
ique. Capt. Isaac Goodrich was at 
different times master and part owner 
of the sloop, "Two Brothers," the 
"Little Patty," the schooner, "Hitty," 
and brig, "William." These were all 
built at Rocky Hill, the last by x\bra- 
ham Jagger in 1807. Jason Goodrich 
had the schooner, "Exchange." His 
brother, Thomas, was lost at sea on 
the brig, "John Marshall." Luther 
Goodrich was master of the schooner, 
"Peggy," and William Goodrich, of 
the "Nancy." Richard Grimes com- 
manded the brig, "Marshall," and 
William Grimes the brig, "Roland," 
of Hartford, which was lost at sea 
with all her crew. Capt. John Han- 
mer had the sloop, "Allen," in 1803, 
and Simeon Hanmer the schooner, 
"Four Friends," in 1807. Then he 
had command of the brig, "Suwanee," 
which was the last square rigger to 
run the river on regular trips. He 
died on a trip to Panama and was bur- 
ied in New Grenada in 1867. 

Capt. Brazilla Goodrich was master 
of Joseph Bulkley's ship, "Huron," 
then of the schooner, "Leader," of 
Saybrook, and afterward owned and 
commanded the ship, "Brutus," built 
at Rocky Hill by Hezekiah Whitmore. 
As late as 1830 he commanded the 
schooner, "Caret," of Middletown. 
Capt. Daniel Goodrich was master of 
the schooner, "Catherine," in the 
West India trade. Capt. Levi Good- 
rich was master and part owner of the 
sloop, "Vermont," and, in 1798, of 
Capt. William Griswold's schooner, 
"Debe." Capt. Oliver Goodrich had 
the sloop, "Harmony," in which he 
imported rum from Santa Croix. 


Capt. Ichabod Goodrich had the ship, 
"Chance," destroyed by the French in 

1799. He was on a trip to Martin- 
ique with horses and mules. The 
ship was taken into Point au Pitre and 
destroyed. She was owned by Simeon 
Williams, John Woodhouse and Solo- 
mon and Joshua Robbins, and had a 
cargo valued at $10,000. 

George Deming owned the "Vic- 
tory." Capt. Joseph Dimock was 
master of the sloop, "Ursula," and 
afterward of the brig, "Sampson," 
and the schooner, "Marcus," which 
was burned by the British in 1812. 
Capt. Samuel Dimock had the sloop, 
"Eunice," the ship, "Halker," and 
schooner, "Mariner," and Captain 
Dudley of Wethersfield the brig, 
"Energy." Albert Francis owned the 
"Triton;" Charles Francis the brig, 
"Perseverance," and at one time mas- 
ter of Justus Riley's sloop, "Nancy 
and Susan," and part owner of the 
sloop, "Henry." Daniel Francis was 
master of the brig, "Eliza," captured 
by the French in 1797. David Fran- 
cis ran the "Wilmington Packet" to 
southern ports in 1796. James B. 
Francis was master of the sloop, 
"Branch," and later of the "Jane." 
John Francis was master of the 
"Ralph," captured by the French in 

1800. John N. Francis commanded 
the brig, "Scotland," which ran be- 
tween the river ports and Porto Rico 
for many years and was then lost at 
sea. He was then master of the ship, 
"J. L. Forbes," lost at sea in col- 
lision with another vessel. 

Sailing=Master Held as Slave 
by the Dey of Algiers 

In 1804, Capt. John March built the 
sloop, "Liberty," at Rocky Hill, and, 
in 1807, the "Allen." Capt. John 
Burnham had the "Camilla," and 
afterward the ship, "Hope." In 1792 
he was captured by Algerian pirates 
of the African coast while probably 
on an errand similar to that of the 
brig, "Commerce." He became a 
slave to the Dey of Algiers, and, after 

undergoing great hardships, he and 
his crew were ransomed by the United 
States for a large amount. Captain 
Mitchell had the sloop, "Fox," and 
Captain Montague commanded the 
privateer, "Joel Barlow." While 
Captain Montague had command of 
the sloop, "Ralph," owned by his wife 
and John Francis, he was captured by 
the French in 1800 and taken a pris- 
oner to France. Capt. James Pettes 
had the sloop, "Farmer," and Capt. 
Justus Riley the schooner, "Return," 
and sloops, "Geneva" and "Phoenix." 
He also was owner in many other ves- 
sels built in Rocky Hill and in trade 
between there and other ports. Capt. 
Frank Robbins owned the schooner, 
"Friendship," in foreign trade. Capt. 
Richard Price was master of the 
sloops, "Charlotte," "Ursula," "Pru- 
dence," and schooner, "Ann," at dif- 
ferent times between 1799 and 1809. 
These vessels were owned mostly by 
Oliver and Brazilla Goodrich and 
Hosea Bulkley of Rocky Hill. 

Capt. Justus Riley was one of the 
most noted mariners of Rocky Hill, as 
well as a large ship owner. He was 
associated with Capt. Barnabas Dean, 
John Wright and William Griswold 
in the general export trade. They 
owned the brig, "Eliza," and schooner, 
"Return," which was captured in 
1799; also the brig, "Martha," and 
brig, "Patty," which was captured in 
1796, and taken to Gaudaloupe, con- 
fiscated and sold. They also owned 
the sloop, "Geneva," schooner, 
"Mars," brigs, "Betsey" and "Ed- 
ward," sloop, "Dove," sloop, "Susan 
and Nancy," schooner, "Triton," 
brigs, "Peggy" and "Perseverance," 
brig, "Martha," and were owners in 
the sloop, "Stepney," and brig, "Gov- 
ernor Griswold." 

Jason Robbins was owner of the 
sloop, "Elmira," captured by the 
French in 1788. Justus Robbins was 
master and part owner of the "Julia," 
and Wait Robbins master and part 
owner of the schooner, "Farmer," in 
foreign trade in 1804. An old 


schooner of this name, believed to be 
the same vessel, was sailing from a 
Long Island port as late as 1893, and 
came up the river to Hartford with a 
load of sand. On the return trip the 
little daughter of the captain, who 
was with him, fell overboard near the 
Narrows below Middletown. Her 
father jumped to her rescue and both 
were drowned. Capt. Ashabel Rob- 
inson, who resided at Dividend, was 
at different times master of the sloops, 
''Leader," "Falcon," "Flash" and 
"Pearl." Captain George Stilliman 
commanded the brig, "Martha," which 
was built at Rocky Hill, and sailed be- 
tween the river ports and Lisbon. 
Capt. John Webb was master of the 
"Recovery," which also ran to Lisbon. 
Capt. Thomas Wells owned the 
schooner, "Lady Washington," and 
Simon Wells owned the "Lydia." 
Capt. John Williams had five or six 
vessels at a time employed in the West 
Indian trade, and many others of this 
name were owners or masters of ves- 
sels built in Rocky Hill. Capt. Sam- 
uel Stillman was one of the most skil- 
ful navigators of his day, and has to 
his record the then unparalleled feat 
of making three trips to Jamaica in 
one year. 

First American Ship to Sail 
to South America 

Capt. Humphrey Woodhouse, with 
Governor Wolcott, built the ship, 
"Gull," said to have been the first 
American ship which went to 
South America. The large sloops, 
"Charles," "Paragon," and "Han- 
nah," were built by Mr. Charles Wil- 
liams in 1800, and in the winter of 
1817-18 he built the forty-ton sloop, 
"Independence," in the highway near 
the present residence of Mr. Samuel 
Dimock, and in the spring drew it to 
the river bank on wheels. 

Hezekiah Whitmore built the 
schooner, "Friendship," at Rocky Hill 
in 1804, and the ship, "Brutus," in 
1806. William Williams built the 
schooner, "Mary Rose," at Rocky 

Hill in the early part of 1800, and 
John Williams, with Philo Goodrich, 
owned a large number of vessels in 
the years from 1778 to 18 12. The 
only record we find of any one in that 
part of Wethersfield, now known as 
Newington, as master or owner, is 
Josiah Williard, who owned the sloop, 
"Defiance," in 1801. 

In 1782 the privateer, "General 
Green," was captured by the British 
off Block Island. She was evidently 
largely manned from this vicinity, for 
we find the following Rocky Hill men 
among her crew, who were taken to 
New York as prisoners and died 
there, viz. : James White, Daniel 
March, Burrage Bulkley, William 
Meldrum, Hezekiah Blinn and his 
son, Jerah, William Curtis, Benjamin 
Wright, John Burns and Roger Price. 

While the brig, "Nancy," was un- 
der command of Capt. Ashabel Riley, 
she was captured by two British pri- 
vateers while in the West Indies, and 
a prize crew put on board. A few 
days later Captain Riley seized the 
arms, recaptured the ship and took 
her into Charleston. The "Nancy" 
was lost in Long Island sound in 1794 
while on a return voyage from Ja- 

Early River Vessels Lost 
or Captured at Sea 

The following vessels built or 
owned in Wethersfield and Rocky 
Hill and commanded by masters from 
those places, were, at various times, 
captured or lost at sea. The schooner, 
"William," under Capt. Belden 
Boardman sailed from New York in 
1799 for Spain and was never after- 
ward heard from. The schooner, 
"Ann," Capt. Richard Bunce, was 
seized by a British brig in the West 
Indies and sent to Antigua as a prize 
in November, 1804. The ship. 
"Hope," was captured by Algerian 
pirates in 1792 while under command 
of Capt. John Burnham. The sloop, 
"Marcus," Captain Crane, was burned 
by the British in 181 2. The ship, 


''Mary," Captain Curtis, was taken by 
the French in 1798. In 1827 the 
sloop, "Eliza," was wrecked in Long 
Island sound and all on board were 
lost. Brig "Scotland" was lost at 
sea. The ship, "J. L. Forbes," Capt. 
J. N. Francis, was lost at sea by col- 
lision with another vessel. The ship, 
"Chance," Capt. Ichabod Goodrich, 
was captured by the French and taken 
to Guadaloupe in 1799. In 1800 the 
sloop, "Ralph," was taken and confis- 
cated by the French on the high seas. 
Brig, "Nancy," was taken by the Brit- 
ish in 1793 and recaptured. Brig, 
"Patty," captured by the French in 
1796, was confiscated and sold. Brig, 
"Commerce," was wrecked on coast 
of Africa. Capt. Archibald was 
twice captured by the British in 18 12- 
13. Brig, "Celia," was captured off 
Block Island for an attempt to run the 
blockade in the war between France 
and England, 1808. 

Sloop, "Industry," Capt. Allen 
Stillman, was captured by the French 
in 1800 and sent to Gaudaloupe. Capt. 
John Williams lost five vessels and 
their cargoes in 1812-13. Ship 
"Venus," wrecked off Block Island, 
was owned by Capt. Humphrey 
Woodhouse. Sloop, "Friendship," 
Capt. Jacob Williams, was captured 
by the British and taken to New Lon- 
don and burned in 1781. A 
schooner of the same name was 
built by Hezekiah Williams in 1805, 
Capt. Thomas Webb, master, and was 
owned by eleven Rocky Hill men. 

5hip=Masters Who Lost 
Their Lives on Voyages 

As showing the large number of 
men following the sea from this little 
river port, it is said that about this 
time, 18 1 2, twenty-two men from 
Rocky Hill were lost, or died at sea in 
one year. A few, of whom we have 
record, are as follows : 

"Mr. George Benton, Sr., died at 
Martinique, West Indies, 1794." 

"Capt. George Blinn died at Cape 
St. Nicholas Mole, 1796." 

"William Blinn died at sea." 

"Capt. James Blinn died in the 

"Butler Boardman died at sea." 

"Samuel Boardman died at sea, age 

"Samuel Boardman, captain, lost at 
sea, with all on board, in schooner 

"Henry Buck died at Port au 
Prince, San Domingo, 18 15." 

"Francis Bulkeley died at sea on 
brig, 'Regent,' off Cape Trafalgar, 

"Oliver Bulkeley died at sea 1776." 

"Francis Bulkeley died on brig, 
brig, 'Ontario,' in 1802." 

"William Bulkeley, son, died on 
brig, 'Ontario,' in 1802." 

"Peter Bulkeley lost at sea." 

"Simon Bulkeley died in the West 

"Two William Bulkeleys, probably 
father and son, washed overboard and 
drowned July 2^, 1778." 

"Capt. John N. Chester lost at sea." 

"Capt. Joseph Deming died on pas- 
sage from Savannah, 1805." 

"William Dickinson lost at sea, age 

i 9 ." 

"Capt. Joseph Dimock drowned at 

"Moses Dimock (son of above), 
lost at sea." 

"William Dimock (son of Joseph), 
lost at sea." 

"Capt. John N. Francis died of yel- 
low fever at Panama and buried at 

"Gideon Goff lost at sea, age 26." 

"Allen Wright Goodrich died at 
Martinico, West Indies, age 17." 

"Elizur Goodrich lost at sea, age 

"George Goodrich died at sea and 
buried at Launce Vaux, San Do- 

"Henry Goodrich died on a pas- 
sage to the West Indies and buried at 

"Thomas Goodrich lost at sea from 
the brig, 'John Marshall.' ' 


"Israel Goodrich died and buried at 
Martinique, age 29." 

"Nathan Grimes buried at Launce 
Vaux, San Domingo, 1796, age 22." 

"Samuel Grimes died at Point au 
Pitre, 1794, age 17." 

"Capt. William Grimes, of the brig, 
'Roland,' captain, vessel and crew 
lost at sea.'" 

"Capt. Harry M. Griswold died at 

"Capt. Joshua Kilbourn died at 
New Orleans." 

"Hezekiah Kilbourn died at sea." 

"Capt. James Mitchell and his 
brother, Stephen, drowned at sea on 
return passage from West Indies." 

"Capt. Josiah Wright lost at 
sea while returning from the West 

"Royal Rhoades lost at sea from 
the ship, 'Waverly.' " 

"Capt. Otis Stillman lost at sea in 
the brig, 'Hope.' " 

"Charles Stillman lost at sea in the 
brig, 'Hope.' " 

"Ebenezer Talcott lost at sea in 


"Josiah Talcott drowned in the 

"John Talcott lost near Saybrook 
while returning from West Indies." 

"Capt. John Talcott died at Prov- 
incetown while returning from Cape 

"James Treat buried at Galveston." 

"John H. Treat died at sea, age 

"Capt. William Warner lost at sea." 

"Daniel Warner died on passage 
from West Indies, 1817, age 19." 

"Joseph Waterbury, Jr., died at sea, 
age 30." 

"Simeon Waterbury died at Ja- 
maica, age 21." 

"William Waterbury died at Gua- 
daloupe, age 21." 

"Capt. David Webb died of small- 
pox at sea." 

"Gideon Welles died at sea on re- 
turn voyage from Port au Prince, 
West Indies." 

"Capt. John Williams in the war of 
1812 lost five vessels and their cargoes 
and died at sea, age 65." 

"Moses Williams died in Port an 

"Levi Woodhouse died in Jamaica, 
age 21." 

"James Woodhouse died at sea, age 


"Joseph Woodhouse drowned at 
sea, age 28." 

"Capt. Solomon Woodhouse lost 
off Cape Hatteras." 

"George Woodhouse lost at sea, 
age 25." 

Capt. John Price was sailing the 
schooner, "Sea Flower," from Rocky 
Hill to North Carolina as early as 
1772, and, in 1804, Capt. Jonathan 
Price advertized for sale "the sloop, 
'Eliza,' seventy-seven tons burthen, 
apply to Capt. Roswell Hollister, 
Glastonbury, or Capt. Jonathan Price 
at Rocky Hill." 

This is but a brief summary of the 
departed glories of Connecticut river 
commerce as carried on from the little 
ports of Stepney and Wethersfield in 
"ye olden time." These old mariners 
crossed the seas to all parts of the 
globe, and, like Caesar, "looked for 
other worlds to conquer." Their 
ships and their bones are, many of 
them, scattered over the bottoms of 
the oceans, or sleep in forgotten and 
unmarked graves in foreign lands. 
Their heroism and their daring lives 
were, for a time, pages of history, but 
the glory and the riches which they 
brought to their home ports are no 
more, and the very memory of their 
deeds will soon be forgotten. 

" In spite of rock and tempest's roar, 
In spite of false lights on the shore, 
Sail on, nor fear to breast the sea — 
Our hearts, our hopes, are all with thee." 



Accurate Transcript from the Original which is one of the oldest in this country 

1GIVE to my eldest daughter, Sarah Lane, the bigest brass pan, 
and to her daughter Mary, a silver spoone. And to her daughter 
Sarah, the bigest pewter dish and one silken riben. Likewise I 
give to her daughter Mary, a pewter candlesticke. 

I give to my daughter Mary Lawrence, my blew mohere peticote 
and my straw hatt and a fether boulster. And to her eldest sonne I 
give a silver spoone. To her second sonne a silver whissle. I give 
more to my daughter Mary, my next brasst pann and a thrum cushion. 
And to her youngest sonne I give a pewter bassen. 

I give to my youngest daughter, Elizabeth Weekes, a peece of red broad 
cloth, being about two yards, alsoe a damask livery cloth, a gold ring, 
a silver spoone, a fether bed and a boulster. Alsoe, I give to my 
daughter Elizabeth, my best hatt, my gowne, a brass kettle, and a 
woolen jacket for her husband. Alsoe, I give to my daughter Eliza- 
beth thirty shillings, also a red whittle, 1 a white apron and a new 
white neck-cloth. Alsoe, I give to my three daughters aforesaid, a 
quater part to each of them of the dyaper table cloth an ten shillings 

I give to my sister Migges, a red peticoat, a cloth jacket, a silke 
hud, a quoife, 2 a cross-cloth, and a neck-cloth. 

I give to my cosen Calib Rawlyns ten shillinges. I give to my two 
cosens, Mary and Elizabeth Ffry, each of them five shillinges. 

I give to Mary Barnet a red stuff wascote. 

I give to my daughter, Elizabeth, my great chest. To my daughter- 
Mary, a ciffer 3 and a white neck-cloth. To my sister, Hannah Rawlin, 
my best cross-cloth. To my brother Rawlin a lased band. To my 
two kinswomen, Elizabeth Hubbard and Mary Stievens, five shillinges 
a peece. 

I give to my brother, Migges, his three youngest children, two 
shillings six pence a peece. 

I give to my sonne Thomas, ten shillings, if he doe come home or 
be alive. 

I give to Rebekah Bruen, a pynt pott of pewter, a new petticoate 
and wascote wch she is to spin herself ; alsoe an old byble and a hatt 
wch was my sonn Thomas his hatt. 

I give to my sonne Gabriell, my house, land, cattle and swine, with 
all other goodes reall and psonall in Pequet or any other place, and 
doe make him my sole executor to this my will. Witness my hand. 

Witness hereunto, 
John Winthrop, The mark of o Mary Harries. 

Abadiah Bruen, 
Willm Nyccolls. 4 

1. A kind of short cloak. 

2. A cap. 

3. Some kind of cap or head-dress. Quoif and ciffer are from the French coiffe 
and coijfure. 

4. New London Records. 






For several years Mr. Eno has been recording the results of his indefatigable researches in The Connecticut 
Magazine, and both author and publication have become widely accepted authorities on many subjects connected with 
the early history of America. Joel Nelson Eno by these original investigations has gained an enviable reputation as 
an antiquarian. He was born in Enfield, Connecticut, each of the four lines of his parents tracing to an ancestor who 
fought for American independence in the War of the Revolution. His ancestors were among the early American 
immigrants of the seventeenth century. Mr. Eno was reared in Tolland County; made his way through Brown 
University, from which he was graduated in 1883 with first honors as an essayist. He became a high school principal 
and gave fourteen years to active instruction. In 1897 be was chosen assistant in the library at Columbia University, 
later in the New York Public Library; and about June 1, 1903, to his present duties in the Yale University Library; 
It is as a trained student, teacher and librarian, that Mr. Eno is unusually well prepared to pursue investigations into 
the sources of American history. — Editor 

IN the beginning Connecticut laid 
out her boundaries with an impe- 
rial sweep, and if they stood to- 
day as they were originally 
planned Connecticut would be a New 
World empire, stretching across the 
continent, from the Atlantic to the 

There is a commercial as well as 
historical interest to the story of Con- 
necticut's real estate manipulations, 
her changes and exchanges of terri- 

When the first settlers from Old 
England settled on the coast of New 
England, the rich valley of the Con- 
necticut was inhabited by a few small 
tribes of Indians, who, according to 
their tradition, had retreated from the 
northwest for fear of the terrible Mo- 
hawks of the valleys of the Mohawk 
river and the upper Hudson. Arriving 
near the Connecticut river they found 
themselves and their very existence 

threatened by the scarcely less terrible 
Pequots southeast, and, in peril of be- 
ing crushed as between the upper and 
the nether millstone, the news of the 
arrival of a large tribe of people of a 
different race and color in eastern 
Massachusetts was the hope-signal for 
alliance. Hence, these river Indians 
in 163 1 sent ambassadors with offers 
of land for settlement and an addi- 
tional inducement in beaver skins to 
both the Plymouth and Bay colonies. 
Plymouth was first to investigate, but 
being a small and slow-growing col- 
ony, it was rather with a view to trade 
than to settlement. It built a trading 
house at Windsor, October, 1633, but 
the rapid immigration to the Bay col- 
ony caused three of the principal 
towns to think of swarming, viz. : 
Dorchester, Watertown, and New- 
town, later called Cambridge. The 
Watertown swarm made a beginning 
in 1634, and, according to the regular 



custom of New Englanders, made a 
formal purchase. George Hubbard, 
one of the original surveyors of the 
tract, when the record was not found, 
"testifyeth upon oath Wethersfield 
men gave so much unto Sowheag as 
was to his satisfaction for all that 
plantation lying on both sides of the 
great river, with the Island, viz. : six 
miles in width on both sides the river, 
six miles deep from the river west- 
ward, and three miles deep from the 
river eastward." Public Lands of 
Connecticut, page 5. The Dorchester 
swarm in like manner : "The whole 
of Ancient Windsor was honestly 
bought and even rebought by our an- 
cestors of the native proprietors for a 
valuable consideration." Stiles, An- 
cient Windsor, volume 1, page 123. 
The Newtown swarm bought Hart- 
ford of the Suckiangs in 1635-36. 
Following close upon this last pur- 
chase, William Pynchon, invited by 
the small tribe of Indians at Agawam 
to settlement, bought three tracts in 
the Connecticut valley, not far north 
of Windsor, for "18 fathoms wam- 
pums, 18 coats, 18 hatchets, 18 hoes 
and 18 knives," of "Commucke and 
Matanchan for and in the name of all 
the other Indians," as states the deed 
given 15th July, 1636, the Indians to 
have all land already planted and lib- 
erty to take fish, deer and nuts, and to 
receive pay for damages by cattle. 
Pynchon and his son, John, extended 
their purchases afterward, being the 
land kings, as it were, of their day. 

All these Connecticut valley settlers 
were equally of Massachusetts origin, 
yet found themselves isolated by more 
than a hundred miles of almost track- 
less wilderness from the Bay colony. 
The three lower towns soon found 
that they had gotten themselves into a 
perilous situation, for from the In- 
dian, and especially the Pequot point 
of view, they were indiscriminately 
lumped as one with the river tribes, 
and equally with them an object of ex- 
termination. Some thirty white peo- 
ple had, within a short time, been 

treacherously killed along the Con- 
necticut river by the Pequots and their 
Saybrook tributaries, and though the 
three towns sent to the Bay for help, 
the danger was so imminent and trav- 
eling so difficult and slow that they 
dared not wait, but must make a des- 
perate reliance upon their own re- 
sources. Ninety persons able to carry 
a gun were found ; seventy-seven took 
part in the fight May, 1637. The suc- 
cess of their desperate attempt and 
forlorn hope, against more than ten 
times their number, before the arrival 
of Massachusetts' help, gave them a 
feeling of strength and independence, 
the outcome of which was the separate 
Connecticut colony. Though there 
were closer natural relations between 
the upper and lower towns than with 
the distant Bay colony, the Springfield 
settlement leaned toward the protec- 
tion, and were willing, in 1641, to 
accept the jurisdiction of Massachu- 
setts. The territory between the two 
head centers became a source of dis- 
pute as to jurisdiction between Mas- 
sachusetts and Connecticut, which, in 
1713, the former attempted to settle on 
a basis of equivalent amounts, agree- 
ing to give 105,793 acres of unim- 
proved land in her jurisdiction in re- 
turn for the privilege of jurisdiction 
over an equal amount over the Con- 
necticut border. These two tracts 
were called the "Equivalent Lands." 
The original disputed lands were : 


Woodstock, .... 




A part of Springfield, east of 

Connecticut river, 


A part of Springfield, west of 

Connecticut river, 




Westfield, .... 


Governor Dudley's lands, 


William Dudley's lands, . 

2, coo 

William Stoughton's lands, 


Robert Thompson's lands, 


Col. William Whiting's lands, . 


% Sir Richard Saltonstall's lands 

in Enfield, .... 

1,000 . 

Other lands, .... 


Total, .... 



The chief occasion of the dispute 
was the construction which Massachu- 
setts put upon her southern boundary 
point, which her charter stated was to 
be drawn three miles south of Charles 
river. In 1642, Massachusetts or- 
dered a southern boundary line to be 
surveyed by Nathaniel Woodward and 
Solomon Saffery. They started three 
miles south of the southernmost point 
of Charles river, and to avoid the trou- 
blesome and tedious perambulation 
along the whole line through the wil- 
derness they sailed around Cape Cod 
and up the Connecticut river to a place 
they supposed to be in the same lati- 
tude as their starting point, but, in 
fact, seven or eight miles south of it. 
Connecticut protested and Massachu- 
setts proposed that the north line of 
Windsor should reach the falls within 
forty rods of the great island, thence 
east four miles, then south to the line 
of 1642. 

The 105,793 acres unimproved land 
in Massachusetts included Belcher- 
town, Pelham, part of Enfield, run- 
ning thence north to New Hampshire 
bounds, and 10,000 acres now the 
western half of Ware. At an auction 
held at Hartford, April 24th and 25th, 
1 7 16, the whole tract of Equivalent 
Lands was bid off by William Pitkin 
in behalf of several persons, mostly 
residents of Massachusetts, for £683. 
The deed is in Connecticut Colonial 
Records, Deeds, volume 3, pages 
194-9. The proceeds of this sale gave 
great dissatisfaction to the General 
Court of Connecticut, "Journal of 
Assembly, and Colonial Bounds, vol- 
ume 3," and were voted to Yale Col- 

The purchasers were : Gurdon Sal- 
tonstall of New London, and his wife, 
Mary ( Samuel Appleton and Adding- 
ton Davenport being feoffees in trust 
for her) ; Paul Dudley, Addington 
Davenport, Thomas Fitch, Anthony 
Stoddar, Ebenezer Pemberton, Jona- 
than Belcher, John White, William 
Clark, John Wainwright and William 
Dummer for his brother Jeremiah, all 

of Boston; William Brattle of Cam- 
bridge; Henry Newman and John 
Caswall of London; Nathan Gold of 
Fairfield County ^'Connecticut, for him- 
self and Peter Burr, and John Read, 
who bought out Gold and Burr in 
1716-17; John Stoddard of North- 
ampton, Massachusetts, for himself 
and Elisha Williams of Wethersfield, 
Connecticut, sixteen equal shares. 
The deed is recorded in the office of 
the secretary of state, Hartford, dated 
June 29, 17 16. 

John Read sold his purchase to a 
Massachusetts purchaser, and thus the 
equivalent tract became again, after a 
few years, a part of Massachusetts. 
The north line of Connecticut west 
from Connecticut river to New York 
line was settled by the commissioners 
of Massachusetts and Connecticut in 
1717. In 1724, Enfield and Suffield 
asked to be brought under Connecti- 
cut. In 1732, Massachusetts, and in 
1733, Connecticut, appointed a com- 
mittee to perambulate the boundary, 
and in 1734 the commissioners made 
report. In 1739 it was found that the 
northwest corner of Woodstock was 
eighty-seven rods east of the course 
made in 1734, and forty-four rods 
south of the colony line. Woodstock 
asked to be admitted within the patent 
of Connecticut, March 31, 1747, and 
in 1749 Connecticut voted to receive 
the town after the attorney-general 
and William Smith and Richard 
Nichols had sent a written opinion 
from New York that Massachusetts 
and Connecticut had the power of de- 
termining the right to lands, but could 
not change the limits of government 
without the consent of the Crown, and 
therefore, the strip south of the line 
belonged to Connecticut. A commit- 
tee appointed by Massachusetts and 
Connecticut, April 4, 1752, reported 
the Woodward and Saffery line seven 
miles and fifty-six rods, instead of 
three miles, south of the southernmost 
point of Charles river; this report, 
with a survey made by the two colo- 
nies, was sent to England 1753-54- 



Connecticut continued to govern En- 
field, Sufneld and Woodstock, though 
Massachusetts, until 1768, still claimed 
she had not given up her jurisdiction 
over them. The north part of Wood- 
stock, as fixed in 1713, called, for 
forty-five years, "Middlesex Gore," 
was left to Massachusetts, and in 1794 
annexed to Dudley and Sturbridge. In 
1793 the boundary from Southwick, 
Sandisfield and New Marlborough, 
westward to the New York line, was 
agreed upon, except two and a half 
miles square in Southwick, which 
Massachusetts thought she should 
have in return for the land she had 
lost in Enfield, Sufiield and Wood- 
stock. By a compromise, Massachu- 
setts held west of Southwick pond the 
indentation which still appears in the 
north line of Connecticut, which was 
wholly settled in 1822, except the gore 
in Union, which was corrected in 

Bowen, in his "Boundary Disputes 
of Connecticut," page 64, says : "Con- 
necticut has been blamed for taking 
back the towns for which Massachu- 
setts had paid her. But as Massachu- 
setts had settled the towns when she 
had no right to do so, according to her 
charter, it was right that she should 
pay Connecticut for the advantages 
accruing to her from such settlement, 
and right for Connecticut now to as- 
sume jurisdiction over the towns, for 
they had always strictly belonged to 
Connecticut." It seems to us that 
Connecticut, having given up jurisdic- 
tion by an agreement, should have re- 
taken it only by an agreement, and 
that the trouble farther back was in 
the "Unequivalent Lands" in Massa- 
chusetts, whose market value proved 
to be only £683, which sum may be 
taken as a gauge of the real claim of 
Massachusetts in Connecticut, but was 
only a mere fraction of the value of 
the towns she received in Connecticut. 

On the eastern side of Connecticut, 
Massachusetts laid claim in 1644 to a 
part of the Pequot country in return 
for her assistance in the Pequot War. 

In 1649, William Cheseborough, un- 
der permission from Massachusetts, 
settled between the Mystic and Paw- 
catuck rivers. In 1650, Captain 
Atherton, on the ground of Massa- 
chusetts' claim, demanded payment of 
tribute of wampum of the Narragan- 
sett Indians. The claim was not valid, 
as the Narragansett country was out- 
side of the charter of Massachusetts 
and included in the first charter of 
Rhode Island. An agreement was 
made in 1658 between Massachusetts 
and Connecticut, that Massachusetts 
should hold east of the Mystic river as 
the boundary, and Connecticut, west 
of it. Southerton, later called Ston- 
ington, was thus a Massachusetts 
town. In 1665, Mystic and Stoning- 
ton were seized by the king and called 
King's Province, and the Pawcatuck 
river was declared the boundary be- 
tween Massachusetts and Connecticut, 
yet the charter of Connecticut ex- 
plicitly gave her territory to Narra- 
gansett Bay. In 1663, Connecticut 
named Narragansett, Wickf ord, which 
town, in 1663, claimed the jurisdiction 
of Connecticut. In 1668, Wickford 
and Stonington applied to Connecticut 
for help against Rhode Island. In 
1703 commissioners for Connecticut 
and Rhode Island agreed that the 
Pawcatuck river up to the mouth of 
the Ashaway, thence north in a 
straight line to the southwest corner 
of the Warwick purchase, thence due 
north to the Massachusetts line, should 
be the boundary. After sixty-five 
years' dispute the line was settled Sep- 
tember 27, 1728. Starting from the 
southwest corner of Warwick, north 
seven degrees, east twenty-three miles 
and ten rods to Massachusetts' line ; 
and south from said corner eleven de- 
grees twenty minutes, west fifteen 
miles ninety'rods to the junction of the 
Ashaway and Pawcatuck rivers, then 
down the Pawcatuck to its mouth, the 
landmarks being a rock at the junction 
of the Ashaway and Pawcatuck 
straight north to a stone heap at the 
southeast corner of Voluntown, thence 



































by a stone heap at the southwest cor- 
ner of West Greenwich straight to the 
southwest corner of ancient Warwick 
(now Coventry), thence straight to 
the northwest corner of the same ; to 
the northeast corner of Sterling, 
thence to southwest corner of Glouces- 
ter, thence to southeast corner of 
Thompson and southwest of Burrill- 
ville, thence to a stone heap in the line 
between Massachusetts and Rhode 

On the south side of Connecticut, 
Long Island, from the center eastward, 
had been settled by English, under 
patent of the Earl of Stirling, which 
passed to the Duke of York in 1640; 
Southampton, in 1644; Easthampton, 
1657; Brookhaven, 1659; Hunting- 
ton, 1660; Oyster Bay, 1662. Being 
troubled by the Dutch and Indians, the 
English 'settlers sought the jurisdic- 
tion of Connecticut. By the Dutch 
treaty of 1650 the old Connecticut line 
on Long Island was the present 
boundary between Queens and Suffolk 
counties. When the charter was 
granted, most of this tract renewed 
allegiance to Connecticut and sent 
deputies to Hartford. In 1664 all 
Long Island was claimed by Connecti- 
cut and officers were appointed at 
Hempstead, Jamaica, Newtown, Oys- 
ter Bay, Flushing and the other 
towns at the western extremity of the 
island. But in that year the Duke of 
York was accepted governor of New 
York, and laid claim to the entire 
island. Though Connecticut had the 
undoubted right to Long Island, and 
should have held it till this day, she 
was forced to forego all claims to it 
that she might hold her other posses- 
sions which the royal Duke was like- 
wise threatening. Ten years later 
Long Island asked to become part of 
Connecticut, but, in 1675, York's 
forces recaptured New York and took 
possession of Long Island, including 
both permanently under one govern- 
ment, after two years' resumption of 
Dutch rule, 1673-75. 

On the west side of Connecticut: 

Rye was settled by the English in 1652 
under Dutch rule. In 1662 it was 
claimed by Connecticut, and from 
1665 to 1683 was a Connecticut plan- 
tation. The original general bound- 
ary of New York was, at the first set- 
tlement of Connecticut, unsettled, but 
a little later understood as limited by a 
line twenty miles east of the Hudson. 
November 28, 1683, an agreement was 
made between New York and Con- 
necticut that Byram river between 
Rye and Greenwich be the southern 
starting point of the west boundary of 
Connecticut, bearing eight miles 
north, northwest from the wading 
place ; thence twelve miles eastward 
parallel to the Sound ; thence in a line 
parallel to the Hudson and twenty 
miles east of it. Connecticut lost Rye, 
and New York yielded all claim to 
Greenwich, Stamford, Darien, New 
Canaan, Norwalk and Wilton, in re- 
turn for a strip one and three-quar- 
ter miles wide by twenty miles long, 
northward along: the side of Connecti- 
cut, called the Oblong or Equivalent 
Tract, estimated at 61,440 acres. 1697 
to 1702, Rye was under the protec- 
tion of Connecticut. In 1719, New 
York, and in 1720, Connecticut ap- 
pointed commissioners to survey the 
boundary line. In 1725 the survey 
was begun, but dropped, and resumed 
1 73 1. In 1855, the old boundary 
marks being obliterated, a straight line 
was run forty-two rods wide at its 
westernmost deviation from the old 
line, adding 2,600 acres to Connecti- 
cut. New York was dissatisfied and 
made a resurvey in 1859, alone. In 
1878-79, Connecticut accepted the old 
line of 1 73 1 and exchanged the dis- 
puted 2,600 acres for a strip on the 
Sound, beginning 600 feet south of 
Byram Point, thence southeast three 
and one quarter miles, thence north- 
east straight to a point four miles 
south of New London lighthouse, 
thence through Fisher's Island Sound 
to the end of the New York line. The 
two legislatures ratified this agree- 
ment in the session of 1880-81. 


Fisher's Island, 1644 and after, was 
in Massachusetts, but in New York 
since 1664. 

Lastly, as the charter of Connecti- 
cut, as of Massachusetts, Virginia and 
the Carolinas, granted westward to 
the South sea (Pacific ocean), Con- 
necticut claimed westward, but, 
balked by the conflicting grant and 
nossessions of New York from juris- 
diction there, formed a settlement un- 
der the auspices of the Susquehanna 
Company, in Wyoming Valley, Penn- 

This settlement was incorporated as 
Westmoreland and annexed to Litch- 
field county. After the formation of 
the United States, the colonies, which 
held these charter claims transferred 
them to the nation, Connecticut retain- 
ing in Ohio the "Western Reserve," 
which she sold in 1795 for $1,200,000 
which she made a school fund. 

So it is that Connecticut, instead of 
being a New World empire, came to 
be geographically the third smallest 
state in the United States. 



I HAVE here briefly compiled a 
census of the inhabitants of Con- 
necticut when the Red Man was 
in control of the lands and at the 
time when the White Man encroached 
upon his home-land and bartered for 
his acres. 

The only closely settled section of 
Connecticut when the whites came 
was a strip along Long Island Sound. 
In the southeast corner of Connecti- 
cut, now New London county, were 
the Mohegans or Pequots, the largest 
and strongest tribe in Connecticut. 
The larger division, probably about 
900 in number, under Sassacus, lived 
between the eastern Nehantics or Ni- 
antics of Westerly and Charlestown, 
Rhode Island, and the western Nian- 
tics, whose olace and name survive in 
Niantic and Niantic river. In the 
Pequot War, whose immediate cause 
was the picking off of about thirty 
settlers in the little new colony 
of English at Windsor, Wethersfield 
and Hartford, seventy-seven Connect- 
icut Englishmen attacked the Pequot 
fort at Mystic containing seventy 
wigwams; Indian allies killed those 
who ran out of the fort, with few ex- 
ceptions. The Connecticut captain, 
John Mason, thought 600 or 700 per- 
ished, but Underhill, who also was of 

the attacking party, says 400, and P. 
Vincent, another eye-witness, says 300 
to 400; these two are probably near 
the truth. 

Sassacus, and perhaps half his tribe, 
were at another fort near the Thames 
in Groton ; thirty or forty warriors 
and a large proportion of the women 
and children remained in the vicinity, 
most joining the M,ohegans under Un- 
cas, who had, perhaps, 400 in his 
division; some joined the western Ni- 
antics ; some the Narragansetts ; some 
went to Long Island; there were, in 
1646, two small independent tribes in 
the old haunts, and not long after the 
Pequots, with Uncas, and from else- 
where, joined them, and their holdings 
of land and their chiefs were con- 
firmed by the Connecticut govern- 
ment. Sassacus, with a larger pro- 
portion of warriors, retreated west- 
ward. They were overtaken by a 
band of Massachusetts and Connecti- 
cut militia at Fairfield, where many 
were killed and 180 taken pr ; soners 
and sent back to the Mohegan country, 
Sassacus and a band of his bravest 
warriors escaping to the Mohawks. 
About two hundred men, besides 
women and children, remained of the 
Pequots in eastern Connecticut. In 
1 71 3, there were about 150, and in 


1774, 186, but, in 1832, all but forty 
had scattered or died. In 1849, there 
were 125 Mohegans ; about sixty were 
on the reservation, 2,300 acres ; some 
in Norwich and Griswold ; some in 
Western Connecticut, in Massachu- 
setts, in Oneida county, New York, 
and in Green Bay, Wisconsin. 

Of the western Niantics, living in 
Lyme, 1672, there were thirty families 
in 1734. In 1736 a school was estab- 
lished among them and six or seven 
years later thirteen joined the church 
at Lyme. In 1774 there were 104 in 
Lyme. In 1783 there were sixteen 
families, all but one family living in 
houses. Afterward many joined the 
Six Nations and settled in Oneida 
county, New York. 

The Hammonnassetts across the 
Connecticut west of the Niantics, and 
the Quinnipiacs, from Branford to 
New Haven, were few in number. 
Montewese, whose tribe had ten war- 
riors, lived north of New Haven. 

The Wepawaugs or Paugussets 
lived between the Quinnipiac and 
Housatonic rivers. In 17 10 there 
were about twenty-five families, but 
about 1 73 1 they left their chief seats 
in Huntington and on Golden Hill, 

Bridgeport, part joining the Patatucks 
of Newtown and Woodbury. A 
small tribe of Unkawas was near Nor- 
walk; Mahackemo's tribe was next 
west and the Ponus or Wascussup 
sachems in Greenwich. 

Starting in northeast Connecticut, 
Tolland and Windham counties had a 
few clans of Nipmucks, whose chief 
seats were in Massachusetts. The 
Quinebaugs of Plainfield and Killingly 
were the most numerous group. In 
1774 these two counties had 142 
Indians, nearly all in Windham 
county. On the Connecticut river the 
Wangunks or Wangums from Had- 
dam to South Windsor ; their last seat 
was at Chatham ; the Podunks at East 
Hartford and East Windsor ; the Po- 
quonnocs, between Hartford and 
Springfield ; the Suckiangs at Hart- 
ford, were small tribes. A few Nau- 
gatucks were near Naugatuck. The 
Wangunks in 1764 were thirty to 
forty in number. The Scatacooks 
from Derby to Kent, afterward in 
Newtown and New Milford, at last 
moved to Pennsylvania. The Tunxis 
Indians of Farmington and Simsbury 
had perhaps 300 to 400. Litchfield 
county had almost no Indians till they 
moved from eastern tribes. 


Year B. C. Killed 

31 Actium, Judea 10,000 

A. D. 

526 Antioch, Asia Minor 250,000 

557 Constantinople 100,000 

587 Antioch 30,000 

1137 Catania, Sicily 15,000 

1158 Syria 20,000 

1268 Cilicia _ 20,000 

1527 Fromondi, Italy (great loss of life) 

1571 Magio (entirely destroyed) 

1679 Travagini (destroyed) 

1692 Port Royal, Jamaica (city sunk be- 
neath waves) 

1703 Yeddo, Japan 190,000 

1726 Palermo.. . 6,ooo 

1731 Canton, China.-l 100 000 

1746 Lima, Peru 40,000 

1755 Kuchan, Persia 40,000 

1755 Lisbon (property loss $100,000,000)... 60,000 

1783 Calabria 100 000 

*797 Quito, Ecuador 41,000 

A. D. 


1858 ' 



Mississippi Delta (large area sub- 

Aleppo, Turkey... 22,000 

Canton, China 6,000 

Calabria — 10,000 

Mexico (city water works destroyed) 

Mendoza, Argentina 12,000 

Manila 3.000 

Krakatoe, Java (submerged) 50,000 

Isle of Ischia (submerged) 2,000 

Charleston, South Carolina (property 

damage $6,000,000) 50 

Bandaisan 1,000 

Island Hondo, Japan 12,000 

Venezuela 3,000 

Tuscarora, Japan ... 30,000 

Guatemala 3,000 

Southern Italy (score of villages 

San Francisco; California 428 

Valparaiso, Chile (property damage 
estimated about $150,000,000) 




Coy and dusky little maid, 
"Stolen," may be, " lost or stray'd," 
From the parted summer-tide 
Lingering daily at our side ; 
Scarlet-clad and russet-shod, 
Golden where your feet have trod ; 
With your mild, coquettish ways 
Peeping thro' the purple haze, 
From the wood and misty hill, 
Challenging the blue-bird's trill ! 
Thro' the drowsy afternoon — 
On your lips the breath of June. 
Ah, you rogue, incognito ! 
Just as if we didn't know, 
Truant of the golden days ! 
'Long the old familiar ways, 
Laughing at the drowsy bee 
Waken'd by your sorcery, 
With his love-songs humming over 
Yon late bit of faded clover, — 
(Mean of you to treat him so !) 
Just as if we didn't know 
You are Summer, come again 
Over field and wood and fen ; 

Come into the hearts of men, 
Who, despite those half -veiled eyes 
Quickly pierce the thin disguise 
And enrapt by such rare charms 
Welcome thee with open arms — 
Little witch, with face all smiling — 
Captive to your soft beguiling! 
Song of birds its soul outpouring, 
At thy feet the world adoring. 
Rover from the summer-tide 
Linger with us, long abide ! 
Prove it false, that warning cry 
From yon travelers flying high, 
Trailing down the southward sky. 
We would hold thee, would detain,, 
But alas, 'tis all in vain ! 
Down yon western, fiery slope 
Vanished is our fondest hope — 
When the golden finger tips 
From your roguish, ruddy lips, 
Coy and fickle Little Miss, 
Fling to us a saucy kiss 
From a windy evening sky 
Bidding all the world — good-bye ! 




So fair a vision of wide hills invites 

Mine eyes, that prison-bound beneath their 

Of changeless beauty I do dream away 
The glory of sweet Summer's days and 

From that high hour when purple morn 

The sleeping mountain mists in white array 
Wreathing the sheltered slopes, and proud 

young day 

Climbs conquering their utmost farthest 

Until the time that noon flings forth glad 

Of sunlight, while the slow and chanting 

Of bluest shadows gather, dim and deep, 
As at a shrine in some cathedral old — 
My heart is awed in wonder of God's ways. 
And all my thoughtsworshipful silence keep. 

Gala Days in Old Dew England « By mnm e Backus 

JOHN FISKE has said that the 
institutions which have contrib- 
uted most to New England's 
greatness are her public 
schools, her town meetings and her 
training days. 

There are not many living now who 
remember those old training days. 
To most of our young people the vil- 
lage green stands as the rallying place 
for picnics, and the popular baseball 
ground. But sixty years or more ago 
these greens rang with the music of 
the fife and drum ; soldiers marched 
and counter-marched, and the whole 
town was in festival attire. 

General training was in September, 
but town training came in the spring. 
As the holiday approached the boys 
and girls used to sing: 

" First Monday in May is Training day 
And nothing could be grander, 

Uncle John is Corporal 
And Daddy is Commander." 

The small boy worked with a will 
and purpose through the last warm 
days of April, for it was an unwritten 
law that unless the boys had finished 
planting corn they could not go to 
"training." Every able-bodied man 
in town between the ages of eighteen 
and forty-five belonged to the Train 
Band. The captain held his hon- 
orary title for life ; under him as offi- 
cers were the first and second lieuten- 
ants, four sergeants and four corpo- 

''Warning" of training day was 
posted weeks before the time. The 
blue uniforms were carefully brushed 
and the brass buttons shined. The 
farm horses were taken up and care- 
fully groomed for the great occasion. 
Training commenced at 1 1 o'clock. 

Early in the morning the soldiers 
started from their homes ; the quiet 
roads were alive with the militia and 
troopers and the three-seated family 
wagons, all bound for the appointed 

One particular general training in 
Connecticut was on old Stratford 
green. Historic Washington bridge 


crossed the Naugatuck river. A toll 
gate closed the further side of the 
bridge. It was well understood that 
no toll was to be collected on Sundays 
or training days, but evidently the 
keeper of the gate decided that this 
was too good an opportunity to lose, 
and he declined to unlock and swing 
open the heavy gate unless the usual 
toll was paid. Then the good old 
Puritan spirit came to the fore, and, 
with few words, but with stern deter- 
mination, the men who had gathered 
on the bridge descended from their 
horses, put shoulders to the gate, and, 
in short order, the gate this time, in- 
stead of the tea, went over into the 
water, and they marched down into 

The green had a festival appear- 
ance ; here and there about the edge 
of the grass were stands with ginger- 
bread and root-beer for sale, and the 
delicious homemade peppermint drops 
which were a feature of the occasion. 
The children had hoarded their pen- 
nies for many a day with a view to the 
purchase of these dainties. All around 
the green were drawn up the wagons 
in which the mothers and little girls 
sat and excitedly watched the pro- 
ceedings. It was a gay sight to see 
the men and horses gather. The mili- 
tia marched in blue continental uni- 
forms, their brass buttons glittering 
in the sun. The troopers were splen- 
did in scarlet and blue, with gilt epau- 
lets ; they wore the pointed hat with 
its long black plume tipped with scar- 
let, and their long swords clanked as 
the horses curveted and pranced over 
the green. 

There was the roll of the drums and 
the music of the fifes ; the marshall- 
ing of the soldiers ; the rush of the 
charge, and the grand dash of the 
sham fight in which nobody was 
killed, but which held for the onlook- 
ers all the pomp and circumstance of 
war. Nobody enjoyed it as much as 
the boys ; the manceuvers of the troops 
were a source of awe and delight as 
they gazed ; their hearts were stirred 



with love for their country, and their 
highest ambition was to be in training 
for the time when she should call "to 
arms !" 

In the afternoon the picnic baskets 
were unpacked and everybody sat 
down together and enjoyed the "riz" 
biscuit, and the luscious slices of 
spare-rib, and the homemade cucum- 
ber pickles, and the special treat of 
"training cake." There were bits of 
news and neighborhood gossip among 
the older people, while the boys traded 
marbles and jack-knives, and the de- 
mure little girls walked sedately 
around the green and exchanged their 
pennies for peppermint drops. 

Once more the militia marched and 
the troopers came into line. At the 
firing of the sunset gun, ranks were 
broken, the great day was over, and 

the soldiers went to their homes cov- 
ered with pride and glory. The even- 
ing of training day was the great time 
for the young people. There were 
"doings" and tea drinkings all through 
the different neighborhoods. They 
were kindly, simple gatherings, just 
for a good time. Games around the 
chimney — "Button, button, who's got 
the button?" — and then the quaint old 
dances, "money musk" and "stony 
point" and "reel o'four." 

The last training day was many 
years ago, but the good times and the 
peppermint drops and the training 
cake are still remembered by some of 
our old New England people. One 
of them said to us a few days ago: 
"Somehow they did seem to have 
more real honest fun in those days 
than. the boys and girls do now." 




AMERICA, it is asserted, began 
her revolution with but ten 
pieces of cannon. It was 
Major-General Richard Grid- 
ley, a distinguished soldier, whose me- 
chanical science and ingenuity made 
possible the first cannon and mortars 
ever cast in this country. 

Gridley was born at Boston in 171 1. 
He acquired a great reputation as an 
artillerist and was chief engineer in 
the reduction of Louisburg in 1745. 
He was engaged in the expedition to 
Crown Point and planned the fortifi- 
cation around Lake George. For his 
services at the capture of Quebec the 
British government gave him Mag- 
dalen Island with half pay, which was 
continued to him during his life. In 
1775, he espoused the Patriot Cause 
with great favor and was appointed 
chief engineer and commander of the 
artillery of the Continental Army. He 
it was who so skillfully laid out the 

w r orks on Bunker Hill the night before 
the battle of June 17, 1775. Though 
then sixty-five years old, he was ex 
posed to the severest fire of the enemy 
during the whole engagement, and late 
in the day was wounded by a musket 
ball in the thigh. His furnace was 
for a long time employed by Congress 
under his direction casting cannon for 
the use of the army. In February, 
1776, he is found at Mashapog Pond 
with a number of men proving some 
mortars which were afterwards placed 
on Dorchester Heights, and a year 
later Congress empowered Robert 
Treat Paine to contract with him for 
forty-eight howitzers to be sent to 

On May 30th, 1877, a monument 
was dedicated to him at Canton, Mas- 

There have at least been two Grid- 
leys whose lives are interwoven with 
their country's history. 





w^m^^^mt^^mmM HENCE art thou, brooklet, running at my feet? 

1 "W Can'st stop a moment, for I fain would greet 

'^ ~'*f I Thee and with queries learn thy history, 

I , Thy source, and whence and why the mystery 

, ' . H Of thy course, thy mission, name and destiny. 

.?r f I; m • 

"til JR& Ah, bold intruder on my own domain, 

Why ask of me to tarry, can I here remain — 
** ' HI Give o'er my mission, flowing- day by day, 

r*,*. V f - Dispensing verdure all along my way? 

^H^ Ne'er have I met with such audacity. 

But if you walk a while along my side, 
PI I whisper as thro' meadows still I glide, 
Or tell thee something in the way of song, 
As o'er the stony path I pass along, 
To answer questions of thy vanity. 

Aye, tell me of the mountain spring afar, 
Where nymphs abide and hamadryads are; 
For these all tell me that there thou wast born, 
For they thy banks with flowers did adorn, 
And danced about with glad felicity. 

0, I bound o' er the rocks, far away, far away, 

And I sprayed maiden locks on my way, day by day, 

For the ferns hung by ?ny side 

As thro' woodlands I would glide, 

And the speckled trout in shadows quiet lay. 

As I came into the sun by the town, by the town, 

There the children had their fun wading round, wading round. 

Sailing tiny little boats, 

Singing tiny little notes, 

Making everybody happy all around. 

And did you meet the Cardinal Eye-bright, 
Reflected on your bosom — beauteous sight ! 
The yellow golden-rod with graceful nod — 
The harbinger of Autumn,— or the sod 
Where grows the maiden-hair with tresses light? 

Yes, 1 7net all these and inore as I ran, as I rati, 

So your questions now give o'er— or a ban, if I can, 

I will put upon your lip 

E'er you take of me a sip 

And in passing will upset your every plan. 

I go my way thro' meadows to the sea, 
And leave a path of verdure, atid decree 
My floral gifts to all beside my banks, 
Where willows wave and nod their grateful thanks 
And herald me to all posterity. 


_ _. 


Nature illustrations along the route of the Central New England from Hartford to Lakeville, Connecticut 

< < 









This series of articles is designed to interest the public-at-large in the great work that is being accomplished 
through the public libraries in this state. They have become the people's university, and as such they deserve the 
devoted interest and appreciation of the populace. The preceding articles in series have been: (i) "The Develop 
ment of the Public Library in Connecticut," by Caroline M. Hewins, secretary of the Connecticut Public Library 
Committee; (2) "The Blackstone Memorial Library at Branford," by Judge Lynde Harrison; (3) "The Institute 
Library in New Britain," by David kelson Camp, M. A.; (4) "The Free Public Library in New Haven," by Willis 
K. Stetson; (5) "The Otis Library at Norwich," by Jonathan Trumbull. The sixth of the series herewith is written 
by Miss Mary M. Miller, who was born in White Stone, Long Island, September 9, 1852, and in 1872 removed to 
Greenwich, Connecticut, where in 1876 she was elected assistant librarian of the Greenwich Reading Room and 
Library Association. When Librarian E. J. Wright resigned in 1878, Miss Miller succeeded to that position, in the 
duties of which she has been actively engaged for nearly twenty-nine years. By temperament Miss Miller is a natura. 
librarian and in speaking of her long service a few days ago, said: "I count it the joy of my life that I have been 
deemed worthy to serve the public in this capacity. My work has been my life, and 1 have found none of its duties 
burdensome, nor any of its hours too long." — Editor 

THE Greenwich Reading Room 
and Library Association hav- 
ing passed its quarter century- 
mark nearly five years ago, 
it seems quite appropriate that it 
should be commemorated in the an- 
nals of our state. 

The Greenwich Reading Room 
and Library Association is the out- 
come of several earlier enterprises in 
the same direction, and of the labors 
of a number of public-spirited mem- 
bers of the community in former 
times. As long ago as the close of 
the last century a small Town Li- 
brary had been collected, and was 
circulated from the house of the late 
Theodore H. Mead, Esq. When in 
course of time the interest in this 
effort died out, and the books were 
scattered among former subscribers, 
Mr. William E. Ferris collected 
them again, and placed them in the 
keeping of the Second Ecclesiastical 
Society. In this custody they re- 
mained until the organization of the 
present Library Association, when 
they were put into its charge and 
now form part of its collection of 
books. Towards the close of his 
ministry in this place the Rev. Joel 
H. Lindsley, D. D., primarily for 
the benefit of the young people of 
his congregation, secured the organ- 
ization of the Young People's Li- 

brary Association of the Second 
Church, and eventually the circula- 
tion of about five hundred well-chosen 
volumes. To this admirable enter- 
prise and to the books which were its 
principal property the present Li- 
brary Association also fell heir; and 
as the natural successor of these two 
earlier efforts in the same field makes 
its claim to a long history in this 

The Reading Room and Library, 
in its present form, owes its origin to 
the desire of a few ladies and gentle- 
men to establish in this place a library 
and free reading room, open to all, 
as a means of general culture. Early 
in the year 1874 an organization was 
effected, a constitution framed, sig- 
natures to the constitution secured, 
and part of the necessary funds 
raised; a number of signatures and a 
fund of two hundred dollars were the 
result of this effort. In the autumn 
of 1877 the matter was taken up 
again, a public meeting called, and 
steps taken for immediate and per- 
manent organization ; the constitu- 
tion previously framed was adopted, 
officers elected, and on the 8th day 
of January, 1877, the reading room 
was opened for public use. 

More than a passing word of notice 
should be given to the first librarian, 
Mr. E. J. Wright, whose deep inter- 



est, and great executive ability, did 
very much toward placing the library 
on a firm basis, and many valuable 
historical works were taken from his 
private library to enrich the one just 
entering upon its career. 

One large room in the center of 
the town in what is now the 
Moshier Building, was selected for 
the library's occupancy. Situated 
on the second floor, it was indeed 
very pleasant, with its six large win- 
dows, and beautiful view far down 
the avenue, and over the sound. 
Seven years later, we moved across 
Servis street into Mr. J H. Ray's 
new building where we had more com- 
modious quarters. Although our 
Association charged a subscription 
fee, the membership was not at any 
time large enough to make it self-sus- 
taining, but the efforts of a noble band 
of men and women in holding lec- 
tures, concerts, entertainments and 
suppers, made it possible to continue 
this work without intermission for 
nearly a score of years. 

Then there came a time when the 
interest of the community being 
diverted into other channels began to 
wane toward the library; until it was 
whispered with bated breath "I very 
much fear we shall be obliged to 
close its doors, at least for a season," 
and the heart of someone (whose 
very life strings this touched) was 
sad ; and night after night, when the 
readers were at dinner, she would 
kneel in one of the little alcoves, and 
pray that such a step might never 
become necessary; and the kind 
Father who has said in His word 
"Before they call I will answer, and 
while they are yet speaking I will 
hear," at this time put the beautiful 
thought into the heart of Mrs. E. M. 
Anderson to build a memorial to her 
father and mother, in the form of a 
Public Library Building. The com- 
mittee had on hand a building fund 
of a few thousand dollars, and this 
together with gifts from friends 
whose interests had become newly 
aroused in its behalf, was used in 
purchasing a lot on Greenwich 

Avenue near Elm Street; and in 
January, 1896, we moved the library 
into its permanent home, which our 
good president said in his dedication 
speech was "far beyond our largest 
thought, or greatest expectation, 
and that we find it difficult to assure 
ourselves, that it was not a delight- 
ful dream, from which we should 
awaken to disappointment." And 
as one unlocks those beautiful doors 
to the public day after day, is it 
strange that she should see inscribed 
above them "God's answer to 

The building is designed on simple 
Grecian lines, but a rich effect is 
given by the wealth of carving about 
the entrance. The basement of 
heavy blocks of light granite, is sur- 
mounted by a high single story of 
white brick, with trimmings of In- 
diana sandstone. The dimensions 
of the exterior are about thirty by 
sixty feet. 

The entrance is approached by 
broad granite steps, the doorway 
being flanked by heavy Doric pillars 
with carved capitals, as well as carv- 
ed ornamental panels on each side. 
Over the doorway are a wreath and 
double cornucopia carved in solid 
stone. The doors are of solid oak, 
richly carved, and ten feet in height. 

The rotunda is twenty feet square 
lighted by two arched windows near 
the ceiling, in the center of each, 
amid delicate green scroll-work, rests 
an open golden book. On the face 
of the large mantel is a granite tab- 
let, and deeply cut in the stone is 
this inscription : 

Greenwich Library 

Erected in Memory of 

Jeremiah and Elizabeth Lake Milbank 

By their Daughter 

Elizabeth Milbank Anderson. 

East of the rotunda is the Direct- 
or's room, which is very bright and 
pleasant, with its furniture of oak, 
and green leather, given by the don- 
or of the building. 

Adjoining this, and opening into 
the librarian's cozy den is the child- 



ren's room. While not so spacious 
as the other apartments, it is never- 
theless very attractive to the little 
tots, with its round table covered 
with story and scrap-books, its walls 
profusely decorated with bird and 
frog - charts, story of the American 
nag, and many other pictures more 
or less instructive and entertaining. 
Opposite the entrance is a life-like 
portrait of the late President McKin- 
ley ; and we have heard them tenderly 
mention his name as they enter the 
room. An amusing instance of the 
appreciation given this part of the 
library, is that of a little boy two 
years old, who, the moment his 
mother brmgs him in, goes directly 
to this room, shaking his little finger 
to silence those who speak aloud to 
him. His favorite book is a large 
one filled with pictures of Santa 
Claus in every land. This he tucked 
under his arm the other evening, and 
started for home, feeling as import- 
ant as his father who had just drawn 
"The Kindred of the Wild." This 
sketch would not be complete if we 
failed to mention the work of the 
young people in holding lawn parties 
year after year, and thereby raising 
large sums of money, with which 
they have purchased the beautiful 
grandfather's clock in the rotunda 
that chimes out the hours so merrily, 
the old fashioned andirons, on which 
the silver maple logs are never per- 
mitted to burn low; the handsome 
rug, and chandelier in the reading 
room, and hundreds of books on our 

The reading room on the south is 
a charming place with its open fire- 
place of white brick, its large double 
windows, and high vaulted ceiling. 
The oak mantel is truly a work of 
art, with its Doric columns and beau- 
tiful carving of scroll work, and 
state and town seal, the latter de- 
signed many years ago by the late 
Judge Myron L. Mason, and repre- 
senting General Putnam's ride down 
the historic steps in 1779 1 >ne fur- 
niture also is of solid oak, given by 
Mrs. Anderson, and on the large 

table in the center of the room, is a 
variety of daily, weekly and monthly 
periodicals for youth and adults. 
Over the mantel is a large oil paint, 
ing, given by a friend of the library, 
and on the east and west sides re- 
spectively, hang the picture of Gen- 
eral Ebenezer Mead, m whose house 
the old "Town Library" was organ- 
ized in 1805, and a tramed copy of 
the JSiew York Morning Post November 
7, 1783, loaned by one of his descen- 
dents, and having this inscription 
underneath, "This paper has on its 
inside pages, Washington's farewell 
address to the army, as it was first 
published in New York." 

The stack room on the north, has 
five alcoves oh each side, seven feet 
deep, and two in the rear, eight feet 
deep; making shelf room for eight 
to ten thousand books. As occasion 
may demand, as much more shelving 
can be built above. 

Sometimes there may enter an 
awkward boy, with downcast eyes, 
trying to avoid the gaze of the 
crowd, and making his way to one 
of the rear alcoves, will find a rich 
supply of miscellaneous reading 
matter. Here are stored back num- 
bers of the Scie7itiftc American, a 
paper sought by nearly every young 
man who frequents the library. 
Here also are the Engineering Mag- 
azine, Success, (Dieting, London News, 
and any stray article that the librar- 
ian thinks would be a help or inspir- 
ation, she is quite sure will be read, 
if placed in a conspicuous place on 
the shelves; for what the old attic 
at home meant to the grandfather's 
and fathers, these rear alcoves mean 
to the boys of today. 

Prominent among the volumes in 
the library, is Guthrie's massive his- 
tory of England, from Edward 2nd 
to Henry 8th; each volume weighing 
seven pounds, and measuring 16^ 
by 1 1 inches and published in Lon- 
don in 1747. 

Among interesting relics are The 
Hartford Courant of October 29, 
1764, containing the promise that 
"upon due encouragement to be 



continued every Monday, and would 
be issued from the house near the 
North Meeting house;" The Spring- 
field Republican of March 12, 1806, 
The Connecticut Mirror January 7, 
181 1, given by Mr. Milo Mead; The 
New York Gazette May 2, 181 1, and 
volume 1, No. 1, of The Morning 
Herald published May 6, 1835 by 
James Gordon Bennett & Co., a folio 
x 3/^ DV 9 J A inches, in which is men- 
tioned the fact that "J. C. Calhoun, 
Henry Clay and Daniel Webster are 
in their respective states recruiting 
their bodies and minds for next 
year" and ''Davie Crockett at last 
accounts, was grinning the bark off 
the trees in Tennessee." There is 
also a copy of The Mercury, February 
20, 1840, and a tiny copy of The 
Greenwich News dated July 31, 1854. 
Anyone looking over the books 
upon our shelves, and noting the 
predominance of good solid litera- 
ture, will not doubt for a moment 
that the ruling idea of our purchas- 
ing committee throughout all these 
years, has that of one of our former 
Presidents, Dr. Pinneo, who said to 
the librarian when she told him 
there was some complaint of the lack 
of light reading matter — "Well" 
said he, "we are not building simply 
for today, but the future;" and, as 
day after day we have repeated calls 
for the more enduring class of liter- 
ature, we realize fully the wisdom 
of their choice. In the latter part 
of the year 1899, the late Mr. Nathan- 
iel Witherall contributed one thous- 
and dollars towards the expenses of 
the library in order to make its priv- 
ileges free to all the town for one year. 
A short time after this, Mrs. Ander- 
son offering ten thousand dollars to- 
ward an endowment fund, Mr. and 
Mrs. N. Witherall added five thous- 
and more. One day the librarian 
opened a letter, and out dropped Mr. 
John W. Hendrie's check to the 
library for one thousand dollars, and 
soon after he wrote saying that he 
would like to add three thousand 
more. Another friend gave anony- 
mously four thousand dollars, and 

we stronglv suspect that it was the 
same one who came to our desk the 
previous year, saying that he would 
like to make a little contribution to 
the library, and handed us ten crisp- 
ten dollar bills. When we requested 
his name to give to the treasurer, he 
said "Oh, never mind about that." 

Many of our townsmen's names 
are recorded as giving from five 
hundred dollars down to fifty, and 
others in less amounts. Thus the 
library was made permanently free 
in January, 1901, and our President's 
hope, as expressed in his dedication 
speech, "that its influences might 
reach the farthest sections of the 
town, and its privileges be enjoyed 
by all our townspeople," is fully re- 
alized today. In this sketch we have 
glanced backward more than a hun- 
dred years, and as we look toward 
another century, we fancy there may 
be some who would read with inter- 
est the names of some of the men 
and women, who for thirty years 
have taken an active part in The 
Greenwich Reading Room and Li- 
brary Association. 

Presidents, Rev. Charles R. Treat, 
1876. Dr. T. S. Pinneo, 1880. Ham- 
ilton W. Mabie, 1886. Rev. Wash- 
ington Choate, 1889. 

Vice-Prests, Philip W. Holmes, 
1876. Judge M. L. Mason, 1877. 
Dr. T. S. Pinneo, 1879. Hamilton 
W. Mabie, 1880. Hanford Lock- 
wood, 1886. Frank M. Scofield, 1889. 

Treasurers, Geo. E. Scofield, 1876. 
Frank Shepard, 1877. Edward 
Brush, 1881. Hanford Lockwood, 
1882. Nelson B. Mead, 1886. 

Secretary, Edward Brush, 1876. 

Librarians, Mr. E. J. Wright, 
1876. Mary M. Miller, 1878. 

The present officers are: Rev. Wash- 
ington Choate, D.D., President; Nel- 
son B. Mead, Vice-President; Hobart 
Jacobs, Sec. ; JohnT. Perkins, Treas. ; 
Miss M. M. Miller, Librarian. 

Committees: Judge R. Jay Walsh, 
Mrs. L P. Jones, Hobart Jacobs, 
Mrs. G. Nichols, Mrs. George P. 
Sheldon, Edward Brush, Miss 
Amelia Mead. 





The spectacle of men offering their lives on the battlefield as a sacrifice for liberty is the most tragical in the 
world's annals — tragic in its physical suffering; magnificent in its courageous fidelity to principle. In the evolution 
of mankind freedom may soon be purchased through the arts of diplomacy, but in the momentous struggles of the 
past, and even those of to-day, the price of liberty has been human lives. William Gordon Murphy, Jr., has made 
extended investigations into the factors that carried the comparatively weak American revolutionists to victory in the 
War for Independence, and finds that Connecticut must be credited with a great part of the accomplishment. In the pre- 
ceding issue of the Connecticut Magazine, Benjamin Pettengill Adams described the scenes during " The Last Years 
of Connecticut under the British Crown." In this issue Mr. Murphy tells of " Connecticut during the Revolution." 
His investigations were pursued in the Department of History at Wesleyan University and are here officially pub- 
lished. Students of history will find the files of the Connecticut Magazine, during the last ten years, rich in records 
of original investigations in the many periods of American History. — Editor 

REVOLUTION is the inevita- 
ble outcome of every gov- 
ernment's heedlessness of 
the protests of the people. 
Whether wrongs be grievous or fan- 
cied, woe to the nation that fails to 
hear the grumble of discontent, for 
there comes an hour when the distant 
thunder breaks into a raging storm 
and from the darkened skies flash 
bolts of lightning. The unheeded cry 
of the populace, whether it be against 
the tyranny of the crown in the mon- 
archy or the dishonesty and political 
scheming in the republic, is the warn- 
ing of a reign of terror and death if 
the cause is not removed. The pro- 
tests of the peasantry under the iron 
hand of the oligarchy and the resent- 
ments of labor against the unfair 
profits of capital under the economic 
system of a land of liberty are alike 
in their ill-omen of the storm that is 
brewing over the nation. 

The periods of revolution are very 
similar in all the world's history. In 

our own America it was the same 
story of the inevitable outbreak of un- 
soothed and uncontrolled emotions 
when men offer up their lives as a sac- 
rifice rather than longer submit to the 
wrongs that tear their hearts and in- 
flame their brains. It is of this time 
of privation and hardship, of mental 
anguish and physical suffering, that I 
shall here relate. 

Our country's chronicles for the 
years 1774 to 1783 are replete with 
stories of apparently insurmountable 
obstacles heroically overcome, of en- 
thusiasm and patriotism to principle 
that knows no bounds, of a tragical 
devotion to the cause which is deemed 
right. In this drama, throbbing with 
human passions, Connecticut entered 
into the very heat of the deeds of 
valor. As a sacrifice to the cause of 
American independence Connecticut 
offered 31,939 of its strongest man- 
hood, standing second only to Massa- 
chusetts. Of these the demon of war 
left 5,000 lifeless on the battlefield — 



five thousand souls, whose life-blood 
helped dye the stripes of the flag of 
the American Republic that its crim- 
son bars might proclaim to the world 
the willingness of its bearers in all 
generations to die for liberty and jus- 

The material needs of a great revo- 
lution are such that enslave its people 
in debt. For the cause of American 
independence, Connecticut poured 
forth money and provisions in great 
abundance, winning by her action the 
now forgotten appellation of the 
"Provision State." In the Continen- 
tal Congress the voices of Connecticut 
representatives rang with earnestness 
through the legislative halls and were 
heeded with profound respect. Jona- 
than Trumbull, governor of Connecti- 
cut, was the close friend and influen- 
tial counsellor of Washington, and in 
nearly all the dramatic incidents of 
the period Connecticut men are to be 
found occupying positions of trust 
and leadership. For this the Ameri- 
can historians render full tribute. 
Bancroft speaks in highest terms of 
the courage and loyalty of Connecti- 
cut. 1 Johnston says : "It is not too 
much to say that for a time almost the 
entire burden of the struggle lay upon 
Connecticut." 2 And Washington, 
that man of few compliments, in writ- 
ing to Jonathan Trumbull, said: "I 
have full confidence in your most 
ready assistance on every occasion." 3 

Economic Conditions 
Before American Revolution 

In 1774, shortly before America 
ceased discussing the academic as- 
pects of its economic conditions and 
began her argument with shot and 
shell, Connecticut had a population of 
191,392 whites and 6,464 blacks. 4 The 
great age of commerce had not then 
dawned, but, compared with the trade 
of the period, Connecticut stood in the 
fore ranks as a foreign merchant, con- 
ducting a flourishing trade with the 
West Indies, while the coast trade 
with Boston and New York in normal 

years was of fair importance. The 
government of Connecticut was the 
most free from royal control of any of 
the colonies, with the exception of 
Rhode Island. The charter granted 
by Charles II to the younger Win- 
throp was still in force and by this the 
freemen elected the governor, deputy- 
governor and assistants, annually, 
while the members of the lower house 
were elected semi-annually. As the 
charter gave to the governor and Gen- 
eral Assembly almost complete con- 
trol of affairs Connecticut thus had a 
remarkably democratic government. 

The people of Connecticut were still 
loyal to their king and England in 
1774. They had been incensed at the 
many grievous burdens that he had 
imposed on them. They were not a 
whit behind Massachusetts in their 
opposition to the royal oppressions, 
but they had not gone as far as the 
Bay State. The people of Connecti- 
cut were too cautious and calculating 
to have any Boston tea parties or burn 
any Gaspes. In their session of the 
General Assembly, October to No- 
vember, 1774, a motion was passed 
which acknowledged George III as 
their lawful king, but remonstrated 
against some of his acts. Their feel- 
ings can best be shown by a letter 
which Trumbull wrote to the Earl of 
Dartmouth in March, 1775. 5 In this 
he says that his colony is "shocked at 
the idea of any disunion," that "the 
good people of this colony are un- 
feignedly loyal" and that they hope 
for the restoration of "that harmony 
between Great Britain and the Colo- 
nies which alone can render us truly 
happy." Still he did not believe in 
the many acts that were oppressing 
Massachusetts and hoped that the dif- 
ficulties might be amicably settled at 

1. History of United States, Vol. VII, p. 


2. History of Connecticut, p. 295. 

3. Johnston's " Connecticut, " p. 295. 

4. Records of Colony of Connecticut 
Vol. XIV, p. 491. 

5. Stuart's Life of Trumbull, p. 170, 


a not far distant future. Such was 
the way Connecticut felt toward Eng- 
land in the winter of 1774-5. She 
still looked up to her as her parent, 
but as a parent who was ill-treating 
her children. 

With the other colonies Connecti- 
cut was uniformly on good terms. 
She was very friendly to the rest of 
New England, which was so closely 
akin to her in origin, religion and 
ways of thinking. This friendliness 
was especially noticeable in the case 
of Massachusetts and when the port 
of Boston was closed no colony was 
more prompt and eager to send sup- 
plies than Connecticut. With the 
now Middle States she was less 
closely connected, but was friendly 
with them all. The only cause of 
dispute was the contest with Pennsyl- 
vania over Wyoming. This was still 
a sore spot to both colonies. With 
the southern colonies Connecticut had 
very little to do. 

Great Britain, Confident of 
Victory, Forced War 

If we take now a bird's-eye view of 
the few years immediately preceding 
the Revolution we will be able to un- 
derstand better some of the events of 
those stirring times. In April, 1770, 
England had repealed all the obnox- 
ious duties, except the tax on tea, 
which was kept to maintain the princi- 
ple of taxation. This angered the 
colonists instead of appeasing them. 
They wanted this tax repealed on the 
same grounds that the British minis- 
try was maintaining it — for a matter 
of principle. For two years there 
was quiet, but Samuel Adams kept 
at work and secured the creation 
of committees of correspondence, 
whose real purpose was to get the 
colonies ready for revolution. It 
evidently succeeded, for acts of vio- 
lence grew frequent after 1772- 
These culminated in the famous Bos- 
ton Tea Party of December 16, 1773. 

These repeated acts of violence on 

the part of the colonies now left to the 
British government but two courses: 
a use of force to compel submission 
or a backing-down on what they con- 
sidered vital points. They chose the 
former and started in by passing five 
coercive acts to punish Massachusetts, 
and especially Boston. In March, 
1774, was passed the Boston Port Bill, 
closing that town to commerce till it 
made its submission. In April of the 
same year was passed a bill which de- 
clared void many of the important 
provisions of the Massachusetts char- 
ter. The same month a third act was 
passed which provided for the trial in 
England of "Persons questioned for 
any Acts in Execution of the Law." A 
fourth measure legalized the quarter- 
ing of troops within the town of Bos- 
ton. The fifth act, among other pro- 
visions, provided for the annexation 
to Quebec of the whole territory be- 
tween the Ohio and Mississippi rivers 
and the Great Lakes. This extin- 
guished Connecticut's claims to her 
western territory for the time, but the 
provisions of this act were abrogated 
by the treaty of peace in 1783 and so 
had no permanent effect. 

The news of these acts reached 
Connecticut when the "General Assem- 
bly was holding its regular May ses- 
sion. Trumbull had just been elected 
governor for the fifth successive time 
and was destined to hold his office 
throughout the trying period of the 
Revolution. When the legislators 
heard of these acts they considered 
that Great Britain had gone far be- 
yond her powers, and in thus striking 
at the liberties of Massachusetts was 
indirectly striking at the liberties of 
all the colonies and they determined 
to do all that they could legally to pro- 
tect their rights. Consequently they 
ordered a day of prayer, provided for 
a number of military improvements 
and passed a series of resolutions con- 
demning the recent actions of Great 
Britain. Committees of correspond- 
ence were appointed by each town 
and a number of these wrote to Bos- 


ton expressing their sympathy. 6 In 
addition many donations were sent for 
the relief of the poor. 

To illustrate how ready and willing 
the people were to fight for their own 
liberty the following is related by 
Hollister. 7 On September 3, 1774, 
news came that Boston had been 
attacked and several citizens killed. 
Instantly the country was in a com- 
motion and by nightfall more than 
20,000 men were ready to march be- 
fore they learned that the story was 
without foundation. 

Connecticut insisted Upon 
Peaceful Settlement 

Notwithstanding this belligerent 
spirit, Connecticut still hoped to settle 
the many difficulties by peaceful 
means. 8 In the April session of the 
General Assembly, in 1775, Trumbull 
had been directed to send a letter of 
grief and remonstrance to Gage. This 
was done on the twenty-eighth of 
April. The commissioners appointed 
to bear this letter were William Sam- 
uel Johnson, a member of the Govern- 
or's Council and later president of 
Columbia College, and Erastus Wol- 
cott, a member of the lower house. 
They received an answer from Gage, 
laying all the blame on the colonies 
and offering no hopes for peace ex- 
cept in submission, and started on 
their way home. As has been said, 
Connecticut, in sending this letter, 
was actuated solely by an unselfish 
spirit to end the existing troubles and 
save bloodshed. The Convention of 
Massachusetts, however, looked at it 
in a different light. They considered 
it an unwarranted attempt on the part 
of Connecticut to treat with the en- 
emy alone. Accordingly the com- 
missioners were stopped and the letter 
was taken from Johnson, kept for a 
couple of hours and then returned to 
him. The whole correspondence on 
this affair was read before Congress, 
May 19, 1775, and the action of Con- 
necticut was sustained. Thus ended 
one of the little vexations that might 

have sorely tried the union of the col- 
onies if allowed to grow and rankle. 

Meanwhile, the colonies were get- 
ting together and plans were made 
for some concertive action instead of 
a series of spasmodic individual acts. 
On June 17, 1774, the General Court 
of Massachusetts had passed an act 
proposing a colonial congress, to be- 
gin September 1, 1774, at Philadel- 
phia. 9 Connecticut eagerly fell in 
with this idea. She was fortunate 
both from the character of her gov- 
ernment and from the patriotism of 
her governor, that no illegal means 
had to be resorted to in order to elect 
delegates. Governor Trumbull, the 
rebel governor as he was called in 
London, was heart and soul for the 
colonies and opposed no legitimate 
means to advance their well-being. 10 
Accordingly on June 3, 1774, it was 
resolved by the House of Representa- 
tives that the election of delegates to 
any such congress be left to the Com- 
mittee of Correspondence. This 
committee met July 13, 1774, and 
nominated Eliphalet Dyer, William 
Samuel Johnson, Erastus Wolcott,. 
Silas Deane and Richard Law as dele- 
gates. Johnson, Wolcott and Law 
were unable to go and so on August 3, 
1774, the names of Roger Sherman 
and Joseph Trumbull were added, 
either of whom, with Deane and Dyer, 
could represent Connecticut. The 
Congress met September 4, 1774, ap- 
proved the actions of Massachusetts, 
passed the Declaration of Rights and 
recommended to the colonies the 
" non - importation, non-consumption 
and non-exportation agreement." On 
this measure Connecticut's delegates 
were heartily in accord with the ma- 
jority. It is interesting to note that 
at this session Connecticut stood forth 

6. Hollister, p. 153. 

7. Page 157. 

8. Stuart's Life of Trumbull, p, 174, 5, 6, 
7, 8, and Beardsley's Life of Johnson, p. 
109, 10, 11. 

9. Hart's Formation of the Union, p. 61. 
10. Records of Colony of Connecticut, 
Vol. XIV, p. 324. 


vigorously as the protector of the the- 
ory that afterwards bore the name of 
State's Rights, Sherman declaring 
that "allegiance came from consent, 
without which the colonies were not 
bound by the act of settlement." 11 

Americans Rise Against 
Old World Dictation 

Throughout the winter of 1774-5 
the British still lay quartered at Bos- 
ton. The "rebels," however, were not 
asleep and collected stores and drilled 
men. On April 19, 1775, the British 
attempted to capture some of these 
stores at Lexington and Concord. 
The well-known battles of the same 
name then took place. When news of 
this came to Connecticut the General 
Assembly was in session. Some 
of the braver spirits instantly con- 
ceived of a plan to counterbalance 
these British successes. This was 
nothing less than to capture Ticon- 
deroga, the great fortress that com- 
manded the road from Canada into 
New York. Accordingly, Silas 
Deane and ten associates, having 
assurances of the Assembly's ap- 
proval, took eight hundred pounds 
sterling out of the treasury of the col- 
ony, giving their receipts therefore, 
and with it raised an army of sixteen 
Connecticut men who were in a few 
days enforced by forty Berkshire men 
and about a hundred Vermont volun- 
teers under Ethan Allen and Seth 
Warner. They were also joined by 
Arnold. This little band advanced 
and on May 10, 1775, captured the 
fortress. Crown Point soon yielded 
to the same force. Sanford says of 
this: 12 "The fall of Ticonderoga was 
an important conquest, the credit of 
which must fall to Connecticut. The 
money to defray the expenses of the 
expedition was furnished from her 
treasury. The plan of the campaign 
was suggested by her citizens. Both 
Allen and Warner were natives of 
Litchfield County." 

The Continental army around Bos- 
ton was meanwhile getting larger and 

larger. As soon as news of Lexing- 
ton reached Connecticut, Trumbull 
sent Putnam on. Troops were dis- 
patched after him and by the middle 
of June there were about 3,000 men 
from the little commonwealth at the 
post of danger. 13 On May 27, 1775, 
Putnam was in command of the 
Americans at a little skirmish on 
Noodle's Island, in which the British 
were totally defeated. This increased 
the desire to join the enemy in battle. 
Ward, who commanded the Massa- 
chusetts troops, was cautious, how- 
ever, and would not think of such a 
plan. Putnam's more active coun- 
sels, however, finally prevailed, and, 
on June 16, 1,000 men were sent to 
fortify Bunker Hill. They fortified 
Breed's Hill by mistake, but the battle 
is still called the battle of Bunker Hill. 
Colonel Prescott was in nominal com- 
mand of these troops, but, as Sanford 
observes: 14 "the impartial testimony 
of many facts gives the first place in 
command and leadership on that 
memorable day to Israel Putnam." In 
the battle on the seventeenth 200 Con- 
necticut men under Captain Knowlton 
took part, and three companies under 
Captains Chester, Clark and Coit 
arrived in time to cover the retreat. 
Such was the part that Connecticut 
played in this, the first battle of the 
Revolution in which the colonies 
made common cause. 

Meanwhile, the second Continental 
Congress had met on May 5, 1775. In 
this Connecticut was represented by 
her representatives at the last Con- 
gress, Dyer, Sherman and Deane, 
with Titus Hosmer and Jonathan 
Sturgess as alternates. 15 This Con- 
gress, during the first few weeks, 
tried mainly to effect a reconciliation 
with the mother country. This was 

ti. Bancroft's History of the United 
States, Vol. VII, p. 133. 

12. History of Connecticut, p. 187. 

13. Hollister, p. 181. 

14. History of Connecticut, p. 190. 

15. See Annals of Congress (Second Con- 
tinental Congress.) 


soon abandoned and on June 14, 1775, 
it was resolved that "an American 
continental army should be formed." 
The next day Washington was chosen 
the commander-in-chief, despite the 
opposition of Sherman, who wanted 
a New England man. 16 On the nine- 
teenth, among others, Putnam was 
created a major-general. On the 
twenty-first, twenty-one brigadier- 
generals were created, among them 
Spencer and Wooster of Connecticut. 
Connecticut all this time was prac- 
tically a unit in resisting the king. In 
New York, however, there were Tor- 
ies, so many, in fact, that they were 
able to maintain a paper, the New 
York Gazette, published by James 
Rivington, which disseminated their 
doctrines far and wide. The colo- 
nists determined to otop this and so 
Capt. Isaac Sears early in September, 
1775, gathered toeetner a hundred 
Connecticut horsemen, rode to New 
York and totally destroyed Riving- 
ton's printing office. 17 

Mobilizing Army to Break 
Chains of Monarchy 

On October 18, 1775, a conference 
of the New England colonies was held 
at Cambridge with a committee of 
Congress to discuss the subject of en- 
listments. Connecticut was represent- 
ed by Griswold, the deputy-governor, 
and Nathaniel Wales. It determined 
the size of the army and recommend- 
ed the raising of 20,000 troops in 
Massachusetts and 8,000 in Connecti- 
cut. The regular session of the Gen- 
eral Assembly was held October 11 to 
2 5> 1775, at which Roger Sherman, 
Oliver Wolcott and Samuel Hunting- 
ton were appointed delegates to the 
Continental Congress for next year 
with Titus Hosmer and William Wil- 
liams as alternates, 18 and a Committee 
of Safety to be composed of the gov- 
ernor, deputy-governor and seven 
others, was appointed to run affairs 
when the General Assembly was not 
in session. 

Soon afterwards a special session 

was held December 14-28, 1775, in 
which, for the last time, the records 
are headed with the year of the king's 

In March, 1776, Silas Deane of 
Connecticut received an appointment 
from the Committee of Correspond- 
ence as commercial commissioner and 
agent to France. He arrived in Paris 
July, 1776, and remained till March, 
1778. Bancroft speaks of him as 
"wanting in discernment and integ- 
rity." 19 He did not accomplish much 
of anything. 

In the meanwhile, military matters 
had gone badly. Congress had sent 
on an expedition into Canada under 
Montgomery, which captured Mon- 
treal, November 11, 1775, and unsuc- 
cessfully besieged Quebec all winter. 
Connecticut had her fair proportion 
of troops in this expedition, and the 
supreme command after the death of 
Montgomery devolved upon Woos- 
ter. 20 The expedition ended in dis- 

The American army still surround- 
ing Boston retrieved this defeat and 
forced the British to evacuate the 
town on March 17, 1776. Meanwhile, 
Washington, fearing for New York, 
sent General Lee to fortify that city 
in February with two regiments of 
Connecticut troops. 21 Putnam super- 
seded him about the first of April and 
remained in command till about the 
middle of the month when Washing- 
ton arrived. 22 

All this time King George III had 
given no signs of being willing to 
accede to the just demands of the col- 
onies. He had shown by his actions 
that he was determined to make them 
submit, and so it gradually came about 
that between 1774 and 1776 a large 

16. Boutell's Life of Sherman, p. 86. 

17. Dwight's History 4£ Connecticut, 
p- 352. 

18. Records of Colon)^ of Connecticut, 
Vol. XV. 

19. Bancroft, Vol. VIII and IX. 

20. Bancroft, Vol. VIII. 

21. Hollister, p. 244. 

22. Swett's Life of Putnam, p. 105. 



number of people were brought 
around to the view that only inde- 
pendence could give them that free- 
dom that they desired and needed. 
Throughout 1775 the question was 
eagerly debated and in the spring of 
1776 public opinion shifted around to 
a separation from Great Britain. 

Americans Declare their 
Freedom and Independence 

In the early part of 1776 many colo- 
nial legislatures had declared in favor 
of independence. Connecticut re- 
mained loyal, however, till the very 
last moment, and then, seeing that 
George III was bound to rule, and 
rule arbitrarily, made her choice al- 
most as a unit for independence. At 
the special session of the Assembly 
held June 14-21, 1776, in obedience to 
the opinion of a large portion of the 
people the momentous decision was 
reached: "That the Delegates of this 
Colony in General Congress be, and 
they are hereby instructed to propose 
to that respectable body, to declare 
the United American Colonies Free 
and Independent States .... and to 
give the assent of this Colony to such 
declaration/' Thus Connecticut took 
her stand definitely and finally for in- 
dependence, and from now on gave 
up all hopes of being a peaceful col- 
ony under the sovereignty of Eng- 

Congress, having received declara- 
tions similar to this from most of the 
states, now proceeded to act upon 
them, and on July 4, 1776, adopted 
the Declaration of Independence 
which enumerated the grievances of 
the colonies and proclaimed their in- 
dependence. Among the signers of 
this declaration were the four Con- 
necticut representatives, Roger Sher- 
man, Samuel Huntington, William 
Williams and. Oliver Wolcott. 

The next step was for the different 
colonies to form state governments 
conformable to these new conditions. 
Suggestions on this line had been pre- 
viously made by Congress. 23 Many 
of the states seized upon this as an 

opportunity to change almost the 
whole system of their government. 
Such did not need to be the case in 
Connecticut. With a constitution as 
democratic and free as hers very few 
changes had to be made. And so, we 
find in the records of the Assembly 
for the October session of 1776 an 
act, the first clause of which is the 
most important, and reads as fol- 
lows: 24 "That the form of civil gov- 
ernment in this State shall continue to 
be as established by Charter received 
from Charles the Second, King of 
England, so far as an adherence to the 
same will be consistent with an abso- 
lute independence of this State upon 
the Crown of Great Britain." So 
with no excitement or flurry, and 
without any over-complicated legisla- 
tive acts, Connecticut took her place 
among the Commonwealths of the 
United States. 

In the meantime, military affairs 
came to the foreground with great 
rapidity. The Continental army was 
in New York city. Many of the col- 
onies had failed to send their quota. 
So, to make up the deficiency, Gov- 
ernor Trumbull, at the earnest solici- 
tation of Washington, ordered the 
whole of the standing militia west of 
the Connecticut, together with two 
regiments on the east side, to march 
to New York. 25 "Connecticut had 
furnished and kept in the field full 
one-half of the American army com- 
manded by Washington." In the 
meanwhile, the British army of more 
than 20,000 men, with 400 ships and 
transports, had come to New York. 26 
On August 2y, 1776, they defeated 
the Americans under Putnam in the 
battle of Long Island. Washington 
accordingly retreated, evacuating 
New York, and retired to the heights 
north of the city. Here on Septem- 
ber 16. 1776, Captain Knowlton, one 

23. Hart, p. 81. 

24. Records of State of Connecticut, 
Vol. I. 

25. Hollister, p. 273. 

26. Sanford, p. 203. 


of Connecticut's most gallant sol- 
diers, was killed in a sharp skirmish 
while reconnoitering. Soon Wash- 
ington retreated still further. Fort 
Washington surrendered with its gar- 
rison, many of whom were Connecti- 
cut men, and the retreat through New 
Jersey began. After the battles of 
Trenton and Princeton the army en- 
camped for the winter at Morris- 
town. 27 

Just after the evacuation of New 
York, Nathan Hale of South Coven- 
try, Connecticut, went to Long Island 
and spied out the British works. He 
was caught and hanged as a spy by 
the British in New York, September 

22, I776. 

An interesting story is told by Hol- 
lister 28 and Sanford 29 of the fate of 
the equestrian statue of George III 
standing in Bowling Green, New 
York city, which was pulled down by 
the patriots on the night of July 11, 
1776, in order to celebrate the Decla- 
ration of Independence. According 
to them, the statue, which was made 
of lead, was brought to General Wol- 
cott's home at Litchfield, Connecticut, 
where, during the winter, it was cast 
into bullets by the ladies of the house- 

Farst Attempt to Prevent 
Monopolies in Trade 

Notwithstanding all these turmoils 
of war, the regular legislative busi- 
ness of the state had been carried on, 
special sessions of the Assembly be- 
ing held November 19 and December 
18, 1776. At the latter session an act 
was passed "to prevent Monopolies 
and Oppression by excessive and un- 
reasonable Prices for many of the 
necessaries and conveniences of life." 
This was caused by the fact that the 
paper money had already begun to de- 
preciate, and this was a vain attempt 
(as it was soon repealed) on the part 
of Connecticut to bolster up its value. 

This subject was taken up in De- 
cember, 1776, by a general convention 
of the New England states at Provi- 

dence, at which Connecticut was rep- 
resented by Dyer, Law, Wales and 
Hosmer. They made recommenda- 
tions, fixing the prices of various arti- 
cles, but, of course, nothing could 
come of it. 30 

It is interesting to note here that, 
during the war, the interior of the 
commonwealth, especially Litchfield 
County, was used by most of the sur- 
rounding states and by Congress as a 
place to confine prisoners. They 
were confined in the jails, the public 
buildings, and even in some of the pri- 
vate houses. Most of the British cap- 
tured at Ticonderoga and in Canada 
were placed there. They were uni- 
formly treated well in contrast to the 
treatment by the British of American 
prisoners on the prison-ships. 

With the spring of 1777 the British 
recommenced active work in the field. 
The theater of the war, however, was 
transferred from New York city to 
Philadelphia, and consequently, Con- 
necticut was less directly concerned 
than when operations were carried on 
at her very door. At the beginning 
of the year, however, the war was 
carried right into her boundaries by 
Tryon's raid on Danbury. The pa- 
triots had collected a considerable 
supply of stores there, and Howe, be- 
fore leaving for Philadelphia, deter- 
mined to have them destroyed. 31 He 
accordingly placed a force of nearly 
2,000 men under Tryon, the royalist 
governor of New York, and in April 
dispatched him up the Sound with a 
convoy of twenty-five vessels. They 
landed at Saugatuck Harbor late in 
the afternoon of April 25, 1777, and 
reached Danbury by a hasty march 
overland the next day. The British 
instantly set to work, and by night 
had burned most of the buildings in 
the town, except those belonging to 

27. Hollister, p. 292. 

28. Hollister, p. 265-7. 

29. Sanford, p. 199. 

30. Records of State, Vol. I, Appendix. 

31. For accounts of Tryon's Danbury raid 
see Hollister, Chap. XII, Johnston, p. 303, 
and Sanford, p. 21 1-3. 


Tories, and had destroyed a vast 
amount of provisions. Early the next 
morning the troops were drawn up 
and the work of destruction went on 
till the meetinghouse, nineteen dwell- 
ing houses and twenty-two stores and 
barns were burned. 32 When this was 
completed they started back for their 
ships. Meanwhile, the American 
militia of the neighboring towns un- 
der General Wooster, and 400 men 
under General Arnold and General 
Silliman 33 had arrived and harassed 
them on their retreat. Wooster, with 
200 men on the twenty-seventh, at- 
tacked their rear and fell mortally 
wounded near Ridgefield while lead- 
ing his men. Arnold still continued 
to worry the British, showing partic- 
ular bravery, having his horse shot 
under him. This was kept up till the 
invaders embarked in the afternoon 
of the twenty-eighth. For his brav- 
ery in this action Arnold, at the re- 
quest of Washington, 34 was made a 

In retaliation for this attack an ex- 
pedition set out on May 21, 1777, 
from New Haven under Colonel 
Meigs to destroy some British sup- 
plies at Sag Harbor, Long Island. 
About 200 men crossed the Sound in 
whale-boats, captured the place, 
burned twelve vessels with many 
Scores and took ninety prisoners. 35 

Howe, in the meanwhile, had 
moved his forces for an attack on 
Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was de- 
scending New York state in an at- 
tempt to effect a junction with Clin- 
ton at New York city. The Conti- 
nental troops were accordingly divid- 
ed into three armies, one under Wash- 
ington, south of the Hudson ; one un- 
der Schuyler, opposed to Burgoyne, 
and one under Putnam, in the High- 
lands. In the first army, Connecticut 
played the least important part, being 
represented only by Colonel Swift and 
his regiment. 36 When this army 
went into winter quarters at Valley 
Forge Connecticut troops shared the 
trials with the troops of the Middle 

States. 37 The troops under Putnam 
consisted of one Connecticut brigade 
and a New York regiment. 38 In the 
northern campaign against Burgoyne 
were two Connecticut regiments, 39 
and one Connecticut general, Bene- 
dict Arnold, who fought with great 
bravery during the whole campaign, 
and, in the last battle, lost one of his 

Disaster Threatens 
Cause of Revolutionists 

The first few months of 1778 were 
probably during the darkest of the 
Revolution. The little army, after 
the hard winter at Valley Forge, was 
getting smaller; nine hundred Amer- 
ican vessels had been captured; 40 the 
finances were in bad shape, and worst 
of all, the country had fallen into a 
kind of stupor. Yet this was the dark 
before the dawn. Steuben was drill- 
ing the troops and introducing some 
sort of discipline, and France, long a 
secret friend, was soon to become an 
open ally. In the spring of the year 
Philadelphia had been abandoned by 
Clinton who withdrew to New York. 
This left only two places in the hands 
of the British, New York and New- 
port. Accordingly, Washington con- 
ceived the plan of driving the enemy 
out of the last named place. In 1777, 
General Spencer had undertaken to 
capture the town, but failed. 41 Now 
attempts were made on a larger scale. 
General Sullivan secured 5,000 militia 
from Connecticut, Rhode Island and 
Massachusetts, and two brigades from 
the Continental army. It was planned 

32. Hollister, p. 302. 

33. Sanford says, Hollister gives his name 
as Silliman, the correct name. 

34. Sanford, p. 213. 

35. For this expedition see Hollister, p. 
307-8, Johnston, p. 304, and Sanford, 
p. 213. 

36. Hollister, p. 364. 

37. Hollister, p. 367. 

38. Sanford, p. 214. 

39. Hollister, p. 325. 

40. Hart, p. 85. 

41. Hollister, p. 369. 


to have the newly arrived French fleet 
co-operate, but a storm arose that 
compelled them to go to Boston for 
repairs. Sullivan, not at all deterred, 
on August 29, advanced against the 
British, and, after some stubborn 
fighting, was driven back. The expe- 
dition had failed. 

This year was one "of care and anx- 
iety throughout Connecticut." 42 The 
Assembly was in session with but few 
breaks. Many troops were raised for 
the general army and for coast de- 
fense; the currency had depreciated 
so as to be almost worthless, but the 
people never gave up. Under the 
leadership of the indomitable old pa- 
triot, Governor Trumbull, Connecticut 
did her part toward the continuance 
of the struggle. In the special ses- 
sion of February 12, 1778, two taxes 
were laid, each of one shilling per 
pound on the list of polls and rateable 
estate, out of which $600,000 should 
be paid to the United States and debi- 
ted to the same. The regular session 
was held May 14-June 13, 1778. At 
this, Trumbull was again elected gov- 
ernor ; an act was passed confiscating 
the estates of loyalists, and an embar- 
go laid upon the exportation from the 
state of certain articles. The regular 
autumn session was held October 21 
to November 7, 1778. To show what 
dire financial straits the state was in 
the treasurer at this session was or- 
dered to borrow $500 in order to pay 
a debt for which the lender was clam- 
oring since 43 "there is not money in 
the treasury to pay the same." 

Difficulties in Forming 
an Inseparable Union 

During this year, 1778, great ad- 
vances were made toward a perma- 
nent union of the colonies. It is to be 
remembered that all this time the col- 
onies are thirteen distinct units with 
no other bonds between them than a 
desire to get rid of British tyranny. 
The day when a committee was ap- 
pointed to draw up the Declaration of 
Independence another was appointed 

to draw up Articles of Confederation. 
This committee reported July 12, 

1776, and it was seen that there were 
almost insuperable difficulties in the 
way of the adoption of its report. 
Another committee reported early in 

1777, and from then on till the adop- 
tion of a draft of Articles of Confede- 
ration by Congress on November 15, 
1777, there was constant discussion in 
that legislative body over them. In 
this debate, Connecticut, being a small 
state, was always vigorously opposed 
to any suggestions which looked to 
the apportioning of votes in Congress 
according to the number of inhabi- 
tants of a state. 44 The Journals of 
Congress do not give many of the 
votes in Congress in detail, but in such 
as were given, it seems that Connect- 
icut had a number of ideas about the 
Confederation in which she was in the 
minority and was voted under. These 
were mostly in minor details, how- 
ever, while the main broad outlines of 
the articles suited her. Johnston says : 
"The articles .... were the exact 
representatives of Connecticut feel- 
ing." 45 This plan of government was 
now submitted to the states. In the 
February session of the Assembly in 
1778 the articles were discussed pretty 
thoroughly and it was resolved to in- 
struct the delegates from Connecticut 
to vote for them and propose at the 
same time two amendments: one to 
determine a state's share of the na- 
tional taxation by the number of in- 
habitants in a state instead of by the 
value of the property in a state, and 
another to have no standing army in 
the United States in time of peace. 46 
These were proposed in Congress 
June 23, 1778, 47 and both were reject- 
ed. On the ninth of July the articles 
were engrossed on parchment and 
signed by eight of the thirteen states, 

42. Sanford, p. 216. 

43. Records of State, Vol. II, p. 136. 

44. Journal of Congress, Vol. II, p. 279- 


45- P- 315. 

46. Records of State, Vol. I, p. 533. 

47. Journal of Congress, Vol. II, p. 601. 



including Connecticut. 48 All the other 
states, except Maryland, quickly fol- 
lowed. Virginia and Connecticut 
proposed to close the Union without 
her/ 9 but finally, after some conces- 
sions had been made in regard to the 
states' western lands, on March 1, 
1 78 1, Maryland signed and the Con- 
federation was then complete. 

British Onslaughts Sow 
Death and Destruction 

As for military events, Connecticut, 
in 1779, suffered the most that she did 
during any year of the war, because 
of Governor Tryon's invasion. This 
occurred in July. During the early 
winter months, however, several little 
engagements took place around Put- 
nam's winter quarters at Redding. 
About half of his troops (two bri- 
gades) were Connecticut men. 50 
While at Redding they suffered se- 
verely from lack of food and clothing. 
They brooded over this for a while 
and then formed the design of march- 
ing to Hartford and demanding re- 
dress at the hands of the Assembly 
Putnam, however, rode up just as 
they were about to start and in a few 
words persuaded them otherwise and 
brought them once more to a sense of 
duty. 51 On February 25th there oc- 
curred a little engagement with the 
British at Horse Neck, near Green- 
wich, in which the Americans were 
beaten, after which Putnam took his 
famous ride down the flight of steep 
stone steps near by. 

The state had soon to undergo more 
than a few such little raids as culmi- 
nated in the skirmish of Horse Neck. 
On July 6, 1779, a fleet from New 
York cast anchor near West Haven 
and disembarked 3,000 British sol- 
diers under Tryon, the royalist gov- 
ernor of New York. They advanced 
on New Haven in two detachments of 
1,500 men each. The first detach- 
ment was stopped by some militia near 
West Haven and so entered the town 
by the Derby Road. The other de- 
tachment captured a fort at Black 

Rock and also entered the town. They 
instantly started in to plunder, and 
when they finished had inflicted a 
money loss of about £25,ooo. 52 
Twenty-seven Americans had been 
killed and nineteen wounded. Tryon 
sailed leisurely along the coast after 
he left New Haven on the sixth, and 
on the eighth landed at Fairfield and 
burned that town to the ground. The 
next morning this was repeated at 
Green's Farms. Then, crossing the 
Sound, the British remained in Hunt- 
ington Bay till the eleventh, when 
they journeyed forth again, attacking 
Norwalk and destroying the entire 
village except a few houses belonging 
to Tories. Before this, Washington, 
learning of the raid, sent General Par- 
sons from the Highlands with a few 
Continentals and a considerable body 
of Connecticut militia. Tryon very 
prudently withdrew to New York. 
He had done his work well, however, 
for he had inflicted upon the little 
state a loss of about £25o,ooo. 53 This 
score against the British was partially 
paid on September 5, 1779, when 
Major Tallmadge set out from Stam- 
ford with 130 men and destroyed a 
British battery at Lloyd's Neck. 54 

During the next year, 1780, there 
was very little warfare in which Con- 
necticut was directly interested. 

In 1 78 1, however, the war again 
came into the heart of Connecticut. 
In June, about 150 British attacked 
Leete's Island, in Guilford, burning a 
few buildings, and on July 22nd they 
attacked the meetinghouse at Middle- 
sex, now Darien, and took all the men 
there prisoners. 55 In September came 
the worst attack. Arnold, who, in 
1780, had played the traitor and at- 
tempted to deliver West Point into the 
hands of the British, was sent by Clin- 

48. Bancroft, Vol. X, 

49. Hart, p. 95. 

50. Hollister, p. 372. 

51. Johnston, p. 308. 

52. Sanford, p. 223. 

53. Johnston, p. 309. 

54. Sanford, p. 223-4. 

55. Dwight, p. 398-9. 

p. 14. 


ton with 1,700 men to capture New 
London. He landed at the mouth of 
the Thames on the morning of the 
sixth. His troops were in two divis- 
ions, one of 800 men under Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel Eyre, and the other of 
900 under Arnold himself. There 
were two little forts guarding the har- 
bor, Fort Trumbull, which was an un- 
tenable breastwork and was conse- 
quently almost immediately evacuated 
by the Americans, and Fort Griswold. 
Eyre was directed to take this latter, 
while to Arnold fell the more con- 
genial task of burning the town and 
the shipping. Fort Griswold was 
commanded by Colonel Ledyard, one 
of the bravest of Connecticut's sol- 
diers. He offered a long and stern 
resistance to the enemy, and it was 
only after a hard struggle that the 
British under a certain Major Brom- 
field (as Eyre had been seriously 
wounded) were able to enter the fort. 
"Who commands this fort?" called 
Bromfield. "I did, sir, but you do 
now," said Ledyard, offering his 
sword. Thereupon Bromfield, infu- 
riated by the long and unlooked-for 
resistance, took Ledyard's sword and 
plunged it to the hilt in his breast. 
The soldiers, inspired by this, fol- 
lowed suit and either bayoneted or 
shot all but twenty-five of the 150 de- 
fenders of the fort. Not satisfied 
with this, thirty-five of the most seri- 
ously wounded were put in a cart and 
rolled down a hill till the cart struck 
the trunk of an apple tree near the 
fort. 56 The shock killed several. No 
excuse can be offered for this brutal- 
ity on the part of the British, and all 
excuses are vain in the face of such 
overwhelming evidence as we have. 
After setting fire to Groton the enemy 
sailed for New York. 

Revolutionists in Desperate 
Attack are Victorious 

While this was happening in Con- 
necticut the last act of the great 
drama of the Revolution was being 
enacted at Yorktown. There on Oc- 

tober 19, 1 78 1, Lord Cornwallis, after 
a stubborn resistance, surrendered to 
Washington. Connecticut troops 
played an important part, the first 
company of the forlorn hope of Octo- 
ber 15, 1 78 1, being led by Capt. James 
Morris of Litchfield. This was the 
last battle of the war. The struggle 
was now virtually over and all that 
had to be done was to sit and wait for 
the treaty of peace to be negotiated. 
It is interesting to note that the de- 
tails of this campaign were planned 
out by Washington while visiting 
Rochambeau at Wethersfield on May 
21, 1781. 57 

A word ought to be said of the par- 
tisan warfare that was carried on in 
the Sound all during the war. 58 The 
Connecticut Tories were driven to 
Long Island while the Long Island 
Whigs came into Connecticut. Con- 
sequently, parties were constantly got- 
ten up to harass the shores of the ene- 
my, and, as a result, we find a parti- 
san warfare carried on in the Sound 
almost continually. 

In the next year, 1782, the vexa- 
tious Wyoming question was settled 
by a board of commissioners, selected 
by the delegates of the two states. 
This board decided unanimously 
against the claims of Connecticut and 
so settled a long-standing dispute. 

In 1783, Connecticut had the honor 
to have the first American Episcopal 
bishop. In the last week of March 59 
ten of the fourteen Episcopal minis- 
ters in Connecticut met at Woodbury 
and selected Dr. Samuel Seabury as 
bishop of Connecticut. He was not 
consecrated, however, till November 

14, 1784. 

In May, 1783, Sherman and Law 
were appointed a committee "to revise 
the Statute Laws of this State." 60 

56. This account is largely taken from 

57. Hollister, p. 226. 

58. Johnston, p. 311-2. 

59. So says Beardsley in his Life of Sea- 
bury. Hollister says election of Seabury 
was on April 2X. 

60. Boutell's Life of Sherman, p, 114-5. 


This was not completed till the next 
year, however. During the years 
1782 and 1783 little of importance < 
took place in the state. It was rest- 
ing after its long struggle and things 
were allowed to drift on without 
much attention. Trumbull was still 
at the helm directing affairs with his 
old-time vigor and foresight and that 
was sufficient guarantee that the gov- 
ernment would be run well. 

New Republic in Financial 
Straits Begins its Upbuilding 

It is to be noted with what unfail- 
ing regularity the General Assembly 
attended to its business during this 
whole troublesome period. The usual 
sessions were held twice every year 
and many special sessions were also 
called by the governor. Nothing 
kept them from their duty, and, no 
matter how near the tide of British in- 
vasion came, the General Assembly 
was always to be found, working qui- 
etly, but none the less effectively. As 
would be expected, military affairs oc- 
cupied much of their time. Regi- 
ments were raised for the Continental 
army, acts passed for increasing the 
efficiency of the militia and numerous 
commissions given out. In order to 
bear all these expenses the Assembly 
issued many bills of credit. Between 
April, 1775, and October, 1777, ^315,- 
250 of such bills were voted. Then, 
too, large sums were paid to the Con- 
tinental Congress for the expenses of 
the government. In 1778, $600,000 
and in 1779, $1,700,000 were so voted. 
Such large issues of money, with 
practically no backing, made the bills 
in a short time worthless and the As- 
sembly often tried to have them pass 
at par by ordering that they be legal 
tender for debts, etc. Of course, 
nothing came of these measures. 

Of this period of 1774-1783 John- 
ston says: 61 "It had been a time of 
sudden and tremendous growth, this 
transformation of the colony into a 
state, of the disappearance of old ideas 
and of old loyalty, of burnings and 

plunderings, of life-long separations 
through the fortune of war, of fam- 
ily and social disintegration, of heavy 
taxation amid stringent poverty, of 
great burdens manfully borne." It 
was truly a strenuous period and in it 
Connecticut bore her part well. In 
proportion to her population, she had 
furnished more men in the struggle 
for independence than any other col- 
ony, 62 sending out 31,939 men to the 
Continental army at various times, 
without counting the detachments de- 
fending her frontiers and her sea- 
coast. Her troops were of a high or- 
der of excellence. Washington, on 
June 16, 1782, spoke of the Connecti- 
cut brigade as "composed of as fine a 
body of men as any in the army." 63 
Two days later, in general orders, he 
referred to this subject in a more em- 
phatic and lengthy manner. As John- 
ston observes, 64 "with the exception 
of a briefer compliment to a Massa- 
chusetts brigade, this is the only in- 
stance in Washington's Revolutionary 
orders of such public commendation 
of any State's quota." In Putnam 
she furnished to the army a man 
whom Prof. Albert Bushnell Hart calls 
a "natural soldier." Connecticut also 
supported a small navy, many priva- 
teers being fitted out in her ports, sev- 
eral of whom did a fair amount of 
damage to the British. 65 The first 
naval expedition sent out under the 
authorit)^ of Congress sailed from 
New London in January, 1776, 
equipped largely by the efforts of 
Trumbull. Not only did she contrib- 
ute freely of her sons, but also of her 
treasure. She issued several hundred 
thousand pounds of bills of credit 
which were largely used in the prose- 
cution of the war. She also poured 
forth her provisions in great abund- 
ance to the army and the citizens of 

61. Johnston, p. 314. 

62. Sanford, p. 232. 

63. Johnston, p. 311. 

64. Johnston, p. 31. 

65. Life of Trumbull, p. 281-94 and Caul- 
kin's History of New London, p. 538-43. 


neighboring states when in want. So 
great was her liberality that, as was 
previously mentioned, she became 
known as the "Provision State." 

Courageous Struggle Against 
Poverty and Burdening Debt 

In summarizing Connecticut's part 
in the Continental Congress and the 
Congresses of the Federation: She 
was represented in these between 1774 
and 1783 by fourteen men in all. 66 
Of these the most important were: 
Samuel Huntington, Roger Sherman 
and Oliver Ellsworth. They each 
were on a number of committees and 
did good service for their nation. In 
the earlier debates, Connecticut played 
a fairly important part, but the im- 
portance of the Congress slowly de- 
creased till the latter part of the war; 
it was of very little account. In fact, 
for a time, several of the states, in- 
cluding Connecticut, were not repre- 
sented at all. 

The treaty of peace was signed in 
1783. It found Connecticut finan- 
cially in a very bad way. The towns 
on the coast were poverty-stricken 
and their merchants were bankrupt. 67 
The state, itself, also was in dire 
straits and we several times read in 
the records of small sums being bor- 
rowed to pay up back debts. Trum- 
bull was serving his last term in the 
gubernatorial chair. He was not, 
however, in exact sympathy with the 
people at this time in several respects. 
As Stuart says: "He was a national 
and not a state politician/' 68 Conse- 
quently, he believed that the powers 
of Congress under the Articles of 
Confederation should be enlarged; 
that the whole public debt should be 
funded in Continental securities, and 
cordially assented to import duties for 
the use of the United States. He 
looked to the sovereignty of the Union 
and not to that of thirteen independ- 
ent states." 69 

Such were the views held by Trum- 
bull and a large number of influential 
citizens. He supported them in all 

possible ways. They did not appeal 
to the great majority of the peo- 
ple who did not want any more 
burdens to be put on them, as would 
happen under Congress' plan for 
funding the debt. They were op- 
posed to a central government. Such 
were the two opinions of governmen- 
tal policy then held in Connecticut, 
and we see already traces of the two 
great political parties of our Union, 
that started in as Federalist and anti- 
Federalist and are now known as Re- 
publican and Democratic, the parties 
that differ fundamentally on the ques- 
tion of powers to be given the central 

With the other colonies, Connecti- 
cut had either very little to do, or was 
not over-friendly. About one-third 
of the expenses of the New York gov- 
ernment were paid by taxation levied 
so as to bear upon imports into Con- 
necticut, 70 and the same is true of the 
Massachusetts government. There 
was still a feeling of resentment 
against Pennsylvania for the Wyom- 
ing decision of 1782. In fact, all the 
states of the Union were gradually 
drifting apart, and Connecticut with 

Abandon Fallacies and Found 
a Practical Self -Government 

The fault lay with the Articles of 
Confederation. When adopted in 
1 78 1 they represented the feelings of 
Connecticut exactly. The feeling in 
the state was strongly in favor of the 
fullest possible reservation of the 
rights and powers of the state, and 
this was about the only thing that the 
Articles stood for. Dissatisfaction 
soon arose. One of the first re- 
sults of the adoption of this form of 

66. R. Sherman, O. Wolcott, S. Hunting- 
ton, T. Hosmer, W. Williams, E. Dyer, R. 
Law, O. Ellsworth, A. Adams, J. Root, B. 
Huntington and J. Spencer. 

67. Johnston, p. 316. 

68. Johnston, p. 598. 

69. Stuart, p. 398. 

70. Johnston, p. 316. 


government was the appointment of a 
commission which awarded the Wy- 
oming Claim to Pennsylvania. Then 
Connecticut found how the neighbor- 
ing states were discriminating against 
her in the matter of taxation. People 
also observed how weak and impotent 
the central government was and that 
the states were slowly but surely 
drifting apart. For these and many 
other similar reasons the "leading 
minds" of Connecticut were ready to 
give up this naked and deceptive state 
sovereignty for state rights, bottomed 
on the guaranty of a national power, 
It was not thus with the people as yet, 
however. They dreaded any central 
government with the power of taxa- 
tion. They claimed that was why 
they had fought England. They rec- 
ognized the imperfections of the ex- 
isting government but dimly and were 
willing, in 1783, to abide under it. 

Better times were not far ahead, 
however, and we see in a few short 
years the old delusive Articles of 
Confederation given up for a strong, 
more centralized constitution under 

which Connecticut was destined to 
live in peace and prosperity for years 
to come. 

Such is the political history of Con- 
necticut in the years when the people 
lifted their arms against oppression 
and administered the vigorous stroke 
that broke the ties between England 
and America and established on the 
Western Continent the great Ameri- 
can Republic which to-day stands in 
the foreranks of the nations of the 

In these lines may we read the 
warning of the people that injustice 
will not long survive, that corruption 
invites its own deathblow, that the 
will of the people is the way of the 
world and no political structure can 
stay the hand of the populace when it 
is once lifted in its united might in the 
cause of its rights. Corporate greed, 
special privileges, enslaving capital, 
scheming politicians, extortionate 
monopolies, are all weaklings before 
that composite giant known as the 

THE history of the world is before us. It rises like an im- 
mense column, on which we may see inscribed the soundest 
maxims of political experience. These maxims should be 
treasured in our memories and written on our hearts. Man, in all 
countries, resembles man. Wherever you find him, you find 
human nature in him and human frailties about him. Nations 
should diligently keep their eye on the nations that have gone be- 
fore them. They should mark and avoid their errors, not travel on 
heedlessly in the path of danger and of death while the bones of 
their perished predecessors whiten around them . . . . "The poorest 
being that crawls on earth, contending to save itself from injustice 
and oppression, is an object respectable in the eyes of God and 
man." — -Daniel Webster 




The "Lenni-Lenape" is an ethnological name for a group of Algonquin tribes which formerly occupied the 
coast region of North America from Connecticut to Virginia— They included the Mohicans, Delawares, 
Shawnees, and several other tribes. 

The last ember has died on the hearth of the sky, 

And the fire in the wigwam is dying. 
The Lenape, in reverie still sitting by, 
Hears the murmuring river, the owl's eerie cry, 
And the wind, through the pine-needles sighing. 
"Yield to SJeep, welcome Sleep!" 
Every voice seems to say : 
4 ' Banish Care with the day ! 
Sleep! let us sleep!" 

Through the hush of the gloaming there steals a low sound 

Like the tread of wee feet without number. 
The Lenape sees naught, though he stares all around. 
Yet already wherever a crannie is found 
Peers the eyes of the sly Elves of Slumber! 
Pit-a-pat! Pit-a-pat! 

Ah, how stealthy they tread, 
All around, over head! 
Pat! Pit-a-pat! 

When his face is averted, they seize on the chance 

To creep under the curtain behind him ; 
And the pair of sly midgets who lead them advance, 
Each to climb on a shoulder, and thrust each a lance 
In a wandering eyeball, to blind him. 
Pit-a-pat! Pit-a-pat! 

Still he heareth the beat 
Of their rythmical feet. 
Pat! Pit-a-pat! 

Some pry open his lips till gapes, yawns, and sighs; 

Others push his head down on his shoulder; 
Others tug at his elbows and ankles and thighs, 
Till he sinks on the ground, and relaxing, he lies, 
Like the form of some moss-covered boulder. 
Pit-a-pat! Pit-a-pat! 

With what caution they run ! 
He is won, — almost won ! 
Pat! Pit-a-pat! 

Gently pulling the lashes, his eyelids they close. 

Till they seal the moist edges together. 
They muffle his ears till no whisper he knows; 
And one on each temple strikes rythmical blows 
With a war-club as light as a feather. 
Tap-a-tap ! Tap-a-tap ! 

Heart-throbs timed to the blow; 
Breathing measured and slow. 
Tap! Tap-a-tap! 
Tap-a-tap! Tap-a-tap! 

Overmastered at last ! 
Slumber's captive, bound fast! 

Tap! Tap-a-tap 


■■■ . ■ ■ . . 






As the writer of the "Holland" letters, now widely published each day in the United States, Mr. Edwards is better 
known than by his own name. President Butler, of Columbia University, recently characterized the "Holland" letters 
as the mist distinctive individual feature of American journalism, and Thomas W. Lawson in "Everybody's Mag- 
azine " asserted that they are read and followed closely by many of the high financiers of Europe. Mr. Edwards 
has been for twenty-two years a resident of Greenwich, Connecticut. He was therefore well qualified by his personal 
familiarity and by careful study of its history to write this sketch. He is a native of Norwich, Connecticut, and is a 
member of that branch of the Edwards family which traces its ancestry to the father of Jonathan Edwards. Mr. 
Edwards was graduated at Yale in the class of 1870, and at the Yale Law School in 1873. After a short practice of 
his profession he became a member of the staff of the " Hartford Courant. 11 From that newspaper he went to the 
"New York Sun, 1 ' where he was first the Albany correspondent, and during the administration of Garfield and 
Arthur and the last year of Hayes 1 administration was in charge of the Washington Bureau of the "Sun." He 
returned to New York to take the editorial management of " The Evening Sun, 11 continuing at that post for three 
years. In 1889, he began his newspaper correspondence with the " Philadelphia Press, 1 ' the first letter being signed 
" Holland, 11 and these daily letters have been continued from that time and the publication of them secured by many 
newspapers throughout the United States. In 1894, Mr. Edwards published the accusations which led to the famous 
Sugar Trust Investigation by the Senate. He was indicted and prosecuted on a charge of recalcitrancy in refusing 
as a journalist to reveal the source of his information, but he was acquitted, and of six others indicted and prosecuted 
in Washington, including Henry O. Havemeyer, all but one were acquitted. Mr. Edwards has contributed con- 
stantly to magazines, notably studies of Grover Cleveland, William McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt. Mr. Ed- 
wards received the degree of Doctor of Laws from Seton Hall College in 1899. The following article is the first of 
two that he has written on Greenwich for The Connecticut Magazine. The second will appear in Number 4, 
Volume X.— Editor 

IF THAT portion of the constella- necticut, a certain wondrous similar- 

tion Ursa Major which gives to ity of measurement or boundaries 

it its distinctive splendor, com- would be discovered. It sometimes 

monly named the "Great Dip- seems to the star-gazing admirer on 

per," were compared with the out- a winter's night as though there 

lines of the map of the state of Con- were reflected to the heavens the 



lation and topography of the United States Coast and Geodetic Surveys 

four corners of the state as well as 
that singular projection to the south- 
west which in the constellation is 
called the handle of the "Dipper." 
Relatively, upon the map of Connec- 
ticut this handle contains the town- 
ship of Greenwich as well as Stam- 
ford, and seems to be a curious pro- 
jection, by some fantastic feat of 

map makers or geographers, into 
the solid parts of New York State. 

When in 1640, the two adventur- I 
ers, Feaks and Patrick, bought with 
the authority of the New Haven 
Colony various contiguous parcels of 
land now comprised chiefly within 
the township of Greenwich, they 
seem to have preferred the sover- I 



MIANUS RIVER— Looking toward Long Island Sound, showing old docks that were the scenes 
of commercial activity in the packet days between this port and the New York markets 

eignty of the Dutch to that of the 
Pilgrims and Puritans. Having taken 
title by authority of New Haven 
Colony, nevertheless, they trans- 
ferred their allegiance to Peter 
Stuyvesant and with the Dutch 
made common cause against the In- 
dians. To this day traditions hover 
over certain remote places in the 
western part of Greenwich telling of 

desperate battles fought by these 
early settlers, with their Dutch al- 
lies against the Indians. Whatever 
the cause of the alliance it was in 
due time broken and once, and then 
again, Greenwich township acknowl- 
edged the sovereignty of the Dutch 
and of New Amsterdam and New 
York, or again returning after these 
various secessions until at last there 

AN OLD PACKET VESSEL— Cast away and rotting on the banks 
of the Mianus River— A stranded wreck of early merchant service 


House" at Rocky Neck Point, Greenwich, Connecticut— Fifty-seven years in the Sil- 
leck family and now conducted by E. A. Silleck— Photographed by Frederick Merritt 

came unbreakable union with, and 
loyalty to, Connecticut colony. But 
it was not until the day of the pres- 
ent generation that the official com- 
missioners established, with the ac- 
curacy of surveying instruments and 
the permanent memorials of metes 
and bounds, the imaginary line to 
the east of which is the state of 
Connecticut and to the west the state 
of New York. 

As late as the early 7o's of the past 
century, the distinguished jurist who 
inherited the legal training and abil- 
ity that distinguished the town of 
Litchfield even a century ago, 
United States Circuit Judge Wood- 
ruff, determined Connecticut's, and 
therefore Greenwich, boundaries in 
Long Island Sound so that the 
islands to the south of Greenwich 
mainland, that were separated by a 
ship's channel depth from the main- 

land, were no longer in the jurisdic- 
tion of Connecticut nor of Greenwich 
but of New York State. 

The first conquerors of the forest 
and subduers of the soil that made 
Greenwich yield sufficient food to 
support the settlers were typical 
English and Puritan, although not 
Pilgrim, adventurers. They made 
expediently their first settlement 
near the east boundary, beside the 
sinuous creek that sets in from the 
sea near the present boundary of 
Stamford, and, as was customary 
with all who came from England to 
worship God after the dictates of 
their conscience and to cultivate civil 
and political liberty, instantly estab- 
lished a church. 

The conquering of the forest and the 
subduing of the soil, so that it gave 
forth its harvest lavishly of primitive 
grain, must have been rapid. The 



THE OLD AMER1CUS CLUB— Connected with Tammany Hall when Tweed was in his hey- 
day — Later the Indian Harbor Hotel and now the site of the mansion of Hon. E. C. Benedict 

pioneers explored inward from the 
coast and early, discovered various 
defensive and healthful locations, 
whence, after some channels were 
cut through the forests, the sea and 
the distant hills of Long Island were 
visible as through a lens; however, 
it was not upon the beauties of na- 
ture, as they were afterwards superb- 
ly revealed in Greenwich, that these 
pioneers were intent, but rather the 
mastery of her so that she would be 
compelled to give them support. 

Various little settlements, neigh- 
boring villages from three to five 
miles apart, were established in the 
latter half of the seventeenth cen- 
tury or between 1650 and 1700. 
Some of these were identified by 
memorial names from native towns 
in England, as was Greenwich itself, 
and also Stanwich village, — as 
charming a hill and valley nestling 
community as the most persistent 
natural beauty searcher can find in 
all New England. Then, again, 

with some sense of appropriateness, 
these pioneers named other settle- 
ments from Indian association — as 
Myanos, now called Mianus, and the 
less musical, singularly consonantal 
name Cos Cob which identifies to-day 
a pictuiesque and artist-loved colony 
by the banks of the navigable stream 
which penetrates and bisects Green- 
wich some two and one-half miles 
from the sea. 

Then, too, there were other settle- 
ments undignified by colloquial 
names fastened upon them by some 
humorous incidents or fancied re- 
semblance. There is Dumpling 
Pond, and to the west is Horseneck,. 
as it is still called by survivors of a 
generation which has almost passed, 
but known to moderns as the 
Borough of Greenwich, and particu- 
larly as the settlement of Belle 
Haven, crowded with modern villas 
and homes suggestive of recent in- 
dustrial prosperity. There at a 
modern Casino concentrates the 


neighborly social life of Belle Haven, 
indeed a "beautiful haven." At 
the remote west, hugging the state 
boundary of which the Byrum River 
is in part the line, there were in the 
early days a few scattered farms, 
often redolent of the sea, but to-day 
it is the thriving village of New Leb- 
anon, named perhaps in distinction 
to the old Lebanon of eastern Con- 
necticut, which was the birth place 
of five men who in their day became 
governors of states. 

All of these early settlements 
flourished so soon after 1640 that it is 
properly assumed that the pioneers 
who established themselves in 
Greenwich found in its air a delight- 
ful mingling of sea and mountain 
fragrance that was of so great invig- 
oration that they speedily broke the 
roads, cleared the forests, opened 
meadows and established themselves 
in these various neighboring villages 
all within the township, nearly nine 
miles in length and about seven 
in width. 

These pioneers and their immedi- 
ate descendants seem to have had 
no appreciation of the majesty of 
the combination of gradual ascent 
from the sea level to rolling uplands 
and then to higher lands, until far 
away upon the boundary line of the 
north and northwest there were de- 
clivities and precipices and eleva- 
tions of land stretching in long ex- 
tended ridges from east to west, each 
by successive gradation higher than 
the one nearer the sea, while those 
upon the northwest were concen- 
trated in a true hemisphere of 
land, a curious phenomenon to the 
eye, rounding with perfect regularity 
from its greatest periphery to the 
pole of it, which, now cleared away 
and under perfect cultivation, seems 
a truly artificial protuberance of 
great proportions, plainly but ade- 
quately designated as "Round 

These pioneers and their succes- 
sors were engaged in the conquest of 
the land and the mastery of the for- 

Opened in 1696 by Ebenezer Mead at corner of Putnam Avenue and Lafayette Place — Conducted by Henry 
Mead during the American Revolution — Headquarters of Royalist Governor Tryon in his famous raid of 1776 


ests and the subjugation of the Red 
Men. They were taught the stern- 
est lessons of economy and their ex- 
changes ot necessaries of life were 
almost wholly by means of barter 
since little cash, although much 
credit, prevailed. The pioneers 
brought with them the stern, exces- 
sive Puritan morality, some of it dis- 
daining the wondrous manifestations 
of the majesty of the creation which 
had lavished beauty so unstintingly 
upon all that region stretching from 

ing at Myanos bustled with a sort of 
primitive activity. The middle-man of 
that time, circulating around among 
the farmers who had conquered 
much acreage to the north, brought 
their eggs, their grain, and especial- 
ly their potatoes and apples, to the 
landing whence these were trans- 
ferred to the packet vessels for the 
market at New York. At that day, 
these farmers and especially those 
cultivators of the land whose fields 
were sometimes drenched with salt 

purchased and restored by the Putnam Hill Chapter, D. A. R., as a memorial to 

W. Lyon, Editor "Greenwich News" 

the patriot— By courtesy of Fred, 

the foothills of the north of Green- 
wich gradually away to the sea. 

They learned in those early days 
some lessons which modern business 
economy has expanded and intensi- 
fied. There was the Mvanos River, 
a navigable stream with its perfect 
though narrow harbor and its easy 
and natural means of communicat- 
ing between the market of New 
Amsterdam or later New York and 
the pioneer farmers. By this there was 
established in the early days a con- 
siderable packet service, and the land- 

spray from the sea and who found 
much food in the shell fish and other 
fish of Long Island Sound, could 
have had no conception that in their 
lands was greater wealth than any 
they ever dreamed of possessing; 
that the time would come when these 
fields, devoted to potatoes and to 
grazing and to some of the lesser 
grain, would be found yielding great 
harvests of suddenly developed 
wealth so that some of the farms 
would command prices in cash equal 
to the grand list of the entire coun- 


AT INDIAN HARBOR— Lake on Estate of Hon. E. C. Benedict 
By courtesy of Erwin Edwards, Editor "Greenwich Graphic 

try as it was estimated even ioo 
years after Robert Feaks and Dan- 
iel Patrick purchased lands from 
the Indians. 

To this day certain of the early 
indications of those who mastered 
the wilderness, and subdued it to the 
support of men, are to be seen here 
and there in all parts of the town- 
ship. These are quaint, tomb-like, 

cavernous excavations. In them 
were stored the many bushels of po- 
tatoes, in the raising of which 
Greenwich soil in the early days was 
prolific, until the time would come 
when they could be shipped advant- 
ageously by the little packet vessels 
from Myanos Landing to New York. 
The middlemen who collected the- 
farmers' stores, and carefully item- 



ized the eggs that were the treasures 
of the farmers' wives, received from 
them also certain lists designating the 
kind of barter into which the farm- 
ers and their wives desired their 
home products to be exchanged. So 
it was that, on his way back over 
the hills, he truly meandered, going 
through meadows and the by-paths 
and the greater highways to this or 
that farm house, depositing the bar- 
ter articles that he had received in 
exchange — and that was the great 
commerce of internal Greenwich for 
more than 150 years. 

A certain isolation, notwithstand- 
ing the distant, neighborly villages, 
characterized the town in a manner 
unlike the peculiarity of other vil- 
lages or townships of Connecticut. 
To-day the swift motor car and the 

superb blooded horses, four-in-hands 
and tandems, and the various fash- 
ionable paraphernalia of travel and 
recreation with which the wealthy 
find enjoyment upon all the roads 
and by-ways of Greenwich, give to 
riders and pleasure seekers, frequent 
vistas of isolated, pathetic little 
burying grounds, as New Engend- 
ers call these places of deposit for 
the departed. They all hint at the 
grand mystery of life and of the 
swift passing of successive genera- 
tions from activity into the Great 
Beyond. They are almost innum- 
erable, and in a sense actually in- 
numerable, since nothing but the 
records of the town would indicate 
the strange exposed places, or else- 
where concealed and forest shaded 
spots, where these little burying 

A DRIVE IN ROCK RIDGE— Courtesy " Greenwich Graphic" 


grounds for those who are of kin 
were established. Some of them are 
of such antiquity that the sandstone 
once set up as monuments, with 
quaintly chiseled names and dates 
and appropriate scriptural passages, 
have now been worn away by time 
and by climatic action until at last 
nothing but the stubs of them are 
visible above the ground. 

The tithing man and all the 
strange, stern ritual of Puritans, to- 
gether with his insistent and all per- 
vading theology and faith, domi- 
nated the entire community, resist- 

from what it had been for the pre- 
ceding one; nor did it differ in any 
way from the common domestic, so- 
cial, religious and political life of 
every independent community estab- 
lished in Connecticut colony. In 
Greenwich, as in all, there was ab- 
solute democracy, the executive 
power being delegated at the town 
meeting to certain officers who were 
held to strict accountability. In 
Greenwich, as in every other Con- 
necticut township, the sense of sov- 
ereignty dominated so that even to 
this day it is the township in Con- 

HURDLING AT BELLE HAVEN HORSE SHOW-Courtesy " Greenwich Graphic " 

ing all modern change even until a 
recent day. Here the almost patri- 
archal families, the Meads, the 
Brushes, the Pecks, the Ferrisses, 
led their lives of frugality and sim- 
plicity ; a great common family, so 
to speak, worthily enjoying the fine 
heritage of farm and forest, and un- 
consciously preparing for the great 
transformation that was to come. 

For a little more than two hun- 
dred years, the community life of 
this remotest western township of 
Connecticut was, for each successive 
generation, in no respect different 

necticut that is the sovereign, — no 
township having been willing to part 
with that independent sovereignty 
as it is assured through township 
representation in the legislature. 

Gradually, having become skilled 
in woodcraft, in the leveling of for- 
ests, and in the cultivation of the 
soil, the citizens of Greenwich, true 
sovereigns every man among them, 
opened up vistas more and more. 
They cleared away the timberland 
that there might be subjugation of 
the fields to cultivation until at last 
there were disclosed, stretching 


back to the sea, various successive 
billows of land, each remoter one 
arising to a greater height than its 
neighbor to the south, and at last 
all were surmounted by the ledge 
which is almost the northern bound- 
ary of the town. It seems, when 
these successive ledges or rolling up- 
lands are looked upon from some 
convenient point of view, as though 
there had been wave-like acceleration 
from the higher lands beyond to the 
north, even from the Berkshires, 
that was suddenly brought in check 
with gently decreasing momentum 
until the level of the sea was reached. 

No other township in Connecticut 
possesses such peculiarities of geolog- 
ical, and in a sense geographical, 
formation as does Greenwich. Stam- 
ford, its neighbor to the east, pos- 
sesses one great rampart upon its 
northern boundary, but otherwise 
the land slopes away gently and in 
slightly undulating meadow and for- 
est lands to the sea. Nowhere in 
Greenwich may be found the majes- 
ty of mountain scenery as it is dis- 
closed in northwestern Connecticut, 
or any vistas stretching far away 
such as are unfolded from mid- Con- 
necticut in its mystic mountain 
at Moodus, or the grandeur of some 
of the forest uplands of northeastern 
Connecticut. In one or two glens, al- 
most timid wild lands, so to speak, 
are discovered in northwestern 
Greenwich, and in a portion of the 
ridge that stretches easterly and be- 
hind which Washington found the 
natural fortification for his army 
after the retreat from White Plains. 

In no other town in Connecticut 
is there the succession of billow-like 
ridges, each pressed higher than its 
neighbor to the south, and each re- 
vealing a wider horizon towards the 
sea, until at last upon the highest 
slope there opens a vista of the beau- 
ties of that inner sea, framed by the 
white sands of Long Island and the 
deeper green beyond. That vista 
sweeps a length of the sound for 

OLD POST ROAD— A glimpse of 
Putnam Avenue, Greenwich — Photo- 
graphed by Frederick Merritt 

some thirty miles. To the east it 
broadens so greatly that the shores 
of Long Island are not discernible 
from the Connecticut side, and it 
seems as though the spectator were 
looking out over the real ocean to 
that magic and ever receding line 
where sky and ocean meet and form 
horizon's boundary. But to the 
west another picture is unfolded; 
there the inland sea gradually con- 
tracts until at last it tells the story, 
to the eye that geology has in- 
structed, of that Titanic convulsion 
when with poetic fury the sea or bay 
burst through the isthmus that 
bound Long Island to the main 
land, tearing its way onward until 


meeting the on-rushing tides from 
New York Harbor at Hell Gate it 
battled with them, creating whirl- 
pools and foam and strange surging 

In many places in Greenwich are 
the documents left by the glacier- 
movement, of prehistoric time, — de- 
posited bowlders, some of great size, 
that seem to have dropped from 
Heaven upon the plains beneath, 
and the geologic formation and sup- 
erficial aspect tell to the instructed 
reader a geologic tale similar in some 
respects to that which is in the rocks 
below Hartford and which reports 
the time when the Connecticut made 
its way to the valley of the Quinni- 
piac, depositing its waters where 
now is the city of New Haven. 

The archaic, simple but stern, 
though peaceful life of colonial days 
and of the days when Connecti- 
cut first had a constitution, received 
gentle, almost unsuspected inter- 
ruption, when the courageous pro- 
moter, Alfred Bishop, carried the 
railroad from New Haven to New 
York so that it skirted the seashore 
of Greenwich. That brought the 
metropolis almost, but not quite, 
within hailing distance. It was a 
long ride even from Greenwich to 
New York City at that early day of 
the railroad, nor was any passenger 
traffic sufficient to call for more than 
two or three trains a day each way. 
There had been growth in some of 
the villages, especially in Green- 
wich Borough, quickened into activ- 
ity by reason of the packet boat and 
steamboat that made passage be- 
tween Greenwich harbor and New 

With what felicity of choice did 
the orthodox worshippers, at last 
too numerous for convenient wor- 
ship at the early parish of old Green- 
wich, now called Sound Beach, 
select the eminence upon which to 
erect their wooden church. They 
chose it doubtless because they in- 
tuitively followed the common Con- 

necticut custom of setting their 
"Meeting House" upon a sightly 
hill. It was indeed a sightly hill r 
and when afterward the wooden 
church was supplanted by the stone 
edifice, architect and society's com- 
mittee, all men of God, builded wis- 
er than they knew. Here they con- 
structed the " stone church", some- 
times so called, a marvel of architec- 
ture, exquisite in its outlines, with 
its tower rising gossamer-webbed, a 
triumph of architectural beauty that 
should have given permanent repu- 
tation to the architect who design- 
ed it. Was it some happy, uncon- 
scious inspiration or did he toil over 
his plans knowing how he drafted 
and why, and that this church was 
to be widely named for the dream- 
like beauty of its proportions, so 
that from the distant sea, sailors 
would set the courses by its spire, 
and the United States Coast Survey 
choose it as one of the angles for trian- 
gulation, with another established 
upon the distant Round Hill to the 
northwest. There it stands ever in all 
vistas pointing heavenward, a mon- 
itor, a symbol of courage, faith, 

This stone church with its exquis- 
ite architecture, at least in the per- 
fect symmetry and poetry of its lines 
and the delicacy and sublimity of 
its tower, was also distinguished by 
the pastorate of two who afterwards 
became famous, the Rev. W. H. H. 
Murray, better known as "Adiron- 
dack" and later the Rev. George A. 
Gordon, D. D., who yielded the pul- 
pit of the Greenwich church that he 
might accept that of the new Old 
South Church of Boston where he 
still ministers. Of this church the 
Rev. Dr. Joseph H. Selden is now 

For one hundred and forty years, 
Greenwich had no other denomina- 
tion than the Congregational. But 
at last, just after the Revolutionary 
war, in a little building, as unpre- 
tentious as a country schoolhouse 


between Maine and Florida in such close proximity to the shore 
is occupied by this Second Congregational Church at Greenwich 

and at the crest of the hill where 
Putnam's traditional exploit was 
swiftly conceived and executed and 
duly recorded in all school history, 
a few Protestant Episcopalians wor- 
shipped. Around the primitive 
church was one of the little ceme- 
teries whence in recent years the 
remaining dust of the departed was 
solemnly removed so that today 
there are the lawns and landscape 
gardening of the country villa un- 
conscious of the great deeds that 

were achieved upon that spot. 
Later, the Episcopalians erected 
Christ church a little way to the 
west, distinguished among other 
things for the rectorship of the Rev. 
Mr. Yarrington, than whom none 
other in the history of the Episcopal 
church in the United States was 
longer in consecutive service, nearly 
sixty years. He has been followed 
by the successful ministration of 
the Rev. M. George Thompson, M. A. 
The Methodists established a 

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service nearly sixty years, and exceeded all other rectorships in Episcopal records 



BEAUTY IN CHURCH ARCHITECTURE— The First Presbyterian Church at Green- 
wich — Erected through the liberal contributions of Henry O. Havemeyer and others 

church in 
years after 

Greenwich nearly 200 
the township was pur- 
chased and later the Presbyterians 
who, through the kindly aid of Henry 
O. Havemeyer, have builded a little 
gem of church architecture in which 
to worship, organized a church at 
that time the second of the Presby- 
terian denomination in western Con- 
necticut. Of this church the Rev. 
William B. Waller is now pastor, 
and of the Methodist church the 
Rev. William E. Scofield. 

Undismayed by a fire which in an 
hour destroyed their church com- 
pletely, the Catholics of Greenwich 
recently completed a handsome 
stone church much larger than the 
first, and admirable in some of its 
architectural features, while upon 
the adjoining lot, the church main- 
tains an exceedingly well conducted 
parochial school, housed in a build- 
ing peculiarly adapted for this pur- 
pose. Rev. J. J. Fitzgerald is the 

There is so much of interest to 
history, geology, geography, and to 
the public-at-large, in Greenwich 
that I find my allotted space, with 

the beautiful and rare illustrations, 
requires me to close this chapter 
here. In the next issue of this mag- 
azine I shall conclude my historical 

STATELY STONE CHURCH— Recently erected by 
the Roman Catholics at Greenwich— St. Mary's 




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Romance of the &mt Struggle » « By eiizai>e«> d. 3<«w 

FROM the lips of my own great- 
great-great aunt came this 
true story. It was in the 
early days of the Great Strug- 
gle. Brave men were holding out 
their arms to the will of their coun- 
try and laying down their lives on 
the altar of libert}^. 

In the little settlement of Pomfret, 
Connecticut, lived one Uriel Mosely, 
betrothed to Sarah Hammond, the 
comely daughter of Josiah Hammond, 
a village worthy. The lumber had 
been hewn from the forest and drawn 
to the acres where their new home 
was to be erected. 

"American blood has been shed 
at Lexington!" 

From settlement to settlement 
echoed the cry, and strong hands 
and stronger hearts threw down the 
burdens of colonization to hurry to 
the defense of their country. 

"I must go!" exclaimed Uriel 
Mosely. "My country calls me. 
When I return, beloved, it will be to 
live in a happier land and a nation of 
freedom. It will not be long. Good- 
bye, my dear." 

As the champions of liberty 
marched awa}', the women extend- 
ed words of encouragement and off- 
ered silent prayers for their safety. 
At the bend in the road, where it 
passes over the hill and into the 
forests, there was a last backward 
look at the loved ones in the homeland 
in the valley. 

"The American cause is right, and 
right must be victorious!" exclaimed 
Sarah Hammond. "Uriel must re- 
turn. God will not take him from 

So great was her faith that she in- 
sisted that the house be erected for 
his home-coming. 

"But there is not a man in the vil- 
lage," she reflected. "And women 
were never made to be carpenters." 

"There is nothing that women can- 
not do in case of necessity," replied 
Mrs. Mosely, the good mother of the 
absent soldier boy. 

About this time there wandered 
through the village a lame artisan, too 
crippled to go to war, and seeking a 
livelihood at day labor. 

"By trade," he said, "I am a car- 
penter. I am unable to do heavy 
work but I will lay out the frame for 
the house if the women can do the 
rest of the work." 

It was on the Fourth of July; the 
women from far and near gathered 
for the house raising. Mother Mose- 
ly, having killed a sheep, took a quar- 
ter of the mutton on her shoulder 
and walked seven miles to a little 
settlement now known as Brooklyn, 
and secured the services of a Congre- 
gational parson that he might dedi- 
cate the work. He, with the lame 
journeyman, were the only men pres- 
ent; neither of them assisted in the 
raising other than to give directions, 
Miss Hammond overseeing the work 
and having it built according to the 
plans left by her soldier-fiance. 

Here is the carpenter limping about 
on his crutch, offering needed advice, 
and directing the placing of ropes 
around the beams as the women raise 
them to their proper positions. Here 
are the industrious women of the col- 
ony hauling the hewn timber into 
place. There stands the goodly par- 
son, a dignitary who looked upon 
the structure as one of holiness, but 
smiling with genial approval on the 
industry and thrift of the "sisters." 

And when the day's work was done 
and there stood before them an edi- 
fice made by their own hands and 
hearts, tradition says that "they 
feasted on the Green, stretching to- 
wards the west," and that "the food 
was spread out on cloths laid on the 

The day had been very sultry, and 
before the repast was finished clouds 
gathered and threatened to drive 
them to shelter ; there came the dis- 
tant roll of thunder, nearer and near- 
er, until it crashed overhead and 



sharp flashes of lightning played 
through the sky. 

"; ;The tumult of the gathering storm 
for a moment hushed ; there came the 
echo of a familiar call ; the faces of 
the diners turned toward the road 
leading over the hill. 
"Itis-!" exclaimed Miss Hammond. 
"It is the postman's horn," said 
Mother Mosely. 

Far in the distance could be seen 
the figure of a man on horseback ; as 
he approached he spurred his horse 
down the road and turned to the 
Green where the women were con- 
gregated. The sight of the frame 
house caught his eyes, and leaving 
the main road he dashed up the lane, 
reaching the house just as the first 
onslaught of rain came down, his 
horse white with the foam of a long 
and hard ride. 

Eager faces gathered about him. 

"The news," they exclaimed. 
"The news!" 

Every mother-heart of them had a 
loved one in the Great Struggle and 
plead for just a word assuring them 
that all was well. 

"There is but one packet," he said 
breathlessly. "It is for Sarah Ham- 

She took the letter from his shak- 
ing hand and tearing it open seemed 
lost in its contents. A pallor passed 
over her face ; her fingers trembled. 
The women gathered about her as if 
to offer consolation. 

"He — he — he is dangerously 
wounded," she faltered. ' 'His life is 
despaired of !" 

Then, with a glow of color rushing 
to her face, and a gleam of determi- 
nation in her eyes, she declared: "I 
must go to him. I will go to him." 

The distance was great and the road 
lonely. Several hours later the cour- 
ageous girl was on the way through 
woodland paths and over long 
stretches of wilderness, until at last 
she leaned over the weak form of 
her soldier-love and kissed the hag- 
gard face that looked up to her in 
alternate pain and pleasure. 

As time passed she nursed him to 
convalesence, then to health, and 
then the war was over — America had 
become the New World of Liberty — 
and they returned to the village, 
where they were married and took 
up their abode in the home that 
women built in the War of the Rev- 

The house stands in a picturesque 
spot, about a mile south of Hampton 
station, and in plain view of Hamp- 
ton Hill, which then as now was the 
home of most of the people in the 
community. A level field stretches 
toward the west and south of the 
house, and it was here that the wo- 
men assembled more than a century 
and a quarter ago. Time has made 
few changes in the historic old house. 
The twelve rooms are low and the 
ceilings are cross-beamed. There 
are dark halls according to the cus- 
tom of the times, and in the center of 
the old home is a huge fire-place. 
There are the quaint cupboards and 
closets of early American architec- 
ture. Some of the windows have 
been changed, and there is an ell of 
more recent building. Spreading its 
protecting branches over the home- 
stead is a large maple tree, and near- 
by is a thorny locust. 

Sarah Hammond-Mosely lived to 
venerable years, and there are those 
living in Hampton to-day who well 
remember her, and have heard her 
relate this story of the building of 
the house. In Chaplin and Ashford, 
Windham County, still live her de- 
scendants and you will bear with me 
in my pride when I repeat that she 
was my own great-great-great aunt. 

When I last visited the old home- 
stead it was occupied by a thrifty 
German family that had immigrated 
to America, saved their earnings and 
purchased the historic abiding place 
in which to rear their own stalwart 
sons and daughters for the conflict 
of the world's work. 

May they be inspired by their 




Conducted by Charles L. N. Camp 

This department is open to all, whether subscribers or not, and no fees are required. The queries should be as 
precise and specific as possible. The editor of this department proposes to give his personal attention to questions 
free of charge. Extended investigations will be made by him for a reasonable compensation. Persons having old 
family records, diaries or documents yielding genealogical information are requested to communicate with him with 
reference to printing them. Readers are earnestly requested to co-operate with the editor in answering queries, many 
of which can only be answered by recourse to original records. Querists are requested to write clearly all names of 
persons and places so that they cannot be misunderstood. Queries will be inserted in the order in which they are 
received. All matters relating to this department must be sent to The Connecticut Magazine, Hartford, marked 
Genealogical Department. Give full name and post-office address.— Editor 



(All Rights Reserved) 

The Ecclesiastical Society of Amity, (including Bethany, until 1763), 
was formed in 1737, and incorporated in 1739; being taken from the north- 
western part of New Haven, and the north-eastern part of Milford. 

Before this time, the people living nearer New Haven, attended ser- 
vices there, and the others, in Milford, riding, some of them, ten or twelve 
miles, to procure gospel privileges for themselves, and baptism for their 
children. Their first meeting was held in 1738, and on the second Sabbath 
in August, 1740, the first service was held in their church. 

The first settled minister was Mr. Benjamin Woodbridge, who was in- 
stalled on the third of November, 1742, and served his flock faithfully, 
until called to his reward, December 4, 1785. The parish of Amity was in- 
corporated as a town, January, 1784, taking, as was meet, the name of its 
beloved pastor for its own, and henceforward was "Wood-bridge." 

The church records are especially good ; the baptisms beginning, Nov- 
ember 14, 1742, going on regularly until 1753, when there is a break. In 
1762 only one baptism is recorded, and then no more until 1771. The 
marriages begin in 1742; but the deaths not until 1785. 

The baptisms of the early children of the people, are to be found in the 
church records of New Haven and Milford, and the deeds of those two 
towns, until 1784, give much information concerning the families; also the 
Probate Records of New Haven, in which district, Woodbridge still 

From a copy of the church records, made by the late S. P. Marvin, 
the following has been arranged by Louise Tracy, Genealogist, New 
Haven, Conn. 




*Alling — Allen 

Samuel, of Samuel, baptized Oct. 16, 1743. 
Amos, of Samuel, baptized Nov. 17, 1745. 
Cornelius, of Samuel, baptized Jan. 15, 1749. 
Hannah, of Samuel, baptized Jan. 12, 1752. 
Ellinor, of Samuel, baptized Jan. 12, 1752. 

Harmon, of f Marshall, baptized Dec. 28, 1787. 
Merritt, of Marshall, baptized Jan. 3, 1790. 
Zina, son of Marshall, baptized June 10, 1792. ) 

Lena, daughter of Marshall, baptized June 10, 1792. [ 
Lyman, son of Marshall, baptized Dec. 6, 1794. 

Elizabeth, of John, baptized March 21, 1752. 

Stiles, of Roger, baptized Jan. 28, 1787. 
Lucy, of Roger, baptized July 5, 1789. 
Mary, wife of Roger, baptized Jan. 15, 1792. 

Lucy, of Justus, baptized March, 1799. 

Mary, wife of Justus, baptized June, 1799. 

Amelia, daughter of Justus, baptized Sept. 29, 1799. 

Justus Merritt, son of Justus, baptized Dec. 26, 1802. 

David, son of Justus, baptized June, 1806. 

Russell Bennett, son of Justus, baptized July, 1816. 

Polly Palmer, of Justus, baptized May 4, 182 1. 

Marcus Buell, of Justus, baptized May 4, 182 1. 

Charlotte Elizabeth, of Justus, baptized July 13, 1828. 

Isaac, of Isaac, baptized Aug. 23, 1801. 
Lucinda, of Isaac, baptized April 21, 1805. 

Catherine Hannah, of Rev. Jason, baptized May 1, 181 2. 
Maria, of Rev. Jason, baptized Sept. 5, 1814. 
Elizabeth, of Rev. Jason, baptized Dec. 13, 1818. 

Charlotte, of Mrs., baptized Feb., 1829. 

Mary (Lewis ?) of Mrs., baptized Feb. (?) 1829. 

Lewis, Irad or Jared, of Mrs., baptized Feb., 1829. 

Rachel, adult, baptized July, 1816. 

Hannah, adult, baptized July, 1816. 

Fanny, adult, baptized Dec. 20, 1819. 

Sarah, adult, baptized Jan. 1, 1832. 

Lucius, adult, baptized May, 1844. 

, whose husband was Rev. Ed. D. Allen of Albany. 

Andrews or Andrus 
Hannah, of Jedidiah, baptized Jan. 29, 1744. 

Enoch, of Ebenezer, baptized Oct. 22, 1783. 
Chloe, of Ebenezer, baptized May 4, 1788. 

*The name is written Ailing and Allen, for members of the same family. 

f Written Marshall or Martial. As he was a descendant of Capt. Thomas Marshall, 
of Lynn, Mass., and probably named for him, the first spelling is, undoubtedly, the 
correct one. 


Lucy, of Judah, baptized Oct. 14, 1787. 

Jeremiah, baptized Oct. 15, 1802. 

Rebekah, wife Riverius, baptized May 10, 1789. 
Milicia, daughter of Riverius, baptized July 5, 1789. 
Polly, daughter of Riverius, baptized July 5, 1789. 
Patty, daughter of Riverius, baptized Oct. 24, 1790. 
Billy, son of Riverius, baptized Aug. 1793. 
Son of Riverius, baptized Oct. 1798. 

, of Jonathan, baptized May 24. 1752. 

Martha, of Abraham, baptized June 11, 1749. 
Elizabeth, of Abraham, baptized June 11, 1749. 
Abraham, baptized May 4, 1749. 


Ailing— Allen 

Hannah, of New Haven, and Timothy Brown of New Haven, May 21, 1744. 

Phebe, of New Haven, and Robert Talmage of New Haven, June 22, 1747. 

John, of New Haven, and Elizabeth Beecher of Amity, Jan. 27, 1752. 

Ruth, and Dan Hine, Feb. 18, 1756. 

Silas and Dorcas Baldwin, March 25, 1756. 

Roger, of Amity, and Lucy Smith of Amity, July 30, 1767. 

Sarah, and Reuben Andrews, Feb. 5, 1770. 

Roger, of Amity, and Lydia Perkins of Amity, July 31, 1771. 

Hannah, of Amity, and Seth Peck of Amity, Dec. 4, 177 1. 

Susanna, of Amity, and James Lines of Amity, Jan. 8 (?), 177 1-2. 

Samuel, Jr., and Deborah Camp ofMilford, Feb. 24, 1774. 

Gideon, of Amity, and Sarah Russell of Amity, July 11, 1782. 

Lucinda, of Amity, and Mr. Curtis of Stratford, July 27, 1791. 

Cloe, of Amity, and Daniel L. Sperry of Woodbridge, June 14, 1792. 

Timothy, and Polly Harding of Woodbridge, April 25, 1793. 

Justus, of Amity, and Polly Palmer, of Woodbridge, March 20, 1794. 

, of New Haven, and Truman Smith, July 19, 1794. 

Keziah, of Woodbridge, and Chester Smith of Oxford, Nov. 26, 1794. 
Lydia, of Woodbridge, and Samuel Riggs of Oxford, Oct. 2, 1799. 

William Allen, of New Haven, and Umberfield, Dec, 1802. 

William Allen, of New Haven, and Fanny Bradley of Woodbridge, Aug., 

Abigail Allen, of Woodbridge, and John Murray of New Haven, Aug. 

1804. (?) 
Zina, of Woodbridge, and Polly Mansfield of Woodbridge, Jan. 23, 1813. 
Lucy Allen, of Woodbridge, and Henry Hicox of Durham, Jan. 23, 18^7. 
Eli, of Woodbridge, and Maria Baldwin of Woodbridge, May 6, 1819. 
Justus, of Woodbridge, and Rebecca Sperry of Woodbridge, Oct. 1819. 
Hannah, of Woodbridge, and Hubbard Hotchkiss of Woodbridge, Aug, 9, 

Silas Allen, of Orange, and Harriet Lines, of Woodbridge, Feb. 5, 1825. 


Abigail, and Thomas Vergunson, Nov. 30, 1743. 
David, of Waterbury, and Abigail Johnson of Amity, July 2, 1767. 

Andr us- Andrews 

Mary, of Amity, and Elijah Grant of Litchfield, March 11, 1755. 

Jonathan, of Milford, and Eunice Baldwin of Amity, Apr. 20, 1758. 

Reuben, and Sarah Ailing, Feb. 5, 1770. 

Ebenezer, and Abigail Sperry, July 27, 1774. 

John, and Anna Collins, Oct. 7, 1779. 

Simeon, and Anna Northrop, April 12, 1780. 

Riverius, of Amity, and Rebecca Thompson of Amity, Jan. 15, 1786. 

Rhoda, of Amity, and Anson Clinton of Amity, June 5, 1793. 

Joseph, of Amity, and Eunice Johnson of Derby, Aug. 31, 1794. 

Richard, and Elizabeth Bolles of Branford, Aug. 26, 1795. 

Selina, of New Haven, and Seth Turner, Feb. 23, 1813. 

Polly, of Woodbridge, and Ranson Scovil, or Sperry of Waterbury, April, 

Jedidiah, and Elizabeth Baldwin, May 21, 1745. 

William, of Milford, and Rebecca Thomas of Amity, Sept. 11, 1764. 

Mary, and Shuboel Handny of Woodbury, Sept. 24, 1782. 


Abraham, of Amity, and Elizabeth Bradley, May 21, 1745. 

Phebe, of Mt. Carmel, and Abraham Hotchkiss of Mt. Carmel, Feb. 7, 1769. 

Martha, of New Haven, and Joseph Beecher of Amity, Feb. 5, 1766. 

Joshua, of East Haven, and Abigail Northrop of Woodbridge, July 25, 1787 



Lucy, daughter of Roger, died Aug. 8, 1787. 

Child of Roger, died Sept. 8, 1787. 

Samuel, died April 4, 1788, at 72. 

Infant of Justus, died Oct. 25, 1794. 

Daughter of Justus, died Oct. 1803. 

David, son of Roger, died at sea, Nov. or Dec. 1 

Marshall, died Dec. 28, 1804. 

Amos, son of Roger, died March 12, 1805. 

Infant of Justus, died Oct. 30, 1807. 

Infant of Philo Allen, died Jan. 14, 181 1, aged 2 days. 

Lucy, daughter of Roger, died Jan. 3, 1814 aged 25. 

Mary wife of Justus, died Sept. 2, 18 18, aged 42. 

Infant of Jason Allen, died Aug. 10, 1822, aged 4 days. 

Roger, died Aug. 2, 1824, aged 84. 

Charles H. Allen, son of Hezekiah, died Aug. 10, 1829. 

Rebecca, wife of Justus, died Nov. 12, 1830, aged 40. 


Widow Hannah, died Sept. i, 1838, aged 81. 

Lydia Allen, died May. 19, 1838, aged 88. 

Abigail, died Nov. 26, 1840, aged 88. 

Mrs. Huldah, died Apr. 29, 1841, aged 53. 

Justus, died March 2, 1842, aged 75. 

Eliza Ann Allen, daughter of David, died July 9, 1842, aged 8. 


William, died May 19, 1787. 

Widow Adams, alias Thomas, died June 23, 1803, aged 88. 


John Andrus, died Feb. 9, 1789. 

Elihu, son of Riverius, died Feb. 1795. 

Elizabeth, (alias Sperry) wife of Elijah, died Jan. 18, 1802, aged 58. 

Jeremiah Andrus, son of John, died Oct. 19, 1803, aged 23. 

Widow of Dr. John Andrus, died Jan. 14, 1803, aged 72. 

Hezekiah, son of John, died Sept. 19, 1807, aged 26 or 29. 

Riverius, died Feb. 7, 1813, aged 54. 

David Andrus, died Jan. 16, 18 16, aged 48. 

John, died April 27, 1845, aged 5. 


Chloe, wife of Timothy, died Jan. 1803. 

Timothy, (negro) died Sept. 14, 1806, aged 80 or 90. 

Widow, Abigail, died Jan. 30, 1827, aged 89. 


Joseph, of Samuel, Jr., baptized Jan. 8, 1744. 
Anna, of Samuel, Jr., baptized June 23, 1745. 
Eli, of Samuel, Jr., baptized Feb. 14, 1747. 
Eli, of Samuel, Jr., baptized Jan. 7, 1748. 
Israel, of Samuel, Jr., baptized Jan. 4, 1750. 
Joseph, of Samuel, Jr., baptized March 2, 1752. 

Mary, of Deacon Theophilus, baptized Feb.f5, 1744. 
Richard, of Deacon Theophilus, baptized Dec. 1, 1745. 

James, of Thomas, baptized April 1, 1787. 
Elizabeth, of Thomas, baptized May 1, 1794. 
James Judson of Thomas, baptized May 7, 1797. 

Burrell, of Barnabas, baptized Sept. 1, 1745. 
Silas, of Barnabas, Jr., baptized Dec. 11, 1748. 
Mary, of Barnabas, Jr., baptized Feb. 10, 175 1. 
Sarah, of Barnabas, Jr., baptized June 3, 1753. 

Sarah, of Silvanus, baptized April 29, 1744. 
Hezekiah, of Silvanus, baptized Feb. 14, 1747. 
Sarah, of Silvanus, baptized March 27, 1748. 
Charles, of Silvanus, baptized June 23, 1751. 


Elizabeth, wife of Alsop, baptized March 2, 1775. 

Raymond, of Hezekiah, baptized June 3, 1792. 

Erastus, of Enoch, baptized 1785. 
Susanna, of Enoch, baptized May 24, 1789. 

Sally Esther, of Capt. Enoch, baptized Sept. 18, 1791 
Child of Capt. Enoch, baptized June 1, 1794. 

David, of Henry Baldwin, baptized Sept. 18, 179 1. 

Sarah, of Widow Baldwin, baptized June, 1799. 

Polly, of Ephraim Baldwin, baptized Nov. 17, 1793. 
Newton, of Ephraim Baldwin, baptized Nov. 17, 1793. 
Mary, of Ephraim Baldwin, baptized July 28, 1794. 
Newton, of Ephraim Baldwin, baptized May, 1796. 

Mary Adeline Nelson, of Ephraim Baldwin, (Capt.) baptized June 7, i8r2. 

Stiles, of Nathaniel Baldwin, baptized Oct. 1803. 
Cornelia, of Nathaniel Baldwin, baptized Oct. 2, 1808. 
Garwood Mills, of Nathaniel Baldwin, baptized Oct. 15, 1815. 
Susan Emmeline, of Nathaniel Baldwin, baptized Sept. 20, 1818. 
Charity Jane, of Nathaniel Baldwin, baptized Oct. 22, 1820. 

Hannah Baldwin, Adult, baptized March 3, 1816. 
Lydia Baldwin, Adult, baptized Aug. 1, 1816. 
Amy Baldwin, Adult, baptized Nov. 181 7. 

Mary, of Josiah Baldwin, baptized Oct. 2, 1808. 

Lucretia, of George, baptized July 31, 1817. 
Sarah Louisa, of George, baptized July 31, 1817. 
Laura, of George, baptized July 31, 1817. 
Mary, of George, baptized July 31, 181 7. 
George Lewis, of George, baptized July 31, 181 7. 
Elihu Frost, of George, baptized July 31, 18 17. 
Lyman, of George, baptized July 21, 1817. 
Judson, of George, baptized July 31, 1817. 

Major Baldwin, Adult, baptized July 1, 182 1. 

Betsy Louisa, of David, baptized Oct. 28, 1821. 

Nyllys Beecher, of Marcus, baptized Sept., 1823. 
Hezekiah Hervey, of Marcus, baptized May 20, 1827. 

Parsons, of Chauncey Baldwin, baptized Sept., 182 1. 

Charles Earl, of James Baldwin, baptized May, 1825. 


Clarissa, Adult, baptized July 1, 182 1. 

Cornelia, of Benajah, baptized Apil, 1826. 
Merritt, of Benaijah, baptized April, 1826. 
Benaijah, of Benaijah, baptized Apr., 1826. 



James, of David L., baptized Jan., 1793. 
Mary, of David L., baptized Aug. 7, 1796. 

Henry, of Rev. David, baptized March, 1800. 
Henrietta, of Rev. David, baptized March, 1800. 


Timothy, of Timothy, baptized May 24, 1752. 

Anna, wife of Ezekiel Ball, baptized Nov. 1, 1812. 
Hannah, daughter of Ezekiel Ball, baptized Nov. 3, 1813. 
Wyllys, son of Ezekiel Ball, baptized Nov. 3, 1813. 


Eunice, of Capt. Ebenezer, baptized Dec. 5, 1742. 
Lois,* of Capt. Ebenezer, baptized March 18, 1744. 
Dorcas, of Capt. Ebenezer, baptized Nov. 10, 1745. 
Huldah, of Capt. Ebenezer, baptized May 31, 1747. 
Abigail, of Capt. Ebenezer, Jr., baptized May 20, 1750. 
Abigail, of Capt. Ebenezer, Jr., baptized Aug. 30, 1752. 
Polly, of Capt. Ebenezer, Jr., baptized 1785. 
Wyllys, of Capt. Ebenezer, baptized Jan. 28, 1787. 
Sheldon, of Capt. Ebenezer, baptized May 17, 1789. 
Ebenezer, of Capt. Ebenezer, baptized Sept. 18, 1791. 
Sophia, of Capt. Ebenezer, baptized May, 1797. 

Hester, of Daniel, baptized Aug. 26, 1752. 

Mary, of Joseph, baptized April 3, 1743. 
Experience, of Joseph, baptized July 31, 1743. 
Joseph, of Joseph, baptized March 10, 1745. 
Elizabeth, of Joseph, baptized Jan. 25, 1747. 
Esther, of Joseph, baptized March 24, 175 1. 
Hezekiah, of Joseph, baptized Oct. 8, 1752. 

Reuben, of Eliphalet, baptized May 15, 1743. 
James, of Eliphalet, baptized March 6, 1748. 

Marcus Lyman, of Burr, baptized May 1, 1788. 
Rebekah, of Burr, baptized May 1, 1788. 
Julia, of Burr, baptized May 1, 1788. 
Atlanta, of Burr, baptized Jan., 1789. 
Hannah, of Burr, baptized May 29, 1791. 
Nancy, of Burr, baptized Dec. 15, 1793. 
Burr Smith, of Burr, baptized Men., 1800. 
Nancy, of Burr, baptized Oct. 3, 1802. 

David, of Isaac, baptized Sept. 18, 1743. 
Abraham, of Isaac, baptized Dec. 1, 1745. 
Isaac, of Isaac, baptized Sept. 20, 1747. 
Isaac, of Isaac, baptized Jan. 22, 1749. 
Child of Isaac, baptized Jan., 17 51. 

*Lois. (?) 



Thomas, of Thomas, baptized Dec. 7, 1746. 
Jared, of Thomas, baptized Feb. 12, 1749. 
Elizabeth, of Thomas, baptized Dec. 19, 175 1. 
Elizabeth, of Thomas, baptized Feb. 19, 1753. 

Anna, of Caleb, baptized Nov. 1, 1747. 
Elizabeth, of Caleb, baptized Oct. 29, 1749. 
Anne, of Caleb, baptized Apr. 1, 1753. ) twing 
Elizabeth, of Caleb, baptized Apr. 1, 1853 ( 

Elihu, of Jeremiah, baptized June 10, 1793. 
Elihu, of Jeremiah, baptized June 22, 1794. 

Orrel, of Hezekiah, baptized Apr. 1801. 

George Henry, of William, baptized May 8, 1808. 
Bennet Benton, of William, baptized May 8, 1808. 
Gennett Maria, of William, baptized July 23, 181 1. 
Adaline Emmeline, of William, baptized Sept. 27, 1812. 

, child, of William, baptized Nov., 1816. 

John Smith, of William, baptized Oct. 28, 182 1. 
Anson Clinton, of William, baptized Nov. 6, 1825. 
Amos Beecher, adult, baptized April, 182 1. 
Charles Newton, of Amos, baptized July 7, 1822. 
Elizabeth Antoinette, of Amos, baptized Aug. 20, 1826. 
John Jason, of Reuben M., baptized June 27, 1824. 


Esther, of Ebenezer, baptized Aug. 7, 1743. 
Ebenezer, of Ebenezer, baptized Jan. 19, 1746. 
Mary, of Ebenezer, baptized Jan. 7, 1753. 


Ashbel, of Andrew, baptized Feb. 8, 1747. 
Israel, of Alexander, baptized April 29, 1750. 
Walter, of Walter, baptized Feb. 19, 1792. 
Beecher, of Walter, babtized July 7, 1793. 
Iared (or James), of Walter, baptized Oct. 4, 1795, 
Lyman, of Walter, baptized Feb 6, 1797. 
Lucy, of Lyman, baptized April 7, 1798. ) . 
Lua, of Walter, baptized April 7, 1798. J twins * 


Eunice, of Timothy, baptized June 29, 1746. 
Silas, of Timothy, baptized July 31, 1748. 
Mary, of Timothy, baptized Aug. 5, 1750. 
David, of Timothy, baptized Feb. 19, 1753. 

Elizabeth, of Avis, baptized March, 1775. 

Wilmot, of Andrew Bradley, baptized March 29, 1752. 
John Ransom, of Wilmot, baptized 1785. 
Betsy, of Wilmot, baptized March 8, 1789 
Almira, of Wilmot, baptized April 7, 1798. 


Sally, wife of Ailing, baptized June 10, 1792. 
Hulday, daughter of Ailing, baptized June 10, 1792. 
Dana, son of Ailing, baptized June 10, 1792. 
Ailing Hubbard, of Ailing, baptized Aug. 9, 1795. 
Aurel Goodsell, of Ailing, baptized July 20, 1800. 
Joseph Langdon, of Ailing, baptized Nov., 1804. 

Hannah, of Benjamin, baptized March, 1800. 

Amelia, wife of Eldad, baptized March, 1800. 
Timothy Willis, of Eldad, baptized May 11, 1806. 

Julia, of Amos, baptized Nov., 1804. 
Eunice, of Amos, baptized June 14, 1807. 

Jerry, of Silas, baptized March, 1800. 

Lewis, of Silas, baptized May 2, 1801 

Dan, of Silas, baptized 1804. 

Wealthy, of Silas, baptized Aug. 10, 1806. 

Betsy Smith, of Silas, baptized Oct, 2, 1808. 

Ursula, of Silas (Capt.), baptized Aug. 5, 18 10. 

Sally, of Silas (Capt.), baptized Nov., 181 2. 

Nancy, of Jeremiah, baptized Sept. 6, 1801. 

Philo, of Abner, baptized July 24, 1803. 
Henry Myer, of Abner, baptized Feb. 23, 1806. 
William Frederick, of Abner, baptized Oct. 2, 1808. 
Benjamin, of Samuel, baptized June 7, 1818. 
Samuel, of Samuel, baptized Sept. 3, 182 1. 
George, of Samuel, baptized Sept., 1823 
Jennett, of Langdon, baptized May 7, 1826. 


Samuel, of Samuel, baptized Feb. 19, 1749. 
Ruth, of Samuel, baptized Jan. 6, 1751. 
Sarah, of Samuel, baptized Dec. 3, 1752. 


Martha, of Moses, baptized Sept. 17, 1749. 
Mary, of Moses, baptized Oct. 6, 1751. 

Olive, of Moses, of Oxford, baptized Sept., 1745. 

Lois Caroline, of Lines, baptized Oct. 2, 1808. 



Israel Baldwin and Hannah Chatterton, Oct. 17, 1743. 
Timothy Baldwin, Amity, and Sarah Benham, Amity, Jan. 24, 1745. 
Mercy Baldwin, Amity, and Timothy Bradley, Feb. 13, 1745. 
Elizabeth Baldwin, Amity, and Jedediah Andrews, Oct. 15, 1745- 
Barnabas Baldwin, Amity, and Mary Terrell, Amity, March 10, 1747. 
Sibel Baldwin, Amity, and Alexander Booth, Amity, Nov. 7, 1748. 
Mehitable Baldwin, Amity, and James Thompson, New Haven, March 6, 


Matthew Baldwin, Amity, and Abigail Thomas, Jan. 31, 1751. 

Hester Baldwin, Amity, and Daniel Beecher, Feb. 13, 1752. 

Samuel Baldwin, Amity, and Abigail Humphreville, West Haven, Jan. 8, 

Samuel Baldwin, Amity, and Temperance Baldwin, Nov. 14, 1754. 
Dorcas Baldwin, Amity, and Silas Ailing, March 25, 1755. 
Eunice Baldwin, Amity, and Johnathan Andrews, Milford, April 2, 1758. 
Levi Baldwin, Amity, and Sarah Wilmot, Amity, Aug. 12, 1763. 
Theophilus Baldwin, Amity, and Hepsibah Sherman, Aug. 24, 1763. 
Abiah Baldwin, Amity, and Joel Atwater, New Haven, Dec. 28, 1763. 
Rebekah Baldwin, Amity, and Richard Sperry, Amity, Dec. 6, 1764. 
Israel Baldwin, Amity, and Philena Pardy, Amity, Dec. 20, 1766. 
Eli Baldwin, Amity, and Deborah Potter, Amity, Nov. 29, 1770. 
Mary Baldwin, Amity, and David Beebe, North Stratford, Sept. 1771. 
Mary Baldwin, Amity, and Jonah Strong, Woodbury, Dec. 17 71. 
Alsop Baldwin, Westbury, and Elizabeth Sherman, Oct. 13, 1773. 
Joseph Baldwin, Bethlehem, and Eunice Strong, Bethlehem, March 14, 1775. 
Comfort Baldwin, and John Hine, Derby, Feb. 12, 1778. 
Chloe Baldwin, and Job Northrop, Jr , May 3, 1779. 
Hezekiah Baldwin, Amity, and Elizabeth Hine, June 1782. 
Sarah Baldwin, and Joseph Hine, Derby, Dec. 2, 1783. 
Mary Baldwin, Amity, Ebenezer Beecher, Amity, Dec. n, 1783. 
Eunice Baldwin, Woodbridge, and Lines (or Linus) Beecher, 1786. 
Josiah Baldwin, Woodbridge, Theresa Thomas, Woodbridge, Sept 17, 1786. 
Charles Baldwin Woodbridge, and Susanna Hine, March 17, 1792. 
Adah Baldwin, Woodbridge, and David Hickox, Waterbury, Nov. 6, 1794. 
Eunice Baldwin, Woodbridge, and John Woodruff, Milford, 1795. 
Joel Baldwin, Woodbridge, and Abigailr Nothup, Nov. 6, 1797. 
Amos Baldwin, Woodbridge, and Polly Downs, Nov. 17, 1799. 
Barnabas Baldwin, Woodbridge, and Widow of Isaac Sanford, Oct., 1803. 
Abner Baldwin, Woodbridge, and Elinor Hotchkiss, Woodbridge, 1805. 
Major Baldwin, and Harriet Par sons, Nov. 2, 1810. 
David Baldwin and Sally Newton, Aug. 10, 181 2. 

Laura Baldwin, Woodbridge, and Merritt Woodruff, Orange, May 26, 1824. 
Lyman Baldwin, Woodbridge, and Maria Beach, May 31, 1S24. 
Sarah Ann Baldwin, ¥7oodbridge, and David Munson, West Haven, June 

16, 1843. 
Charles L. Baldwin, Woodbridge, and Mary A. Beecher, Jan. 5, 1845. 
Lucy Maria Baldwin, Woodbridge, and Deacon Samuel Bradley, Clinton, 

N. Y., Aug. 24, 1845. 
Elizur W. Baldwin, Woodbridge, and Ann E. Manville, Woodbridge, Oct. 

5, 1845. 
Miriam Baldwin, Woodbridge, and Samuel F. Sperry, April 26, 1846. 
Julia Baldwin, and Isaac Buckingham, Aug. 1, 1820. 
Abiah Baldwin, and Clark Sperry, Sept. 13, 1820. 
Marcus Baldwin, and Sophia Beecher, Woodbridge, Jan. 7, 1822. 
Mary Baldwin, and Deacon Reuben Minot Beecher, Woodbridge, Oct. 3, 

Mary Baldwin, and Amos Smith, Oct. 9, 1823. 
James Baldwin, Woodbridge, and Eliza Baldwin, Woodbridge, April 27, 

Eliza Baldwin, Woodbridge, and James Baldwin, Woodbridge, April 27, 



Betsy Baldwin 2nd, Woodbridge, and Samuel Newton 3rd, Woodbridge, 

Jan. 4, 1813. 
Hezekiah Baldwin, New York, and Polly Clark, Woodbridge, May, 1813. 
Huldah Baldwin, Woodbridge, and Mark Sperry, Woodbridge, May 30, 18 15. 
David R. Baldwin, and Lydia Peck, Oct. 12, 1815. 
Sally Baldwin and Laurin Peck, Oct. 24, 1815. 
Chancy Baldwin and Eunice Hine, Woodbridge, May, 181 7. 
Lucretia Baldwin and Amos Thomas, Sept. 1817. 
Mary Baldwin and Chauncey Smith, New York State, Nov. 10, 1817. 
Ebenezer Beecher and Lois Johnson, May 25, 1743. 
John Beecher and Mary Wilmot, Feb. 1, 1744. 
Thomas Beecher and Elizabeth Terrell, Amity, Dec. 25, 1745. 
Caleb Beecher and Abigail Wheeler, Sept. 18, 1745. 
Lydia Beecher, Amity, and Gideon Johnson, Derby, Mch. 23, 1749. 
Elizabeth Beecher, Amity, and John Ailing, New Haven, Jan. 27, 1752, 
Daniel Beecher, Amity, and Hester Baldwin, Amity, Feb. 13, 1752. 
Eliphalet Beecher, Amity, and Anne Morris, Sept. 1755. 
Hannah Beecher, and Ephraim Terrell, Jr., Oct. 27, 1855. 
Eunice Beecher and Reuben Sperry, Feb. 6, 1760. 

Experience Beecher, Amity, and Enoch Newton, Amity, Sept. 7, 1761. 
Mary Beecher, Amity, and John Horton, Amity, Dec 1, 1762. 
Lois Beecher, Amity, and Nathan Fairchild, Derby, Apr. 24, 1765. 
Dorcas Beecher, Amity, and Jared Smith, Amity, Jan. 29, 1766. 
Joseph Beecher, Amity, and Martha Auger, New Haven, Feb. 5, 1766. 
Eunice Beecher, Amity, and Reuben Bradley, Amity, Sept. 3, 1766. 
Hester Beecher, Amity, and Heze- kiah Smith, Amity, Nov. 9, 1767. 
Elizabeth Beecher, Amity, andAmos Thomas, Amity, Feb. 1, 1770. 
Huldah Beecher, Amity, and David Smith, Amity, May 22, 177 1. 
Ann Beecher, Amity, and David Perkins, Amity, June 19, 1772. 
Elizabeth Beecher, Amity, and James Perkins, Amity, June 8, 1773. 
Hezekiah Beecher, Amity, and Lydia Hotchkiss, Cheshire, Oct. 17, 1774. 
Hannah Beecher, Amity, and Samuel Johnson, Jr , Mch. 24, 1776. 
Martha Beecher and Benjamin Strong, Woodbury, Jan. 1, 1777. 
Lydia Beecher and David Hotchkiss, May 15, 1777. 

Mehitable Beecher, Salem, and Zephaniah Downs, Bethany, Mch. 31, 1779. 
Rhoda Beecher, Amity, and Joseph Downs, Nov. 2^, 1780. 
Wheeler Beecher, Amity, and Polly Mansfield, New Haven, Apr. 18, 1781. 
Anna Beecher, Amity, and Jesse Sherman, Jan. 23, 1782. 
Ruth Beecher, Amity, and Rev. Eliphalet Ball, Amity, July 17, 1783. 
Ebenezer Beecher, Amity, and Mary Baldwin, Dec. 11, 1783. 
Hannah Beecher, Woodbridge, and John Dibble, Esq., Woodbridge, May 

9, 1785. 
Eunice Beecher, Woodbridge, and Isaac Heminway, Mch. 16, 1785. 
Ephraim Beecher, Woodbridge, and Sarah Beecher, Amity, Mch. 29, 1785. 
Sarah Beecher, Woodbridge, and Ephraim Beecher, Amity, Mch. 29, 1785. 
Linus Beecher, Woodbridge, and Eunice Baldwin, Amity, 1786. 
Enoch Beecher, Woodbridge, and Abigail Thomas, Amity, Aug. 10, 1788. 
Hezekiah Beecher, Woodbridge, and Sarah McNeil, Feb., 1800. 
William Beecher, Woodbridge, and Polly Beecher, Woodbridge, 1803. 
Linus Beecher, Woodbridge, and Elizabeth Camp, Milford, May 17, 1806. 
Roger Allen Beecher, Woodbridge, and Betsy Beach, Woodbridge, Oct. 14, 

Marcus L. Beecher, Woodbridge, and Fanny Johnson, Humphreville, 

Sept. 3, 1814. 


Elihu Beecher, Woodbridge, and Huldah Newton, Nov. 25, 1818. 

Linda Beecher and Munson Sperry, Feb. 8, 1819. 

Amos Beecher and Charlotte Baldwin, Apr. 26, 1819. 

Eliza Beecher and Abraham Heminway, Dec. 9, 1819. 

Aurelius Beecher and Lucy Richardson, Nov. 22, 1820. 

Sophia Beecher and Marcus Baldwin, Jan. 7, 1822. 

Dea. Reuben Minot Beecher, Woodbridge, and Mary Baldwin, Oct. 3, 

Elizabeth M. Beecher, Woodbridge, and Linus Peck, May 19, 1824. 
Merit Beecher, Woodbridge, and Harriet Scott, Oxford, 1824. 
Mary A. Beecher, Woodbridge, and Charles L. Baldwin, Jan. 5, 1845. 

David Barns, Chaplin, and Abigail Vergurson, Amity, Dec. 5, 1764. 
Jonathan Barns, Waterbury, and Sibil Bartholomew, Nov. 22, 1783. 

Thomas Beavens, Bridgeport, and Nancy Morgan, Woodbridge, Apr. 7, 1806. 

Samuel Brisco and Ruth Northrop, Dec, 1745. 


Mary Bunnell and Titus Tyler, Mch. 16, 1748. 


Timothy Bradley, Amity, and Mercy Baldwin, Amity, Feb. 13, 1745. 
Elizabeth Bradley, Amity, and Abraham Auger, May 21, 1745. 
Andrew Bradley, Amity, and Dennis Wilmot, Amity, Nov. 24, 1748. 
Israel Bradley, New Haven, and Annie Thompson, New Haven, Nov. 7, 

I75 1 - 

Eunice Bradley and Stephen Peck, Dec. 19, 1763. 

Reuben Bradley, Amity, and Eunice Beecher, Sept. 3, 1766. 

Mary Bradley, Amity, and Aaron Fenn, Plymouth, Mch. 15, 1770. 

Dennis Bradley, Amity, and Lazarus Clark, Amity, Oct. 24, 1771. 

Charles Bradley, Amity, and Rachel Dickerman, New Haven, Aug. 5, 1773. 

Mercy Bradley and Lemuel Sperry, June 12, 1775. 

Wilmot Bradley and Anne Peck, Dec. 24, 1775. 

Mabel Bradley and Samuel Candee, Oxford, Mch. 20, 1777. 

Timothy Bradley, Jr., and Esther Dickerman, Sept. 22, 1778. 

Ailing Bradley and Sarah Collins, Mch. 7, 1782. 

Lydia Bradley and Nathaniel Sperry, Sept. 26, 1782. 

Sarah Bradley, Amity, and Jesse Camp, Amity, Jan. 23, 1783. 

Martha Bradley, Amity, and Bezaleel Peck, May 15, 1783. 

Salmon Bradley, New Haven, and Martha Sperry, Amity, Nov. 3, 1784. 

Eldad Bradley, Woodbridge, and Amelia Sperry, Amity, Oct. 13, 1791. 

Betsy Bradley and John Porter, May 7, 1792. 

Abner Bradley, Jr., and Deborah Hine, April 25, 1794. 

Comfort Bradley and James Hine, Mch. 22, 1795. 

Eunice Bradley, Woodbridge, and Chancy Tolles, June 7, 1797. 

Andrew Bradley and Polly Sperry, Woodbridge, Feb. 1, 1798. 

Fanny Bradley and Wm. Ailing, New Haven, Aug., 1804, 

Samuel Bradley and Irene Riggs, Woodbridge, Jan. 28, 1806. 

Garrett Bradley and Julia Stoddard, New Haven, Feb. 25, 181 7. 


Abner Bradley and Abia Peck, Woodbridge, Dec. 15, 1821. 
Mabel Bradley and Benjamin Bishop, Woodbridge, Feb. 12, 1825. 
Dea. Samuel Bradley, Clinton, N. Y. and Lucy Maria Beecher, Aug. 24, 


Timothy Brown, New Haven, and Hannah Ailing, New Haven, May 21, 

Timothy Brown, New Haven, and Anna Russell, Amity, Apr. 2, 1766. 
Ebenezer Brown, New Haven, and Eunice Hine, June 7, 1794. 


Matthew Beel, Milford^and Lois Hine, Dec. 7, 1780. 


Moses Brooks, Amity, and Martha Perkins, Amity, Sept. 16, 1748. 
Jeremiah Brooks, Cheshire, and Polly Heminway, Woodbridge, 18 14. 


Alexander Booth, Amity, and Sibil Baldwin, Amity, Nov. 7, 1848. 
Peter Booth, Amity, and Esther Carrington, Amity, Oct. 30, 1766. 
Jonathan Booth, New Haven, and Rebecca Cooper, New Haven, May 5, 

Walter Booth and Mary Newton, Dec. 30, 1781. 
Experience Booth, Woodbridge, and William Stillson, North Haven, June 

25, 1786. 
Treat Booth and Eunice Lines, Woodbridge, Oct., 1803 
Widow Eunice, Woodbridge, and David Hurd, Southbury, 18 14. 
Lucy Booth and George Clinton, Sept., 18 17. 


Abigail Bristol and David Tucker, (?) Nov. 11, 1755. 


Timothy Ball and Mary Hine, Amity, Apr., 1750. 

Rev. Eliphalet Ball, Amity, and Ruth Beecher, Amity, July 17, 1783. 

Ezekiel Ball, New Haven, and Anna Lines, Woodbridge, Jan., 1803. 


Simeon Baker, Washington, and Betsy Camp, Woodbridge, Oct. 13, 1802. 


David Beers and Martha Downs, Dec. 28, 1755. 

David Beers, Amity, and Hannah Perkins, Amity, Mch. 5, 1761. 


Susanna Bassett, New Haven, and Charles Sabins, New Haven, May 13, 1762. 


Benjamin Bishop and Mabel Brad ley, Feb. 12, 1825 

Charles Bishop, East Haven, and Mary Ann Darling, June 9, 1845. 


David Beebe, North Stratford, and Mary Baldwin, Sept. 24, 177 1. 


Polly Beach and Bezaleel Merwin, Jan., 1800. 

Olive Beach, Woodbridge, and Edward Riggs, Oxford, 1803. 


Betsy Beach and Roger Allen Beecher, Oct. 14, 1812. 

Mabel Beach, Woodbridge, and Charles Munson, New Haven, 1815. 

Anson Beach and Clarinda Sperry, Nov. 27, 1816. 

Maria Beach and Lyman Baldwin, May 31, 1824. 

Nancy Beach, Woodbridge, and Julius Porter, Milford, May 25, 1840. 


Isaac Bronson and Anna Smith, Woodbridge, 1803. 


Child of Barnabas, Jr., died Aug. 17, 1787. 

Widow Baldwin, wife of former Deacon Theophilus, died Aug., 1790. 

Widow, mother-in-law of Capt. Bradley, died Aug., 1790. 

James, son of Thomas, died July 17, 1791. 

Wife of Andrew, died Oct. 29, 1792. 

Mrs. Baldwin, mother of Richard Sperry, died Jan. n, 1793. 

Infant daughter of Ephraim, died July 30, 1794. 

Daughter of Enoch, died Sept. 6, 1794, aged 6. 

Infant son of Enoch, died Sept. 14, 1794. 

Newton, son of Ephraim, died March 16, 1795. 

Abigail, daughter of A. Baldwin, died Jan., 1800, aged 37. 

Abia, died July 12, 1800, aged 17. 

Henry, died Feb., 1801, aged 67. 

Huldah, wife of Barnabas, Jr., died Dec. 13, 1801, aged 38. 

Baldwin, died March 29, 1801, aged 90. 

Jerusha, wife of Lieut. Barnabas, died Jan. 15, 1803, aged 74. 

, former wife of Isaac Sanford, originally Jerusha Baker, daughter 

of Deacon John Baker, of Washington. 
Capt. Barnabas Baldwin, Jr., died July 11, 1804, aged 44. 
Lieut. Barnabas, died Dec. 24, 1804, aged 78. 
Abiah, wife of Deacon Richard, died Oct. 23, 1805, aged 58. 
Child of Amos, died Sept. 15, 1806. 

Silas, son of Barnabas, died April 1, 1808, aged 38 or 39. 
Child of Ephriam, died Dec. 30, 1808. 

Widow Baldwin, widow of the late Barnabas, died Sept. 26, 181 1, aged 72. 
Ailing, died Jan., 1813, aged 80. 
Sally, wife of David H., died May 18, 1813, aged 20. 
Enoch, died Oct. 14, 1815, aged 79. 
Rebekah Sperry, widow of Richard, (alias Baldwin), died Nov. 22, 1815, 

aged 73 or 75. 
Amos, died June 8, 1817, aged about 27. 
Grace Ann, daughter of Amos, died Oct. n, 1820, aged 10. 
Charlotte, died Oct. 3r, 1820, aged 18. 
Allen, died Aug 30, 182 1, aged 39. 

Alexis, son of Capt. Enoch, died Sept. 1, 1821, aged 43. 
Anna Maria, wife of Newton, died Sept. 4, 1824, aged 24. 
Charity Jane, daughter of Nathaniel, died Sept 5, 1824, aged 4. 
Susan Emmeline, died Sept., 1825, aged 7. 
Hezekiah, died Jan. 13, 1*26, aged 36. 

Martha, wife of Capt. Ephraim Balwin, died Aug. 23, 1826, aged 58. 
Wife of Thomas, died June 17, 1829, aged 68. 
Josiah, died Dec. 18, 1829, aged 66. 

End of Book Three of Volume X 

Alung St, 

Please Mention The Connecticut Magazine when patronizing our Advertisers. 

yt Ideal SIGHT Restorer 

Is Your Sight Failing ? 

All refractive errors, muscular trouble and chronic 
diseases of the Eye successfully treated by scientific 

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"I wish I could impress every one afflicted so they would give 
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English, German or Spanish pamphlet mailed tree. Address 
THE IDEAL COMPANY, 239 Broadway, New York. 


The Eden of Connecticut 

Lakeville, in the Litchfield County Hills. 
The gateway to the Berkshire Hills, 

The Wononsco House 


Affords every comfort for its guests, has accommodations 
for about eighty people Large, airy parlors, well lighted 
dining room. Private suites with bath. The Wononsco Livery 
Stable furnishes first-class turnouts for driving parties. 

Lake Wononscopomoc is within a Stone's Throw of the Hotel. 

Boating, Bathing, Fishing, Golf, Tennis, Croquet, Pool, etc. 


Hartford & New York Transportation Steamer to NEW YOR 

Leave Pier 19, (New) 
East River, New York City 

Daily Service, 5 P. M., Sundays Excepted ] Hartford ,° Conn. 6 


One way . $ 

Hound trip, good for 

season . 
Stateroom, one way 
Main deck fare 

Gen. Freight and 

Passenger Agen 



One fare, with room 
nights, $4.50; 2 fare 
with same room 
nights, $7.01; 3 fare 
with same room 
nights, $9.00. 

These excursions gftil 
passengers two daji I 
in New York. h<\ . 
turning, arrive i| », 
Hartford Tuesda; 

Send for illustrate { 

Meals, 50 cents each; ell 
a la Carte. 

, N. B. Note change ci " 
i Pier In New York Clt) 


Passenger Accommodations First-Class. Shipments received on pier In New York until 6 P. M., and forwarded to all pointi 
mentioned on Connecticut River. We also have through traffic arrangements with lines out of New York for points South and West, an 1 
shipments can be forwarded on through rates, and Bills of Lading obtained from officers of the Company. For Excursion Rates se<| 
daily papers. 




if J : : 

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I Ith St. and University Place, 

One Block West of Broadway. 


First-Glass Service and Accommodations 
at Moderate Rates. 

Rooms at $1.00 per Day and Upwards. 
Restaurant on Premises. 



Peter Holler's 
Cod Liver Oil 

May be relied upon 
as being SOUND, 
and of absolute purity 

C Is prepared from the livers of cod-fish only that are per- 
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C Is scientifically prepared under the most approved method, 
insuring cleanliness in every detail of manufacture. 
C Always produces satisfactory results, because of its per- 
fect digestibility and the fact that it may be taken con- 
tinuously without causing gastric disturbances. 
C. Is bottled where manufactured, thus passing direct to the 
consumer without the possibility of adulteration. 
C Is never sold in bulk. 

Sold only in flat, oval bottles, with name of 

Schieffelin & Co., New York 

Sole Agents 


Peter Moller f s 
Cod Liver Oil 

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Lever of the 


FT never dis- 
appoints, it 
never fails. To be 
a master-musician, to 
express your idea of your 
own favorite music, is the 
rare pleasure in store for you. 

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Established 1876 MEBIDEN, OONN., IT. S. A. 


Borated Talcum 


rhc Mennen Caddie 

offers instant relief from chaps and skin f| 
roughness which keen fall winds bring 
;o out of door folks. 


>oothes and heals all chafing and chap- 
ring; and is put up in non-refillable box 
— Mennen'sface on the cover guarantees 
t's genuine. 
r or sale everywhere, or by mail for 25 cts. 


Newark, N. J. 

" Try 

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Talcum Powder.' 

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Connecticut's Cake and mountain Region 



Some of the most picturesque scenery in New England is right here in 
Litchfield County, Connecticut. It costs little to reach it. 
Hotel accommodations are moderate. The air is invigorating. The out- 
door sports varied. 

The golf links at Norfolk are said to excell the famous Lenox Links. The 
territory is unexcelled for beautiful drives or automooiling, and there are 
excellent fishing grounds within easy access. 

Trains leave Hartford at 8:05 A. M., 11:07 A. M., 1:30 P. M. and 4:30 P. M., 
and returning arrive at Hartford at 9:30 A. M., 10:53 A. M., 4:40 P. M. and 
6:55 P. M. A special Mountain Express leaves Hartford daily, except Sun- 
days, at 1:30 P. M., running as far as Canaan, and returning leaves Canaan 
at 7:38 A. M., arriving at Hartford at 9:30 A. M. 

Central New England Railway Company 


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The Campfield Monument 

A beautiful piece of monumental construc- 
tion; located in the southwestern part of 
the City of Hartford, was designed, carved 
and set by The Stephen Maslen Co. 
It is a fair sample of the high grade pro- 
ductions of our plant. 
We make a specialty of monuments, 
tomb-stones, slabs and general cemetery 
decoration; we guarantee all work to be of 
the highest grade, and our prices are the 
lowest in the state. 


40 High St. 






Broadway and Thirty-First Street, NEW YORK 





Conducted on 


At Moderate Rates. 
Cuisine Unexcelled, 


Single room and suites, 
with and without bath 


per day and upwards. 

Ten minutes from all Stations 
and Ferries, accessible to all 
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up-to-date, fire-proof Structure; 
Electric Light and Telephone in 
Rooms. All refurnished and 
newly decorated. 

Send for Booklet. 

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Connecticut Industries 

With an Invested Capital of $373,283,580, Giving 

Employment to 181,529 Mechanics, Paying 

them Annually in Wages $87,942,628, 

Connecticut last year Produced 

Goods valued at $369,082,091 

Third of a series of able articles on Connecticut's Manufactures 
and its Markets, including first complete compilation of Connecticut's 
huge industrial interests for public library and reference use throughout 
the country — Attention is called to the several articles in this issue that are 
of especial interest to those engaged in manufacturing — Read the " Devel- 
opment of Steam Navigation," by Seymour Bullock, on page 439 — Editor 

ACCORDING to statisticians the 
last year has been the great- 
est in the history to the 
American republic. The 
aggregate wealth of the nation in- 
creased from $65,000,000,000 in 1890 
to $94,000,000,000 in 1900, and is now 
estimated in 1906 at $120,000,000,000. 
The American republic is to-day a 
great business institution which cost 
last year $542,000,000 to run its 
government affairs, aside from the 
revenues that were received by the 
post office department which went 
back into the conduct of that service. 
Where does the money come from for 
conducting this great enterprise? 
More than one-half of it is derived 
from internal revenue taxes on spirits, 
tobacco and fermented liquors. The 
remainder comes from the customs' 

During the last year the banks have 
held more money, and the per capita 
circulation has been greater than ever 
before in the history of the nation. 
The cost of living has been higher, 

but more people have had the price. 
More emigrants have been received 
than in any year before, the arrivals 
exceeding the million mark. 
\ Estimates on the population of 
Connecticut made a few days ago 
according to the methods recom- 
mended by the United States Census 
Bureau show that the state has passed 
the million mark. The official esti- 
mate is 1,005,854. New Haven is 
credited with a population of 121,216; 
Hartford, 95,822; Bridgeport, 84,274 ; 
Waterbury, 61,900; New Britain, 
33,720 ; Meriden, 30,685 ; New Lon- 
don, 19,822. 

These estimates are always subject 
to error, especially in manufacturing 
towns, where growth is frequently 
more rapid than is credited in the esti- 
mates. For instance, a directory cen- 
sus of Hartford recently credited the 
city with a population of 98,614. 
Government authorities however, be- 
lieve that there is no doubt but what 
the population of Connecticut has 
finally passed the coveted million 


Hartford has a combined capital of $28,358,583— 11,178 mechanics last year received wa^es of $6,562,236 and form 
materials valued at $11,587,130; produced $25,973,651 in finished product— Hartford covers 11,520 acres; its grand list 
exceeds $65,003,000 and population 90,000— Hartford has exceptionally strong transportation facilities by steamboat 
from New York; from all railroad points via N. Y., N. H. & H. R. R., and a network of electric railways to subur- 
ban communities. 



David Tilton, Prop. Established 1879 

Wood Screws of Every Description 

Our specialties are brass and bronze metal 

screws — Flat, Round and Oval Heads. 


John T. Austin, Pres. John Spencer Camp, Vice-Pres. 
L. R. Cheney, Sec. and Treas. 

Builders of 
Electric and 


25 Asylum Street 
Hartford, Conn. 
Manufacturers of 
Patentees of Seal Presses and Rubber Stamp 
Making Machinery. Expert workers in our 
line— Best equipped office in Connecticut. 

Established 1869. Capital $200,000 

C. E. Billings, Pre*, and Gen. Mgr., F. C. Billings, Vice-Pres. 
and Supt., L. H. Holt, Treas , E. H. Stockeb. Sec. 

Adjustable Wrenches, Machine Wrenches, Tool-holders, 
Pliers, Machine Clamps, Lathe Dogs, Machine Hammers, 
Screw Drivers, Ratchet Drills, Hand Vises, Drop Ham- 
mers, Automobile Forgings and General Forgings 


Organized 1883 

Silas Chapman, Jr., Pres. R. K. Erving, Sec. and Treas. 

manufacturers op 
Burr's Patent Combination Index and 
Burr's Improved Trial Bxlance Sheets 

THE J. B. BURR & COMPANY, Incorporated 

Edgar B. Burr, Pres. H. S. King, Sec. and Treas. 


Sole Manufacturers of 
Patent Eureka Pad and Cover 

Manufacturing and Insurance Printing 
a specialty 


Chartered 1855. Capital $1,000,000 
L. C. Grover, Pres., Wm. C. Skinner, Vice-Pres., F. A. 
Schirmer, Treas., A. L. TJlrich, Sec, W. B. 
Williams, Jr., Asst. Treas. 
Colt Rkvolvbrs, Colt Automatic Pistols, Colt Automatic 
Machine Guns, Gatling Guns, Gun Mounts and Carriages 
Colt Revolvers adopted by U. S. Army and Navy, Foreign Gov- 
ernments, State National Guards, Municipal Police Departments 

Established 185 


. Incorporated 1896 

Asa S. Cook, Pres. and Treas. John F. Cook, Sec. and 
Mgr. M. F. Cook, Asst. Treas. 

Manufacturers of 



Established 1862 

A. F. Cushman, Pres. E. L. Cushman, Sec. and Treas. 

F. H. Dean, Asst. Sec. A. P. Sloan, Supt. 

Manufacturers of 


JAWS, Etc. 

Hartford, Conn. 


Incorporated 1897. Authorized Capital $20,000,000 

Milton J. Budlong, Pres. W. G. Henderson, Treas 

H. W. Ktte, Sec. 



Delivery Wagons, Trucks, Ambulances, Patrol Wagons, 

Busses, Broughams, Victorias, Phaetons, Runabouts 


Successor to 

The Hartford Woven Wire Mattress Company 

Henry Roberts, Pres. and Treas. Robert R. Pease, Sec. 

steel and brass trimmed bedsteads 

woven wire and link mattresses 

Cots, Cribs, Wire Door Mats, Hospital and Institution Bedsteads 

Incorporated 1894 

C E. Whitney, Pres. F. L. Bishop, Sec, and Treas. 

E. W. Robinson, Gen. Mgr. 


120 to 124 Allyn St. Telephone 2456 

H G. Lorentz, Pres. Edwin W. Putnam, Sec. and Treas. 

In either Wood or Metal. 


Frank L. Palmer, Pres. J. A. Hardison, Treas. 
W. F. Bedard, Sec. 

Fancy Leather Goods ; Pocket Books ; Memo- 
randums ; Card and Letter Cases ; Safety- 
Specie Books ; Advertising Souvenirs 
and Leather Specialties. 

beading Industries of Hartford— continued 








Established 1896. Gerald W. Hart, Pres. 

Manufacturers of 

" Diamond H" Electric Switches 

Branch Offices: New York, Boston, Chicago, Denver, 
San Francisco, Toronto, Can., London, Eng. 


Capital $80,000 

Robert G. Henry, Pres Joseph H. King, Vice-Pres. 
D. M. Wright, Sec. and Treas. 

Makers of Ball Bearing Drill Presses 


Established 1848. Capital $800,000 

Pliny Jewel, Pres. Lyman B. Jewell, Vice-Pres. Charles E Newton, 

Treas. Charles L. Tolles, Sec. 

Tanners of Pure Oak Bark Leather, Lace Leather, Polishing 

Leathers.Metallic Tipped Belt Lacings,RoundBelting,BeltHooks 

Dealers in Hides and Skins 


Chartered 1876 

Manufacturers of MACHINE SCREWS and all manner of 
Turned Special Parts from Every Kind of Material 



Capital $22,500,000 

Albert A. Popb, Pies , Albert L. Pope, 1st Vice-Pres., C. E. 

Walkkk, 2d Vice-Pres., Wilbur Walker, Sec, 

George Pope, Treas. 




Hartford, Conn. 

Manufacturers of 
Precision Machine Tools, Machinists' 
Small Tools, Gauges, Standards, Etc. 


Capital $250,000 

sons of the pioneer rogers bros. 

John MacFadten, Pres. George H. Rogers, Sec. 

Samuel MacFadyen, Treas. 

Factories: Hartford and Wallingford. 



Designer, Engraver, 

Electrotyper 4 

30-32 UNION PL., HARTFORD, d! 

Designing, Compiling and 


Electrotyping, Printing, 

binding, etc & etc. 


Organized 1886. Capital $150,000 

Edward B. Hatch, Pres. and Treas. Chas. H. Patrick, Vice-Pres. 

Chab. E. Newton, Sec. Jas. C. Howell, Asst. Sec. 
Vulcabeston for electrical insulation and steam packing. 

Moulded Mica Insulators for electric railways. 


Established 1838. Incorporated 1894. 

J. M. Merkow, Pres. G. W. Merrow, Sec. and Treas. 

Makers of 

The Merrow High-Speed Overseam, Overedge and 
Scallop or Shell Stitch Sewing Machines 


Stair Builders, Store and Office Fixtures and General Mill 


get our estimates 

hi Commerce Street, Hartford, Conn. 

Telephone 2019-4 


32 Union Place. Telephone 

Seven-Inch Shapers 

Special Machinery 
Experimental Work 

Dies and Tools 
Inventions Developed 


Successors to 


Standard Inks and Mucilage, Am- Pickles, Horse Radish, Olives, Vine- 

monia, Blueing, Witch Hazel, gar, Mustard, Celery Salad, Wor- 

White Paste. cestershire Sauce, Catsup. 

Capital City Pickle House : Packers of Sweet, Mixed, Chow 

Chow, Gherkin, Onion and Piccalilli Pickles, Pepper Relish. 


Established 1879 

James R. Topping - - - Thomas H. Topping 


of every description 

Good and Correct Work Guaranteed. 734 Main Street 

r eading Industries of Hartford— continued 


Capital $3,500,000. Organized 1896 

John T. Underwood, Pres. DeWitt Bergen, Sec. and 

'actory: Hartford, Conn. Main Office: 241 Broadway, New York 






C. E. Beach, Pres. E. G. Clark, Vice-Pres. 

Arthur S. Hyde, Treas. and Mgr. 

High Pressure Power Plant Piping, Pipe Coils, Feed Water 

Heaters, Condensers, Automobile Coolers, Plumbers' 

Supplies, Engineers, Pipe Benders, Brass Founders 

and Finishers, Sheet and Metal Workers 


66 Market St. Hartford, Conn. 


wholesalers and retailers in 

Rogers' Silver-Plated Ware and Sterling Silver 

repairing and replating op all kinds. 

At the Old Wm. Roger's Salesrooms. 

This growth is chiefly due to the 
development of manufactures. Dur- 
ing the last six years 1,103 factory 
buildings were erected, or additions 
made, by 636 different concerns in 
Connecticut. The total cost of these 
buildings was $12,350,023.87. 

During the last fiscal year, 188 
structures have been erected for man- 
ufacturing purposes in Connecticut. 
Bridgeport leads with 25 new struct- 
ures; Waterbury follows with 24; 
New Haven, 17; Hartford, 13; New 
Britain, 11. One hundred and twenty 
factory buildings, or 64 per cent, were 
constructed of brick material ; 48 were 
of frame construction ; 7 of brick and 
steel ; 5 of brick and iron ; 3 of brick 
and frame construction; 2 of brick 
and stone, and one each of brick and 
concrete, natural stone and artificial 
stone. One hundred and eight fac- 
tory buildings were on one story plan ; 
25 were two stories in height; 10, 
were three stories; 18 were four 

stories; 3 were five stories from the 
ground ; 7 were two stories with 
basement; 3 were three stories with 
basement; one each were iy 2 , 2^, 
3^2 and basements, and 5 stories with 

The new factory structures erected 
during the last year increased the to- 
tal floor space by 1,734,223 square 
feet, while the ground area roofed 
in by these new buildings is 19.6 
acres. A statement by towns, show- 
ing the floor space in the new factory 
buildings erected during the year last 
passed as follows : 

Town Sq. feet 

Ansonia 3,060 

Beacon Falls 9,000 

Branford 2,320 

Bridgeport 261,605 

Bristol 36, 702 

Canton 13,297 

Chatham 5,460 

Darien 4,000 

Derby 875 

Glastonbury 59,908 

Greenwich 5 ,688 

Griswold 31,878 

Haddam 10,560 

Hartford 38,953 

Huntington 15,00° 

Manchester 17.55° 

Meriden 16,167 

Middletown 29,660 

Montville 11,250 

Naugatuck 35,328 

New Britain 63,039 

New Haven I73.5 11 

reading Industries of New L,ondon 


New London, Conn. 
Capital and Surplus - - $1, coo, 000 

President B. A. Armstrong 

Manufacturers of 

Embroidery Silks; Spool Sewing Silks: Machine and Buttonhole 

Twists; Silk and Satin Tailors' Linings; High Grade 

Dress Silks and Satins 


established 1 8 56 

190 Howard St. New London, Conn. 

gear cutting and centering machines 

Also Drill and Lathe Chucks 
iron founders 
Chucks for Use on Foot Lathes a Specialty 
Send for illustrated Catalogue. 


New Britain has a combined capital of about $15,000,000, producing manufactured goods valued at over $13,000,000 
employing about 9,000 at annual wages exceeding $4,000,000— New Britain holds distinction for patenting more 
inventions per capita than any other city in the world— Its population is about 35,000 and its annual list about 


Organized 1868. Capital $300,000 

E. H. Davison, President 
G. S. Talcott, Treasurer 

High Grade Underwear and Hosiery 


Established 1849 Capital $500,000 

Philip Corbin, President. Charles H. Parsons, First 

Vice-President. Charles E. Whetmore, Second 

Vice-President and Treasurer. Edward L. Prior, 

Assistant Treasurer. Albert N. Aebe, Secretary. 

Charles B. Parsons, Asst. Treasurer 


Incorporated 1882. Capital $200,000 

Geo. W. Corbin, President. C. H. Baldwin, Treasurer. 
W. H. Booth, Secretary. G. L. Corbin, Asst. Treasurer. 

Cabinet Locks, Padlocks, Trunk Locks, Suit Case Locks, 
Keys and Blanks, Special Hardware, House Letter Box- 
es, Rural Mail Boxes, Apartment House Letter Boxes, 
Post Office Equipments. 

Incorporated 1903 

Philip Corbin, President. M. S. Hart, Vice- 

Pres. and Treas. Paul P. Wilcox, Asst. 

Treas. and Sec. J. S. Bretz, 

General Manager. 



Incorporated 1903 

Charles Glover, Pres. Clarence A. Earl, Vice-Pres. 

Theodore E. Smith, Sec. and Treas. 

William J. Surrk, Asst. Sec. 

Wood, Machine, Cap and Set Screws, Stove, Tire, Sink and 

Machine Bolts, Special Screws of every description. Steel 

and Brass Jack Chain, Steel and Brass Escutcheon Pins, and 

The Corbin Duplex Coaster Brake. 


Incorporated 1901. Capital $150,000 

Howard S. Hart, Prest. Norman P. Cooley, 
Treas. R. C. Twitchell, Sec. 

Wrought Steel Hot Air Registers 

Organized 1853. Capital, $1,000,000 

Charles F. Smith, Pres. George M. Landers, Sec. and 

Treas. Frederick A. Searle, Asst. Treas. 

James N. Stanley, Asst. Sec. 

Table Cutlery, Household Hardware, and 
Plumbers' Brass Goods. 


Incorporated 1898. 

J. B. Minor, Pres. F. A. Porter, Sec. and 
Treas. O. Burckhardt, Asst. Sec. 

Rip Van Winkle Spring Beds 


Organized 1861. Capital $200,000 
George M. Landers, Pres. H. C. Noble, 
Vice-Pres. and Treas. E. M. Wight- 
man, Sec. 



Philip Corbin, Pres. Geo. H. Dyson, Treas. and Mgr. 

Manufacturers and Repairers of 


diamond work a specialty 



Incorporated 1851. Capital $1,000,000 
Howard S. Hart, Pres. Benjamin A. Haw- 
ley, Vice-Pres. Isaac D. Russell, Treas. 
J. H. Van Newkirk, Asst. Treas. 
Theodore E. Smith, Sec. 


Incorporated 1887. Capital $75,000 

D. N. Camp, Pres. 

D. O. Rogers, Vice-Pres. and Treas. 

E. J. Skinner, Sec. 



Organized 1853. Capital $1,000,000 

Charles E. Mitchell, Pres., Alix W. Stanley, Vice-Pres. 
and Sec, Charles B. Stanley, Treas. 



Incorporated 1852. Capital $i,oco,oco 

Wm H. Hart, Pres. George P. Hart, 1st Vice-Pres. 

E. A. Moore, 2nd Vice-Pres. L. H. Pease, Sec. 

and Treas. H. B. Humason, Asst. Sec. 

Wrought Bronze and Steel Ball Bearing Hinges, Wrought 

Steel Butts, Hinges, Door Bolts, Shelf Brackets, Builders' 

and Shelf Hardware,— Cold Rolled Steel. 

^eading Industries in New Britain — continued 


Incorporated 1889. Capital $200,000 

J. A. Traut, Pres. A. C. Sternberg, Vice-Pres. G. W. 
Traut, Treas. H. C. Hink, Sec. 

Metal Trimmings for Suspenders and Garters ; 
Snap Fasteners, and Upholsterers' Nails. 

Town sq. feet 

New London .... 42,600 

Norwalk 33*459 

Norwich 94, 760 

Plainville 20, 742 

Plymouth 10, 304 

Seymour 3, 120 

Southington 2,900 

Sprague 82, 200 

Stamford 49,281 

Stonington 11,185 

Torrington 53,508 

Wallingford 19,420 

Waterbury 264,718 

Watertown 26,130 

West Hartford 30,000 

Willington 20,900 

Windsor Locks 73, 350 

Winchester 50,835 

Total 1,734,223 

Official information shows that the 
employees in Connecticut's factories 
support 508 local unions and eight 
state organizations. This is a de- 
crease from 1904 when 524 were re- 
ported, while back in 1903 there were 
591 unions. During the last fiscal 
year there have been 45 labor difficul- 
ties in Connecticut that may be classed 
as strikes or lock-outs. There were 
2,948 employees involved in these dis- 
turbances, and 51,682 days' time 
was lost by reason of these con- 
troversies. The amount of money 
lost in wages has been computed at 
$83,208.02. Twenty-two different 
towns were effected. The causes of 
these disturbances are summarized as 


Capital $300,000 

George W. Corbin, Pres. A. F. Corbin, Vice-Pres. 
M. L. Bailey, Sec. and Treas. 

Lathe, Drill and Planer Chucks, Iron andWood 
Planes, Union Coil Door Springs, Galvanized 

Pump Chain, Patent Rubber Buckets. 

Well Curbs and Fixtures, Pumps. 

follows : in eleven instances basic de- 
mand was an increase in wages ; in 
seven cases demands were made for a 
shorter work day. Four of the dis- 
turbances were caused by objection to 
the employment of non-union men. 
In one instance, each of the following 
reasons were given : Extra compen- 
sation for overtime, sympathy with 
locked-out employees, objection to in- 
creased hours of labor, misunder- 
standing concerning employment of 
foreman, objection to infliction of 
fines, disagreement, refusal of em- 
ployer to permit inspection, demand 
for recognition of union and also re- 
newal of agreement, objection to let- 
ting of contract to persons employing 
non-union labor, objection to reten- 
tion of foreman, demand for more 
frequent payment of wages, objection 
to performing increased labor unac- 
companied by corresponding increase 
in compensation, sympathy with strik- 
ing employees of another trade, ob- 
jection to reduction in wage rate, de- 
mand that a discharged employee be 
reinstated, demand for an increase in 
wage rate and also recognition of 
union, and the demand that a dis- 
charged foreman be reinstated. 

Coming now to the adjustment and 
results of these various controversies 
it was successful in ten instances, and 
partially successful in five other cases. 

Leading Industries of Middletown 

H. H. Francis, President 



Impervious— Hygienic— Guaranteed 


A R A W 



L S 

I. E. Palmer, Proprietor 

Manufacturers of 

New York Office 55 Wobth St. 


Meriden has a combined capital of about $17,000,000, producing manufactured goods valued at over $15,000,000, em- 
ploying about 8,000, with annual wages of about $4,000,000— Meriden has a grand list of about $22,000,000 audits 
population is estimated at about 35,000 — Meriden is the home of the great silver-plate industries. 



Carl. V. Helmschmied, Pres. and Treas., P. T. Saleski, Sec. 


Hand Decorated Wedding and Holiday Novelties in Glass and 

In Vases, Jardinieres, Shades, Globes and Metal Bound Novelties. 


Meriden Britannia Company and Others 


Makers of Every Description of SILVERWARE and a Choice Line of 


Salesrooms: State and Adams Sts., Chicago; 9-15 Maiden Lane, 215 Fifth 

Ave., New York Citt; Hamilton arid Toronto, Canada, and at 

Various Factories. 

General Office: 


Meriden, Conn. 



In Building Materials 


Meriden, Conn. 

Catalogues, Book and Magazine Inserts, Bird's-Eye 
Views of Manufacturing Plants. 

Correspondence on any illustrating proposition invited. 



Incorporated 1889 

Makers of FormingLathes 
and Special Machinery for 
Economical Manufactur- 
ing. Dies of every De- 
scription. Machine Tools. 




Manufacturers of 

163-169 Pratt St , Meriden, Conn. 

In three cases the difficulties were 
amicably or satisfactorily adjusted 


Established 1869 

C. L. Eockwell, Pres. C. F. Rockwell, Treas. and 

Gen. Mgr. H. A. Stevens, Sec. 


New York Office : 309 Broadway. 


Organized 1844 

Edward Miller, Pres. Edward Miller, Jr., Sec. and 

Treas. Benj. C. Kennard, Asst. Treas. 
Gas and Electric Portables, Gas, Kerosene, Electric and Com 

bination Fixtures of every Description 

Lamp Burners and Trimmings, Bicycle Lanterns, Kerosene Heaters, Bron! 

Die and Mould Castings a Specialty, Brass Foundry. 

I Print My Own 

Cards, circulars, etc., with a J 
Press. Small newspaper presi 
$18. Money saved. Money mal 
ing business anywhere. Typ< 
setting easy by the printed ii 
structions sent. Write to factor 
for illustrated catalog of presses 
type, paper, etc. The Press Co 
Meriden, Conn. 




Write for samples of the New Wheeler Process. 


Business Established in 1876 

Makers of the 

Emerson-Angeltts Piano, Knabe-Angeltjs Piano, Angell 
Piano Player, Symphony Orchestral Organ 

Meriden, Connecticut 

and in one instance, a settlement was 
pending, with every appearance of an 
early adjustment at the time this re- 
port closed. The participants were 
unsuccessful in their contentions in 
nineteen instances, while seven con- 
troversies remain unsettled at the time 
of this report. 

In the last six and one-third years 
433 labor disturbances had been 


insted in the township of Winchester has a combined capital of about $3,000,000, producing manufactured goods 
lued at over $3,000,000, employing about 2,000, with yearly wages of about $800,COO-Winsttd has a grand list of 
out $5,000,000 and a population estimated at 11,000— It is one of the most thrifty manufacturing centers of its size 
the state. 


Machinists and Tool Makers 

lders of Light Poaver and Foot Presses, Wood 
Turning and Polishing Lathes, Drill Lathes 

and Presses and Cutlery Machinery 
Kinds of Light Machinery and Tools Built to Order 
205 Walnut Street, Winsted, Conn. 


Established 1831 

Manufacturers op 


For Law and Blank-Book Binding 



e: This dainty book- 
containing valuable 
cles on bathing and 
ssage, also describing 
wonderful VITA Hol- 
Toothed Eubber 
ishes. Everyone who 
lies health or beauty should send. A postal will do it. If 
orse Lover ask for booklet HORSE SENSE, it's free. Send 
r and get the spring edition. 

Established 1807. Capital $500,000 

3. Woodruff, Pres. and Treas. Geo. B. Owen, Vice- 
Pres. and Gen. Mgr. 
ashed in all styles. Candelabras, Vases in Nouveau. 
dgn, Side Urns, Ink Wells,Thermometers, Jewel Boxes, 
frors. Plateaus, Mantel Ornaments, Bronze Figures 

reported in Connecticut, involving 
42,031 employees, and a total loss of 
wages computed at $1,462,616.14. 

The state of Connecticut conducts 
its own free public employment bu- 
reau. The result of the operation of 
the five offices for the fifty-three 
months during which they have been 
in existence shows that 35,569 persons 
have been furnished with employment. 

B r i s 

t 1 


Bristol, Conn. 

To Order 




Manufacturers of 

Electroliers, Electric Portables, Gas and Electric 
Newels and Appliances, Clocks, Metal Fancy Goods 
and Sheet Metal Work. Automobile Supplies, Etc. 

Winsted, Conn. 


Organized 1866 

Capital and Surplus $200,000 

David Strong Pres. H. L. Roberts, Sec. and Treas. 

Fred. C. Strong, Vice-Pres. L. C. Strong, Asst. 

Sec. L. C. Colt, Agent and Asst. Treas. 



Organized 1882. Capital $300,000 

David Strong, Pres. E. B. Gatlord, Treas. 


Of this number 12,469 were males 
and 23,100 were females. During this 
period the Hartford office secured 
situations for 51.44 per cent of the 
male and 69.73 per cent of the female 
applicants for employment. The 
Bridgeport office supplied 69.54 per 
cent of the male and 75.12 per cent of 
the female applicants with situations. 
In the New Haven office 31.98 per 
cent, of the male and 65.76 per cent of 
the female applicants were furnished 
with employment. 


Herewith is a list of townships in Connecticut with the names of the leading manufacturm 
concerns as officially recorded with the State— According to recent Government report I 
combined capital of Connecticut industries is $373,283,580, employing 181,529 at annual wag< 
of $87,942,628, and producing goods valued at $369,082,091— Concerns named in heavy type ai 
presented in full detail in preceding pages. 


Case, F. L. Paper Co. 


Ansonia Brass & Copper Co. 
Ansonia Electrical Co. 
Ansonia Flour & Grain Co. 
Ansonia Manufacturing Co. 
Ansonia Novelty Co. 
Ansonia 0. & C. Co. 
Cameron, H. P. 
Coe Brass Manufacturing Co. 
Cook, H. C. & Co. 
Cook, H. C. Machine Co. 
Farrel Foundry & Machine Co. 
Gardner, J. B. Sons 
Gaylord, F. L. Co. 
Omega Steel Tool Co. 
Phelps, H. D. 
Redshaw, S. G. 
S. 0. & C. Co. 
Union Fabric Co. 


Climax Fuse Co. 


Rogers Rake Co. (Pleasant Valley) 

Beacon Falls Rubber Shoe Co. 
Bronson, Homer D. Co. 


American Bridge Co. (East Berlin) 
Am. Paper Goods Co. (Kensington) 
Berlin Construction Co. (Kensington) 
Moore, R. A. & Son, (Kensington) 
Peck, Stow & Wilcox (East Berlin) 
Seward Rubber Co., (Kensington) 


Baird Untiedt Co. 

Bethel Hat Forming Co. 

Bethel Manufacturing Co. 

Bethel Silk Co. 

Clark, Frank W. 

Ellis Wood Working Co. 

Farnum & Fairchild. 

Fountain Cigar Co. 

Higson & Co. 

Judd & Co. 

Judd & Dunning Hat Co. 

Reid, John 

Shepard, Geo. A. & Sons Co. 

Short, Edwin Hat Co. 


Fairbanks & Plainfield (Bozrahville). 
Harrison Schick & Pratt (Bozrahville). 
Palmer Bros. Co. (Fitchville). 


Malleable Iron Fittings Co. 


Acme Oil Engine Co. 

Acme Shear Co. 

Acme Wire Works 

Adams, A. L. 

American Corundum Co. 

American & British Manufacturing Co. 

American Graphophone Co. 

American Lacquer Co. 

American Tube & Stamping Co. 

Armstrong Manufacturing Co. 

Ashcroft Manufacturing Co. 

Atlantic Manufacturing Co. 

Atlas Shear Co. 

Automatic Machine Co. 

Automatic Scale Co. 

Baker Machine Co. 

Batcheller, George C. & Co. 

Beach, Fred F. 

Beach, J. W. 

Belknap Manufacturing Co. 

Berkshire Mills 

Benton, F. A. & Son 

Bias Narrow Fabric Co. 

Birdsey & Somers 

Blue Ribbon Horse & Carriage Co. 

Bradley, H. C. 

Braitling, Fred K. 

Bridgeport Art Glass Co. 

Bridgeport Boiler Works 

Bridgeport Brass Co. 

Bridgeport Chain Co. 

Bridgeport Coach Lace Co. 

Bridgeport Crucible Co., The 

Bridgeport Deoxidized Bronze & Metal 

Bridgeport Elastic Fabric Co. 
Bridgeport Electro Plate Co. 
Bridgeport Enamel Dial Co. 
Bridgeport Forge Co. 
Bridgeport Foundry & Machine Co. 
Bridgeport Hardware Mfg. Co. 
Bridgeport Hydraulic Co. 
Bridgeport Hat Manufacturing Co. 
Bridgeport Malleable Iron Co. 
Bridgeport Metallic Packing Co. 
Bridgeport Motor Co. Inc. 
Bridgeport Organ Co. 
Bridgeport Paper Box Co. 
Bridgeport Patent Leather Mfg. Co. 
Bridgeport Safety Emery Wheel Co. 
Bridgeport Silk Co. 
Bridgeport Type Furnishing Co. 
Bryant Electric Co. 
Bullard Machine Tool Co. 
Burns & Co. 
Burns, Silver & Co. 
Burritt, A. W. Co. 
Canfield, H. 0. 
Canfield Rubber Co. 
Challenge Cutlery Corp. 
Columbia Nut & Bolt Co. 
Compressed Paper Box Co. 
Connecticut Clasp Co. 
Connecticut Tool Co. 
Connecticut Web Co. 
Consolidated Safety Valve Co. 
Cooper, R. H. 

Cornwall & Patterson Mfg. Co. 
Coulter k McKenzie Machinery Co. 
Crockett, David B. Co. 
Crown Corset Co. 
Crown Paper Box Co. 
Curtis & Curtis Co. 
Cylindrograph Embroidery Co. 
Donovan, P. J. Brass Foundry Co. 

Downer, Hawes & Co. 

Drouve, G. Co. The 

Eaton, Cole & Burnham Co. 

Elmwood Button Co. 

Erie, Charles 

Fairchild & Shelton 

Farist Steel Co. 

Fray, John S. & Co. 

Frederickson Bros. & Co. 

Gates Carriage Co. 

Gaynor & Mitchell Manufacturing O 

General Chemical Co. 

Grant Manufacturing & Machine Co, 

Hall, C. W. Carriage Co. 

Halsey, R. B. & Co. 

Hamilton, John 

Hammond Co. 

Handy & Harmon 

Hatheway Manufacturing Co. 

Hincks & Johnson 

Hoffman, Henry C. & Co. 

Hotchkiss, Edward S. 

Housatonic Rubber W 7 orks 

Hubbell, Harvey 

Hurlburt, W. S. Building Co. 

Hurwood Manufacturing Co. 

Hutchinson, Pierce & Co. 

International Silver Co. 

Ives Manufacturing Co. 

Jackson Stone Co. 

Jennings, Bros. Manufacturing Co. 

Jones, James S. H. 

Knapp, George S. 

Krause, A. L. 

Krause, W. E. 

Leeds Marine Equipment Co. 

Liberty Cycle Co. 

Locke Steel Belt Co. 

Locomobile Company of America 

Marigold-Foster Printing Co. 

Metal Ware Manufacturing Co. 

Miller, Frank, Lumber Co. 

Mills, W. S. 

Model Machine Co. 

Monumental Bronze Co. 

Moore, C. W. 

Naugatuck Valley Ice Co. 

New England Novelty Co. 

Nilson, A. H. Machine Co. 

Osborn, George R. & Co. 

Pacific Iron Works 

Palmer, N. & Co. 

Parrott Varnish Co. 

Parsons, R. E. Co. 

Peck & Lines 

Pequonnock Foundry, Inc. 

Perkins Electric Switch Mfg. Co. 

Piatt, O. S. 

Read Carpet Co. 

Rowell, W. G. & Co. 

Royal Equipment Co. 

Salt's Textile Manufacturing Co. 

Schwab, Alois 

Schwing, John Corporation 

Sewing Machine Cabinet Co. 

Sieman Hard Rubber Corp. 

Silliman & Godfrey Co. 

Smith, E. H. H. Silver Co. 

Smith, W. A. Building Co. 

Smith & Egge Manufacturing Co. 

Somers, James M. 

Special Machinery Co. 

Springfield Manufacturing Co. 

Spring Perch Co. 

Standard Card & Paper Co. 

Standard Coupler Co. 

Sterling, Hugh 

Connecticut Towns and Their Manufacturers 

Iwinnerton & Sniffen Mfg. Co. 

'ait & Sons Paper Co. 

Baylor, Thomas P. 

Jnion Metallic Cartridge Co. 

Jnion Typewriter Co. 

Vakeman, Albert 

Valter, Edward P. 

Earner Bros. Co. 

Varren, Edmund 

Veildich Bros. Manufacturing Co. 

Veir, James W. 

Veld Manufacturing Co. 

Wellington & Co. 

Vheeler & Wilson Manufacturing Co. 

Vheel & Wood Bending Co. 

Vhite Manufacturing Co. 


imerican Silver Co. 

un. Bit & Auger Co. (Forestville) 

indrews, C. E. (Forestville) 

Jarnes, Wallace Co. 

Jartholomew, H. S. (Edgewood) 

Jarrett, W. L. 

Urge, N. L. Sons Co. 

Jlakeslee Novelty Co. 

Jristol Brass Co. 

iristol Manufacturing Co. 

Dayton Bros. 

)unbar Bros. 

lorton, Everett 

lorton Manufacturing Co. 

ngraham, E. Co. 

.add, W. C. 

.liberty Bell Co. 

Janross, F. N. (Forestville) 

mis, D. E. (Whigville) 

tolls, H. J. 

Jew Departure Manufacturing Co. 

'enfield Saw Works 

loot, C. J. 

Sessions Clock Co. (Forestville) 

Sessions Foundry Co. 

sessions, J. H. & Son 

Smith, Ira B. 

Jnyder, L. H. & Co. 

rhompson, H. C. Clock Co. 

turner & Deegan (Edgewood) 

furner Heater Co. 

Earner, A. H. & Co. 

Vebler, B. P. 

foung Bros. (Forestville) 


..ennox Shear Co. 


lartigan, W. R. 


Jorden's Condensed Milk Co. 
ohnson, Lindell & Co. 


'utler Mills Co. (Packerville) 


!ollins Co. The (Collinsville) 


;evin Bros. Mfg. Co. (East Hampton) 
frown, H. B. & Co. (East Hampton) 
arpenter, L. S. & Son (E. Hampton) 
art Hampton Bell Co. (E. Hampton) 
(ong Bell Mfg. Co. (East Hampton) 
[ill, N. N. Brass Co. (East Hampton) 
jitar Bros. Bell Co. (East Hampton) 
lummit Thread Co. (East Hampton) 
ibbals Oakum Co. (Cobalt) 


Ball & Socket Mfg. Co. (West Ches.) 
Cheshire Brass Co. (W. Cheshire) 
Harry, James W. & Son (W. Cheshire) 
Hubbell, M. B. & F. S. 


C. J. 

Brooks, M. S. & Sons 
Chester Manufacturing Co. 
Deuse, J. S. 
Ferguson, J. R. & Co. 
Jennings, Russell Manufacturing Co. 
Rogers Brush Works 
Ryan, M. L. 


Brown Bros. (Comstock Bridge) 
Norton, C. H. (No. Westchester) 


Case Leather Works (Hop River) 

Mallison, C. Co. (West Cornwall) 


Armstrong, Henry (South Coventry) 
Dady, John A. (S. Coventry) 
Kingsbury Box & Printing Co. (S. 

Tracy, E. A. (South Coventry) 
Washburn, A. & Son Co. (S. Coventry) 
Wood, T. H. (South Coventry) 


Stevens, J. & E. Co. 


American Hatters' & Furriers' Corp. 
Armstrong, Isaac & Co. 
Barnum, Elmer H. 
Beltaire Bros. & Co. 
Boesch Manufacturing Co. 
Brainard & Wilson Co. 
Clark Box Co. 
Connett Hat Co. 
Danbury Brass Works 
Danbury Co. 

Danbury Medical Printing Co. 
Danbury Shirt Co. 
Davenport, A. S. 
Delohery Hat Co. 
Doran Bros. 
Ferry-Hallock Co. 
Foster Bros. 

Green, John W. & Sons, Inc. 
Green Soft Hat Manufacturing Co. 
Hawes Von Gal Co. 
Heim Machinery Co. 
Hoffman, C. A. 
Holley, S. C. & Co. 
Horch, C. M. 
Hoyt, Walthausen & Co. 
Irving, J. G. 
Kinner, Geo. A. 
Lee Hat Manufacturing Co. 
Lee Soft Hat Co. 
Loewe, D. E. & Co. 
Mallory, E. A. & Sons 
McArthur Bros. 
McLachlan, H. 
Meeker Bros. & Co. 
Millard Hat Co. 
Morelock & Husk 
Murphy, J. B. & Co. 
National Hat Co. 
New Machine Co. 
I Neff, T. W. & Co. 

Peck Fur Co. 

Robinson Fur Cutting Co. 

Rogers Silver Plate Co. 

Romans, C. A. 

Roth, Max 

Rundle & White 

Russell, Tomlinson Electric Co. 

S. A. G. Hat Co. 

Sherman, George B. 

Simon & Keane 

Simon, Philip 

Sunderland, W. W. 

Turner Machine Co. 

Tweedy, A. E. 

Tweedy, F. D. & Co. 

Vass Chemical Co. 

Young, P. & Sons 


(See Saybrook.) 


Ailing, A. H. & C. B. 

Birmingham Iron Foundry. 

Brewester Corset Co. 

Derby Comb Co. 

Graham Manufacturing Co. 

Howe Manufacturing Co. 

Kelly, Fergus. 

Morse, E. A. 

Patrick, N. J. 

Peterson Hendee Co. 

Sterling Co. The. 

Sterling Pin Co. 

U. S. Rapid-Fire Gun & Power Co. 

Williams Typewriter Co. 


Merriam Manufacturing Co. 


Tatem, M. E. 


Brockway & Meckinsturn (Moodus) 
Brownell, C. E. & Co. (Moodus) 
Hall, Lincoln & Co. (Moodus) 
Neptune Twine & Cord Mills (Moodus) 
New York Net & Twine Co. (Moodus) 
Purple, A. E. (Moodus) 


Case k Marshall, (Woodland Mill) 
East Hartford Mfg. Co., (Burnside) 
Taylor-Atkins Paper Co. (Burnside) 
Walker, J. H. (Burnside) 


Niantic Manufacturing Co. 


Broad Brook Co. (Broad Brook) 
Warehouse Pt. Silk Co. (W'house Pt.) 


Bridge, A. D. (Hazardville) 
Bushnell Press Co. (Thompsonville) 
Gordon Bros., (Hazardville) 
Hartford Carpet Co. (Thompsonville) 
Stowe, J. D. & Son, (Scitico) 
Upson, Martin Co., (Thompsonville) 
Westfield Plate Co., (Thompsonville) 


Comstock, Cheney & Co. (Ivoryton) 
Conn. Valley Mfg. Co. (Center Brook) 
Dickerson, E. E. & Co. 
Essex Wood Turning Co. 

Industrial Strength of Connecticut 

Lenifect Co. 

Looby & Fargo (Center Brook) 

Tiley, Pratt & Co. 


Fairfield Motor Co. 
Fairfield Rubber Co. 
Jeliff, C. 0. Mfg. Corp (Southport) 


Am. Writ'g. Paper Co. (Unionville) 

Broadbent, J. & Son, (Unionville) 

Case Mfg. Co. (Unionville) 

Hart Mfg. Co. (UnionviUe) 

Jones, R. F. (Unionville) 

Monce, S. G. (Unionville) 

Taft, Geo. E. (Unionville) 

Union Cut. & Hdw. Co. (Unionville) 

Upson Nut Co. (Unionville) 


Conn. River Spar Mill (So. Glast'by) 
Crosby Mfg. Co. (East Glastonbury) 
Glastonbury Knit. Co. (Addison) 
Glazier, Franklin & Son (Hopewell) 
Naubuc Paper Co. 
Riverside Paper Mfg. Co. 
Roser, Herman, (East Glastonbury) 
Wausuc Mills Co. (Hopewell) 
Williams Bros. Mfg. Co. 
Williams, J. B. Co. The 


American Felt Co. (Glenville) 

Brooklyn Ry. Supply Co. (Mianus) 

Brush, Joseph 

Greenwich Yacht Yard. 

Palmer Bros. (Cos Cob & Mianus) 

Reynolds, G. M. (Glenville) 

R., B. & W. Bolt & Nut Co. (Glenvil') 


American Thread Co., (Glasco) 
Ashland Cotton Co. (Jewett City) 
Aspinock Co. (Jewett City) 
Burleson, A. B. & Co. (Jewett City) 
Jewett City Textile Nov. Co. (Jew.C.) 
Slater, Wm. A. Mills, (Jewett City) 


Eastern Ship Building Co. 
Palmer, Rob't & Son Co. (Noank) 
Salter, John & Son. 


Case, O. D. Co. 
Guilford Wheel Mfg. Co. 
Knowles-Lombard Co. 
Sachem's Head Canning Co. 
Spencer, I. S. Sons 


Cutaway Harrow Co. (Higganum) 
Higganum Hardware Co. (Higganum) 
Russell Mfg. Co. (Higganum) 


Cook, Willis Miller (Mt. Carmel) 
Henry, J. T. Mfg. Co. 
New Haven Web Co. (Centerville) 
Mt. Carmel Bolt Co. (Mt. Carmel) 
Woodruff, W. W. & Son (Mt. Carmel) 


Andrews & Peck Co. 
Aetna Stamp Works 
Andrews, S. M. 

Arknot Co. 

Atlantic Screw Works 

Austin Organ Co. 

Baker Electric Co. 

Barber Ink Co. 

Barrett Bros. 

Beach, H. B. & Son 

Becher & Eitel 

Beseman & Bostwick 

Billings & Spencer Co. 

Birkery, C. 

Bishop, E. C. & Co. 

Bladon, G. L. 

Blake, E. J. 

Brewing Appliance Spec. Co. 

Bronson & Robinson Co. 

Burch, George W. 

Burr Index Co. 

Burr, J. B. & Co., Inc. 

Calhoun Show Print Co. 

Callaghan, C. J. 

Capewell Horse Nail Co. 

Capitol Foundry Co. 

Case, Lockwood & Brainard Co. 

Cheney Bros. 

Clark, Edred W. 

Colt's Pat. Fire Arms Mfg Co. 

Conn. Steel & Wire Co. 

Cook, Asa S. Co. 

Cook, Charles C. 

Cooley & Trevor Mfg. Co. 

Craig, J. M. 

Cushman Chuck Co. 

Daniels, L. C, Grain Co. The 

Daniels Mill Co. The 

Davis, I. B. & Son, 

Dodd Lithographic Co 

Dresser, Charles H. & Co. 

Electric Vehicle Co. 

Evarts Machine Co 

Fenn-Sadler Machine Co. 

Fernside, G. W. 

Franklin Electric Mfg. Co. 

French, H. A. 

Garvan, P. 

Ger & Posner 

Gerstein, I. 

Gray & Prior Machine Co. 

Gray Tel. Pay Station Co. 

Green & Bauer 

Harman, H. 

Harriman Motor Works 

Hart & Hegeman Mfg. Co. 

Hart Mfg. Co. The 

Hartford Bedstead Co. 

Hartford Board Co. 

Hartford Box Co. 

Hartford Builders' Finish Co. 

Hartford Dairy Co. 

Hartford Electric Machine Repair Co. 

Hartford Engine Works 

Hartford Engraving Co. 

Hartford Faience Co. 

Hartford Foundrv Corp. 

Hartford Hat & Cap Co. 

Hartford Heating Co. 

Hartford Leather Goods Co. 

Hartford Lumber Co. 

Hartford Mach. Screw Co. 

Hartford Manufacturing Co. 

Hartford Mattress Co. 

Hartford & New York Trans. Co. 

Hartford Pattern & Model Co. 

Hartford Printing Co. 

Hartford Pulp Plaster Corp. 

Hartford Rubber Works 

Henry & Wright Mfg. Co. 

Hitchcock & Curtiss Knitting Co. 

Hoadley, E. J. 

Hogan Mfg Co. 

Hotchkiss, E. E. 

Howard, James L. & Co. 

Jacobs Mfg. Co. 

Jewell Belting Co. 

McClary, John Wood Working Co. 

Jewell Pin Co. 

Johns-Pratt Co. 

Johnson-Carole Machine Co. 
Johnson, F. G. Co. 
Jones, 0. H. 
Kelley Bros. 
Kellogg & Bulkeley Co. 
Knox, Frank J. Co. 
Laragy, P. 
Law, F. A. 

Legate Manufacturing Co. 

Leschke & Pletcher 

Levy & Hurwitz 

Lippman, B. & Son 

Little, H. B. & Co. 

Lockwood, William H. 

Loveland, A. C. & Co. 

Maslen, Stephen Corp. 

McCue, C. T. Co. 

McKone Bros. 

McNie, Malcolm 

Melrose Silver Co. 

Merrow Machine Co. 

Mugford, A. 

Mutual Machine Co. 

National Machine Co. 

Ney, John M. & Co. 

Nichols Paper Box Co. 

Nonotuck Silk Co. 

Olds, William & Co. 

Organ Power Co. 

Park Knitting Works 

Pease, C. A. & Co. 

Peck, R. S. & Co. 

Perkins Corp. 

Phoenix Brass Foundry Co. 

Phoenix Iron Works Corp. 

Phoenix Manufacturing Co. 

Pickering, W. H. & Co. 

Pindar, A. Corp. 

Plimpton Mfg. Co. 

Pope Manufacturing Co. 

Pratt & Cady Co. 

Pratt & Whitney Co. 

James Pullar & Co. 

Purvis, Adam 

Remsen Mfg. Co. The 

Resnik, P. 

Rhodes, L. E. 

Richman, Jacob M. 

Rockwell, J. W. 

Rogers, S. L. & G. H. Co. 

Schwartz, Myers & Gross 

Shea, C. W. 

Sigourney Tool Co. 

Silver Bros. 

Simons & Fox 

Slate, Dwight, Machine Co. 

Smith, Northam & Co. 

Smith- Worthington Co. 

Soby, Charles 

Spencer Automatic Screw Co. 

Springer, E. O. 

Standard Co. 

Standard Foundry Co. 

Sterling Blower & Pipe Mfg. Co. 

Stoddard & Caulkins 

Swift, M. & Sons 

Talcott, William H. 

Taylor, Edwin Lumber Co. 

Taylor Mfg. Co. 

Thompson, John Press Co. 

Topping Bros. 

Tucker, W. W. & C. F. 

Tuttle Plating Co. 

Underwood Typewrit'r Mfg 

U. S. Env. Co. (Plimpton Div.) 

Vanderbeek Tool Works 

Veeder Manufacturing Co. 

Whitlock Coil Pipe Co. 

Whittemore, W. L. & Son 

Whitney Manufacturing Co. 

Wiley, William H. & Son Co. 

Williams & Carleton Co. 

Windsor Cut Stone Co. 


Connecticut Towns and Their Manufacturers 


Turner, P. W. (Turnerville) 

Adams Mfg. Co. (Shelton) 
Bassett, D. M. Bolt Works (Shelton) 
Bassett, R. N. Co. (Shelton) 
Birmingham Brass Co. (Shelton) 
Blumenthal, S. & Co. (Shelton) 
Dairy Mach. & Con. Co. (Shelton) 
Derby Rubber Co. (Shelton) 
Griffin Button Co. (Shelton) 
Huntington Piano Co. (Shelton) 
International Silver Co. (Shelton) 
Meyer Iron & Brass Foundry (Shelton) 
National Fold. Box & Paper Co. 

0. K. Tool Holder Co. (Shelton) 
Radcliffe Bros. (Shelton) 
Shelton Co. (Shelton) 
Silver Plate Cutlery Co. (Shelton) 
Specialty Weaving Co. (Shelton) 
Star Pin Co. (Shelton) 
United Box Board & Paper Co. 

Whitcomb Met. Bedstead Co. (Shelton) 
Whitlock Ptg. Pres Co. (Shelton) 


Arnold, 0. S. (Williamsville) 
Assawaga Co. (Dayville) 
Attawaugan Co. (Attawaugan) 
Brigham Woolen Co. (Elmville) 
Danielsonville Cotton Co. (Danielson) 
Danielson Worsted Co. (Danielson) 
Davis & Brown Woolen Co. (Dayville) 
Jacobs, E. H. Mfg. Co. (Danielson) 
Larkin Reed Co. (Danielson) 
Marcus M. H. & Bros. (Elmville) 
Nichols, James A. (Danielson) 
Pequot Worsted Co. (Danielson) 
Quinebaug Co. (Danielson) 
Smith, Fred R. (E. Killingly) 
Thayer Woolen Co. (Elmville) 
Williamsville Mfg Co. (Williamsville) 


Bantam Mfg. Co. (Bantam) 
Echo Farm Corp. (Bantam) 
Flynn & Doyle (Bantam) 
Northfield Knife Co. (Northfield) 


Taylor, H. E. & Co.(Hadlyme) 


American Writing Paper Co. 
Bon Ami Co. 

Brookside Paper Co. (So. Man) 
i Case, Willard A. 

I Case Bros. (Highland Park) 
l| Cheney Bros. (So. Man.) 

i Foulds, William Co. 

II Glastonbury Knit. Co. (Mchr. Green) 
i! Hilliard, E. E. Co. (Buckland) 

S Lydall & Foulds Paper Co. 

I 1 Lydall, H. & Foulds 

f Norton Elec. Instrument Co. 

Robertson, J. T. Co. 

Rogers Paper Mfg. Co. (So. Man) 

Spring Silk Co. (So. Man. ) 

Treat, Orion 


Hanks, 0. G. (Spring Hill) 

Kirby, G. J. Co. (Mansfield Hollow) 

McFarland, James S. (Mansfield C'ter) 

Mansfield Organ Pipe Co. (M'fid Dep.) 

Pollock, M. (Conantville) 

Ross, John L. (Eagleville) 

Smith, E. L. (Gurleyville) 


Aeolian Co. 

Bergen, J. D. Co. 

Bliss, E. A. Co. 

Bradley & Hubbard Mfg. Co. 

Brown & Dowd Mfg. Co. 

Conn. Tel. & Elec. Co. 

Cornell & Andrews 

Curtiss-Way Co. 

Dodd, Chas. T. J 

Doolittle, E. J. 

Foster-Merriam & Co. 

Fox, C. F. 

Griswold, Richmond & Glock Co. 

Hall, A. J. & Co. 

Hall, W. B. 

Handel Co. 

Helmschmied Mfg. Co. 

International Silver Co. 

Jones, A. H. Co. 

Kelsey Press Co. 

Lines, H. Wales Co. 

Manning, Bowman & Co. 

Meriden Curtain Fixture Co. 

Meriden Cut Glass Co. 

Meriden Cutlery Co. 

Meriden Fire Arms Co. 

Meriden Gravure Co. 

Meriden Machine Tool Co. 

Meriden Woolen Co. 

Merriam, A. H. 

Miller Bros. Cutlery Co. 

Miller, Edward & Co. 

Monroe, C. F. Co. 

Morehouse Bros. Co. 

Niland, J. J. & Co. 

Parker Bros. 

Parker, Charles Co. 

Parker Clock Co. 

Schenck, M. B. & Co. 

Schenck Governor Co. 

Schunuck, C. E. 

Silver City Plate Co. 

Sprenenberg & Co. 

Todd Electric Mfg Co. 

Wallace, F. J. 

Wheeler, F. & Son 

Wheeler, W. W. Co. 

Wilcox & White Co. 

Wusterbarth Bros. 


Lyman Gun Sight Works 
Rogers Mfg. Co. (Rockfall) 
Russell Mfg. Co. (Rockfall) 
Smith, Otis A. (Rockfall) 


Arawana Mills 

Allison Bros. 

Annual Wind Clock Co. 

Broderick Carriage Co. 

Chapman, W. H. Co. 

Coles & Co. 

Douglass, W. & B. 

Eisenhuth HorseL'«s Vehicle Co. 

Ely, E. A. 

Evans, J. B. 

Goodall Hammock ' x>. 

Goodyear Rubber Co. 

Hubbard, H. W. 

Keating Motor Co. 

Kirby Manufacturing Co. 

Leeds & Catlin Co. 

Loewenthal, Gustav 

Meech & Stoddard 

Merchant Silk Co. 

Middletown Silver Co. 

New Ensrland Enameling Co. 

Omo Manufacturing Co. 

Pelton & King 
Portland Silk Co. 
Read, A. O. Co. 
Rockfall Woolen Co. 

Rogers & Hubbard Co. 

Russell Manufacturing Co. 

Smith, J. 0. Mfg. Co. (Little River) 

Tryon, Jasper 

Warner, M. R. & Sons (Little River) 

Watrous, C. H. 

Wilcox, Crittenden & Co. 


Reeves Manufacturing Co. 
Rostand Manufacturing Co. 
Vanderheof & Co. 


Kaplan Bros. (Chesterfield) 

Massasoit Mfg. Co. (Oakdale) 

Monarch Woolen Mill 

Palmer Bros Co. 

l'equot Mills 

Robertson, C. M. Co. 

Un. Dye Wood & Ext. Co. (Uncasville) 

Uncasville Mfg. Co. (Uncasville) 


Diamond Labratory Co. (Union City) 
Dunham Hosiery Co. 
Goodyear's India Rub. Glove Mfg. Co. 
Goodyear's Metallic Rubber Shoe Co. 
Metal Finishing Co. (Union City) 
Naugatuck Chemical Co. 
Naugatuck Mfg. Co. (Union City) 
Naugat'ck Mall. Iron Co. (Union City) 
United States Rubber Co. 
Russell, J. W. Manufacturing Co. 
Smith, E. F. & Sons (Union City) 
White & Wells Co. 


Adkins Printing Co. 
American Artificial Stone Co. 
American Hosiery Co. 
American Needle Works 
Beaton & Bradley Co. 
Brady, T. H. 

Corbin Cabinet Lock Co. 
Corbin, H. H. & Son 
Corbin Motor Vehicle Corp. 
Corbin, P. & F. 
Corbin Screw Corp. 
Curtis, O. F. 
Donahue, J. D. 
Flannery, P. J. 
Hart & Cooley Co. 
Humason & Beckley Mfg. Co. 
Judd, 0. S. 

Landers, Frary & Clark 
Lines, C. W. 
Malleable Iron Works 
Minor & Corbin Box Co. 
Muller, L. J. 

National Spring Bed Co. 
New Britain Co-op. Building Co. 
New Britain Machine Co. 
New Britain Planing & Mldg. Wks. 
North & Judd Mfg. Co. 
North & Pfeiffer Manufacturing Co. 
Olmstead, H. B. Co. 
Parker Shirt Co. 
Pinches, John Co. 
Porter & Dyson Co. 
Riley & Beckley Manufacturing Co. 
Roach, William 

Russell & Erwin Mfg. Co. 
Skinner Chuck Co. 
Stanley Rule & Level Co. 
Stanley Works 
Taplin Manufacturing Co. 
Traut & Hine Mfg. Co. 
Union Manufacturing Co. 
Vulcan Iron Works 
White, C. J. & Co. 

Industrial Strength of Connecticut 


Benedict & Co. 
Jeliff, C. 0. & Co. 
Lane, Frank I. 
Rockwell Bros. 


Bancroft, George W. 
Chapin-Stevens Co. (Pine Meadow) 
Smith, D. P. & Son Co. (Pine Meadow) 
Standard Brush Co. 


Acme Wire Co. 

Adlerhurst Iron Co. 

Ailing, Geo. Sons Co. 

American Rivet Co. 

Anthony & Scovil Co. 

Armstrong, M. & Co. 

Atlas Manufacturing Co. 

Baldwin & Rowland Sw'ch & Signal Co. 

Barnes Tool Co. 

Barnum, S. H. 

Barnum, W. T. & Co. 

Bates, L. C. & Co. 

Baumann Rubber Co. 

Belden Machine Co. (Westville) 

Benham, J. T. 

Benton-Armstrong Folding Box Co. 

Best Manufacturing Co. 

Bigelow Co. 

Bird, C. H. Co. 

Bishop Box & Paste Co. 

Boyer, G. W. 

Bradley, Smith & Co. 

Brett, E. P. 

Brooks, C. J. 

Brooks Corset Co. 

Brown, R. H. & Co. 

Brown & Stoddard Co. 

Buckingham Routh Co. 

Burgess, E. A. 

Burn, W. S. Manufacturing Co. 

Candee, L. & Co. 

Capasso, A. 

Carroll, F. M. 

Cashin Card & Glazed Paper Co. 

Celluloid Starch Co. 

Clark, David H. Co. The 

Coe & Brown 

Columbia Hosiery Co. 

Conn. Adamant Plaster Co. 

Conn. Fat Rend. & Fert. Corp. 

Conn. Pants Mfg. Co. 

Cott-A-Lap Co. 

Cowles, C. & Co. 

Crampton, J. M. 

Cronan, P. J. Paper Box Co. 

Curtiss & Pierpont Co. 

Dann Bros. & Co. 

Davis, R. G. 

Defiance Button Machine Co. 

Demarest, A. T. & Co. 

Dillon & Douglas 

Dorman Lithograph Co. 

Doroff, M. S. 

Douglass, B. H. & Co. 

Doyle, John T. Co. 

Druen, B. 

Eastern Machinery Co. 

Economy Manufacturing Co. 

Elm City Engineering Co. 

Elm City Lumber Co. 

Ely, C. Upham 

Everhart Pop Corn & Candy Co. 

Faeth, Anton 

Fair Haven Art Glass Co. 

Falcon Rubber Co. 

Farren Bros. Co. 

Fitch, W. & E. T. Co. 

Fitzmorris, Robert 

Flanagan, Matthew 

Foskett & Bishop Co. The 

Frank enberger, H. & Co. 

Geometric Tool Co. (Westville) 

Gibbs, H. J. 

Gilbert Manufacturing Co. 

Globe Silk Works 

Goodrich, J. F. & Co. 

Graham, James & Co. 

Graves, F. D. 

Green, J. F. 

Griest, Mfg. Co. (Westville) 

Griffith, J. H. & Sons 

Grilley Co. The 

Griswold, George M. 

Hauff, F. A. 

Hall, H. & Co. 

Harris-Hart Co. 

Hemming Bros. 

Hendryx, Andrew B. Co. 

Henn, A. S. & Co. 

Herrick & Cowell 

Hickok Co. 

Hoggson & Pettis Mfg. Co. 

Holaday, A. E. Manufacturing Co. 

Holcomb, H. C. 

Hooker, Henry & Co. 

Howard Co. 

Howe & Co. 

Hubbell, M. B., F. S. 

Hubbell, Merwin & Co. 

Hygienic Ice Co. 

Ideal Manufacturing Co. 

Imperial Granum Co. 

Ives, H. B. & Co. 

Jacobs Bros. & Co. 

Johnstone & Gerrish 

Kafka, A. & Co. 

Kilborn & Bishop Co. 

Kilfeather, John P. 

Killam, Henry Co. 

Kutchuck, J. 

Lambert, George D. 

Levine Bros. 

Magnus Metal Co. 

Mallory, Wheeler Co. 

Manning, C. M. 

Marlin Fire Arms Co. The 

McKenzie, George M. 

McLagon Foundry Co. 

Metal Manufacturing Co. 

Miner & Peck Mfg. Co. 

Moffat, W. J. 

Molloy, James F. & Co. 

Morgan & Humiston Co. 

Munson & Co. 

Narrow Fabric Corp. 

National Casket Co. 

National Folding Box & Paper Co. 

National Pipe Bending Co. 

National Steel Foundry Co. 

National Wire Corp. 

New England Broom Co. 

New England Dairy Corp. 

New England Mfg. Co. 

New England Stool Co. 

New England Stone Co. 

New England Warp Co. 

New Era Lustre Co. 

New Haven Awning -& Dec'g. Co. 

New Haven Boiler Works 

New Haven Button Co. 

New Haven Carriage Co. 

New Haven Clock Co. 

New Haven Iron & Steel Co. 

New Haven Manufacturing Co. 

New Haven Pulp & Board Co. 

New Haven Rendering Co. 

New Haven Rug Co. 

New Haven Saw Mill Co. 

New Haven Spring Co. 

New Haven Toy & Game Co. 

New Haven Upholstering Co. 

Newman, I. & Sons 

North, O. B. &. Co. 

Norton Bros. & White Co. 

Ochsner, A. & Sons Co. 

Oriental Emery Co. 

Osterweiss, L. & Sons 

Page, Samuel K. 

Parker, Jos. & Son Co. (Westville) 

Peck Bros. & Co. 

Peckham, John A. 

Perpente Manufacturing Co. 

Pfleghar, F. P. & Son 

Phillips, Thos. & Son 

Prentice, George G. & Co. 

Price, Lee & Adkins Co. 

Rattan Manufacturing Co. 

Reade, Chas. W. Button Co. 

Recording Fare Register Co. 

Remfler & Thompson 

Reynolds Brass Foundry 

Reynolds & Co. 

Reynolds, James Mfg. Co. 

Rottman, B. 

Rowland, F. C. & A. E. 

Sargent & Co. 

Savage, B. B. & Co. 

Schollhorn, William Co. 

Scoville & Peck Co. 

Seabrook & Smith Cariage Co. 

Seamless Rubber Co. 

Setlow, M. & Son 

Seward, M. & Son Co. 

Sheahan & Groark 

Sheldon, E. B. Co. 

Shepard, H. G. & Sons 

Shoninger, B. Co. 

Shuster, F. B. Co. 

Smith, A. H. & Co. 

Smith, Edward F. & Co. 

Smith, E. S. 

Smith's, H. Sons. 

Smith, Hobart E. 

Smith, William A. T. 

Smith, W. J. & Co. 

Smith & Twiss 

Snow, L. T. 

Sperry & Amos Co. 

Steinertone Co. 

Stevens & Sackett Co. 

Stiles, A. C. Anti-Friction Metal Co. 

Strouse, Adler & Co. 

Strouse, I. & Co. 

Ten Brock, George A. & Co. 

Thompson, H. G. & Son 

Todd, Henry H. 

Todd, James E. 

Tuttle, Morehouse & Taylor Co. 

Valley Farm Creamery Co. 

Warner, G. F. Mfg. Co. 

Weil Novelty Co. 

Wilbur Corp. The 

Wilson, Robert 

Williams, F. E. Co. 

Winchester Repeating Arms Co. 

Yale Gas Stove Co. 

Yale Univ. Carpenter's Shop 

Yudkin, Samuel 


Newington Paper Co. 


Bingham Paper Box Co. 
Boss, C. D. & Son 

Brainard St Armstrong Co. 

Brown Cotton Gin Co. 

Buckley, M. D. 

Chappell, F. H. & A. H. Co. 

Douglass, H. R. 

Fowler, F. C. 

Heath & Hawthorn 

Hopson, Chapin Mfg. Co. 

Ladd, F. M. 

New England Carpet Lining Co. 

New London Electro Plating Co. 

New London Marine Iron Works 

New London Motor Co. 

New London Vise Works 

New London Wash Silk Co. 

Palmer Bros. Co. 

Rogers, William G. 

Sheffield Dentrifice Co. 

Spiers Bros. 

Steam Bottling Co. 

Thames Tow Boat Co. 

Trumbull Marine Co. 

Tyler, George G. 

Whiton, D. E. Machine Co. 

Connecticut Towns and Their Manufacturers 


Bridgeport Wood Finishing Co. 
Eastern Lounge Co. 
New Milford Hat Co. 
Northrop, J. A. & Son 


Borden's Condensed Milk Co. 
Crowe, Patrick (Botsford P. O.) 
Curtiss, S. & Son 

Fabric Fire Hose Co. (Sandy Hook) 
S. H. Reclaiming Wks. (Sandy Hook) 


Aetna Silk Co. 

Norfolk & New Brunswick Hosiery Co. 


Barnum, Richardson Co. (E. Canaan) 


American Paper Pail & Box Co. 

Arnold Co. Inc. 

Artistic Bronze Co. (S. Norwalk) 

Automatic tool Co. (E. Norwalk) 

Austin & Craw (S. Norwalk) 

Barthol, Otto Co. (S. Norwalk) 

Bates, Martin, Jr. & Co. (S. Norwalk) 

Binns, Joseph 

Boese, Peppard & Co. (S. Norwalk) 

Carman & Seymour (E. Norwalk) 

Colonial Foundry & Mach. Co. (East 

Craw, J. W. (S. Norwalk) 
Crofut & Knapp Co. (S. Norwalk) 
Dennis & Blanchard (S. Norwalk) 
Eastern Underwear Co. (S. Norwalk) 
Excelsior Rug. Co. (E. Norwalk) 
Fernandez & Earnst Cigar Co. (South 

Hatch, Bailey & Co. (S. Norwalk) 
Hat Forming Co. (S. Norwalk) 
Hodson, A. A. & Co. (S. Norwalk) 
Hotchkiss, E. H. &" Co. 
Hubbell, W. B. (S. Norwalk) 
Hutchinson, Pierce & Co. 
Jerome Paper Co. 
Knapp Box Co. (S. Norwalk) 
Le Count, Wm. G. (E. Norwalk) 
Lockwood Mfg. Co. (S. Norwalk) 
Loth, Joseph & Co. 
Lounsbury, Bissel & Co. (Winnipauk) 
Lounsbury, Matthewson Co. (S.N'wk) 
Malkin, A. R. ' 

Mather, H. W. (S. Norwalk) 
Meeker Union Foundry Corp. 
McKibben, Geo. N. Mfg. Co. (S.N'wk) 
Miller, J. W. (S. Norwalk) 
Muller Gloria Mills (Winnipauk) 
New England Food Co. (E. Norwalk) 
Nichols Underwear Corp. (S. N'wk) 
Norwalk Box Co., (S. Norwalk) 
Norwalk Brass Company 
Norwalk Launch Company 
Norwalk Mills Co. (Winnipauk) 
Noiwalk Iron Works (S. Norwalk) 
Norwalk Lock Co. (S. Norwalk) 
Old Well Cigar Co. (S. Norwalk) 
Phoenix Fur Co. (S. Norwalk) 
Postal Typewriter Company 
Rough Hat Co. (S. Norwalk) 
R. & G. Corset Co. (S. Norwalk) 
Simons, Ernest Manufacturing Co. 
St. George Pulp & Paper Co. 
St. Johns, Chas. S. (S. Norwalk) 
Trowbridge, C. S. (S. Norwalk) 
Tuttle, H. A. Mfg. Co. (E. Norwalk) 
U. S. Alcohol Refining Co. (S. N'wk) 
U. S. Foundry & Sales Co. (S. N'wk) 
Universal Hat Co. (S. Norwalk) 
Volk Hat Co. (S. Norwalk) 
Waldron & Riordan (S. Norwalk) 

Walhizer & Dreyer (S. Norwalk) 
Wheeler, A. C. 
Wheeler Bros. (S. Norwalk) 
Wilson, J. C. & Co. (S. Norwalk) 


American Wood Work. Machine Co. 

Barber, M. A. 

Bard, Union Company 

Blissville Mills, Inc. 

Brown, Robert 

Chelsea File Works 

Clinton Mills Company 

Crescent Fire Arms Company 

Davenport, W. H. Fire Arms Co. 

Dawley, H. F. & A. J. 

Falls Company 

Gilbert, N. S. & Sons 

Givernaud Bros. 

Glen Woolen Mills 

Goodwin Cork Company 

Gould, A. 

Green, M. J. 

Gulliver, A. H. 

Hall Bros. 

Hiscox, James A. 

Hiscox Company 

Hopkins & Allen Arms Company 

Hubbard, A. H. Company 

International Silver Company 

Johnson & Company 

Kellogg-McCrum-Howell Company 

Kuebler, C. A. 

Lester & Wasley 

Manning, A. R. (Yantic) 

Martin, J. B. Company 

Mohawk Paint & Chemical Co. 

Norwich Belt Manufacturing Co. 

Norwich Nickel & Brass Company 

Norwich Paper Box Company 

Norwich Silk Company 

Ossawan Mill Company 

Page, Wm. H. Boiler Company 

Pequot Brass Foundry 

Ponemah Mills (Taftville) 

Porter, H. B. & Son Company 

Prentice, C. W. (Taftville) 

Puritan Manufacturing Company 

Quinlan, John C. 

Reliance Worsted Company 

Ring, M. B. 

Scott & Clark Corp. 

Shetucket Company 

Stetson, V. S. 

Strom, Peter 

Thames Arms Manufacturing Co. 

Tobin Manufacturing Company 

Turner, Emerson P. Manufacturing Co. 

Ulmer Leather Company 

Uncas Paper Company 

Uncas Specialty Company 

United States Finishing Company 

Vaughn Foundry Company, Inc. 

Yantic Woolen Co. (Yantic) 


American Buckle Co. (W. Haven) 
Mathushek Piano Mfg. Co. (W. H.) 
Sanderson Fertilizer & Chemical Co. 
West Haven Buckle Co. (W. Haven) 
West Haven Mfg. Co. (West Haven) 
Wire Novelty Co. The (W. Haven) 
Yale Safe & Iron Co. (W. Haven) 


Aldrich, Mfg. Co. (Moosup) 
American Woolen Co. (Moosup) 
Babcock, W. P. 
Cranska, Floyd (Moosup) 
Lees, W. S. Co. (Central Village) 
Plainfield Woolen Co. (Cent. Village) 
Torrey, Bros & Co. (Central Village) 
Wauregan Company (Wauregan) 


Bristol Manufacturing Company 

Calor, C. H. 

Carter, E. T. 

Carter, L. H. 

Clark, A. N. <fe Son 

Clark Castor Company 

Elm City Brass & Rivet Company 

Hills, Edwin * 

Lamb, B. & Company 

Norton & Jones 

Osborne & Stephenson Mfg. Company 

Trumbull Electric Co. 


Cooper, D. G. (Terryville) 
Eagle Lock Co. (Terryville) 
Greystone Mfg. Co. (Greystone) 
Terry, Andrew Co. (Terryville) 


Brainerd, Shaler & Hall Quartz Co 
Gildersleeve, S. & Sons (Gildersleeve) 
Ideal Mfg. Co. (Gildersleeve) 
Main Products Company 
New England Enameling Company 
Pickering Governor Company 


Lucas, B. Co. (Poquetannoc) 


Bosworth Bros. 

Case, W. D. & Co. 

Dady, John A. Corp. 

Hammond & Knowlton Co. 

Hampton Silk Co. 

Johnson, E. E. 

Johnson, W. S. 

Kent, C. M. & E. B. 

Monohansett Manufacturing Co. 

Morse Mills Co. 

Nightingale Mills 

Powhatan Mills 

Putnam Box Corp. 

Putnam Foundry & Mach. Co. 

Putnam Manufacturing Co. 

Putnam Silk Co. 

Putnam Woolen Co. 

Robbins, E. E. 

Royal Knitting Mills 

Union Novelty Co. 

Wheaton Bldg. & Lumber Co. 


Bennett, R. O. (Branchville) 

Bdpt. Wood Finishing Co. (B'ville) 

Gruman, Geo. B. (Branchville) 


Billings, C. E. Mfg. Co. The ' 

Champion Manufacturing Co. 
Frisbie, L. T. Co. 


(See Vernon) 


New England Quartz Co. 


Barnum, Richardson Co. (Lime Rock) 
Borden's Condensed Milk Co. (L. R.) 
Holley, Mfg. Co. (Lakeville) 
Salisbury Cutlery & Handle Co. 

Industrial Strength of Connecticut 


Denison Bros. (Deep River) 
Potter & Snell (Deep River) 
Pratt, Read & Co. (Deep River) 
Williams & Marvin Mfg. Co. (D. R.) 


Arethusa Spring Water Co. 

Beach, S. Y. Paper Co. 

Brixey, W. R. 

Day, H. P. & E. 

Fowler Nail Co. 

Garrett & Beach 

Humphreyville Manufacturing Co. 

Little River Manufacturing Co. 

Matthews, H. A. Manufacturing Co. 

New Haven Copper Co. 

Rimmon Manufacturing Co. 

Seymour Iron Foundry Co. 

Seymour Manufacturing Co. 

Smith, J. M. 

Swan, James Co. 

Tingue Manufacturing Co. 


(See Huntington) 


Ensign, Bickford & Co. 

Ensign, R. H. 

Tariffville Lace Mfg. Co. (Tariffville) 


Somersville Mfg. Co. (Somersville) 


Hawkins Co. (South Britain) 
Diamond Match Co. (Southford) 


Aetna Nut Co. 

Atwater Mfg. Co. (Plantsville) 
Beaton & Corbin Mfg. Co. 
Blakeslee Forging Co. (Plantsville) 
Clark Bros. & Co. (Milldale) 
Ellis, F. L. & Son (Milldale) 
Frost, L. D. & Son (Marion) 
Peck, Stowe & Wilcox Co. 
Southington Cutlery Co. 
Smith, H. D. Co. (Plantsville) 
Thompson, Drop & Forge Co. P'ville) 
Wolcott Hardware Co. (Plantsville) 
Wood, G. E. Tool Co. (Plantsville) 


Airlie Mills (Hanover) 
Baltic Mills Co. (Baltic) 
Eastern Strawboard Co. (Versailles) 
Shetucket Worsted Mills (Baltic) 
Totokett Mills Co. (Versailles') 
Uncasville Mfg. Co. (Versailles) 


Amidon, S. B. (Staffordville) 
Beckwith Card Co. (Stafford Springs) 
Btadway, C. P. (W. Stafford) 
Ellis, J. J. & A. D. (Stafford Springs) 
Fabyan Woolen Co. (Stafford Springs) 
Fabvan Woolen Co. (Staffordville) 
Faulkner Woolen Mill (Stafford S.) 
Faulkner Woolen Mill (Staffordville) 
Garland Woolen Co. (Staffordville) 
Mullen, T. F. & Co. (Stafford Springs) 
Paton, A. B. Mfg. Co. (Stafford S.) 
Phoenix Woolen Co. (Stafford) 
Riverside Woolen Co. (Stafford) 
Smith & Cooley (Stafford Springs) 
Stafford Worsted Co. (Stafford S.) 
Warren Woolen Co. (Stafford Springs) 


Atlantic Insulated Wire & Cable Co. 

Baer Bros. 

Ball Manufacturing Co. 

Beck, Frederick & Co. 

Blickensderfer Manufacturing Co. 

Boas Thread Co. 

Boston Artificial Leather Co. 

Brown, Christian 

Celluloid Zapon Co. 

Chemical Works of America, Inc. 

Co-operative Cigar Co. 

Davenport & Tracy 

Diamond Ice Co. 

Excelsior Hardware Co. 

Hale, Henry S. 

Hefumos Manufacturing Co. 

Hoyt, Lyman Son & Co. 

Imperial Manufacturing Co. 

International Power Vehicle Co. 

Jerals & Townsend Mfg. Co. 

Lounsbury & Soule 

Moll, Joseph H. 

Muench, George 

Murphy Manufacturing Co. 

Oven Equipment & Mfg. Co. 

Phillips, Chas. H. Chemical Co. 

Roth, Max 

Schleicher Sons' Piano Co. 
St. John's Wood Working Co. 
Stamford Foundry Co. 
Stamford Gas Stove Co. 
Stamford Iron Works 
Stamford Manufacturing Co. 
Stamford Motor Co. 
Stamford Rubber Supply Co. 
Star Manufacturing Co. 
Wagner, Michael 
Waterside Mills 
Yale & Towne Manufacturing Co. 


U. S. Finishing Co. 


Allen Spool & Printing Co. (Mystic) 

American Thread Co. (Westerly P. O.) 

American Velvet Co. (Westerly P. O.) 

Atwood-Morrison Co. 

Cottrell, C. B. & Sons (Westerly P.O.) 

Hasbrook Motor Works (W. Mystic) 

Homes Ship Bldg. Co. (W. Mystic) 

Lantern Mills Silex Works (Mystic) 

Lathrop, J. W. (Mystic) 

Lorraine Mfg. Co. (Westerly P. O.) 

Maxson & Co. (Westerly P. O.) 

McDonald, M. C. (Mystic) 

Miller, A. R. Sons 

Mystic Motor Works (Mystic) 

Mystic Mfg. Co. (Mystic) 

Mystic Twine Co. (Mystic) 

Mystic Woolen Co. (Old Mystic) 

Packer Mfg. Co. (Mystic) 

Rossie Velvet Co. (Old Mystic) 

Standard Machinery Co. (Mystic) 

Westerly Woolen Co. (Westerly P.O.) 

Whitford, Urban (Old Mystic) 


Oronoque Paper Mill (Oronoque) 


Bissell, L. P. 
Ranney, S. 0. 


Northfield Knife Co. (Reynolds Bridge) 
Plume & Atwood Mfg. Co. 
Thomas, Seth Clock Co. 
Thomaston Knife Co. 


French Riv. Text. Co. (Mechanicsville) 
Grosvenordale Co. (Grosvenordale) 
Keegan, Lawrence (Wilsonville) 
Murdock, T. G. & Son (New Boston) 
Tatem, J. B. & Sons (W. Thompson) 


Sumner, Wm. Belting Co. 


Coe Brass Manufacturing Co. 
Eagle Bicycle Manufacturing Co. 
Excelsior Needle Co. 
Hendey Machine Co. 
Tlotchkiss Bros. Co. 
Perkins, E. A. Electric Co. 
Progressive Manufacturing Co. 
Standard Manufacturing Co. 
Torrington Manufacturing Co. 
Turner & Seymour Manufacturing Co. 
Union Hardware Co. 
Warrenton Woolen Co. 


Radcliffe, C. E. (Long Hill) 
Toucey, R. G. (Long Hill) 


(See Farmington) 


American Mills Co. (Rockville) 

Avery, Bates Co. (Ellington) 

Belding Bros. & Co. (Rockville) 

Hockanum Co. (Rockville) 

Martin's, E. J. Sons (Rockville) 

Murlless, H. B. (Rockville) 

New England Co. (Rockville) 

Ravine Mills Co. 

Regan, J. J. Mfg. Co. (Rockville) 

Rock Mfg. Co. (Rockville) 

Springville Mfg. Co. (Rockville) 

Swett, R. K. Co. 

Talcott Bros. (Talcottville) 

U. S. Envelope Co. (Rockville) 

Vernon Woolen Co. 


Briggs Manufacturing Co. 


Backes, G. W. & Sons 

Backes, M. Sons 

Biggins, Rogers Co. 

Haller-Brown Co. (Yalesville) 

Hamden Manufacturing Co. 

Hodgetts, W. J. 

International Silver Co. 

Jennings & Griffin Mfg. Co. (Tracy) 

Judd, H. L. & Co. 

N. Y. Insulated Wire Co. 

Parker, Chas. Co. (Yalesville) 

Rogers, S. L. & G. H. Co. 

Wallace, R. & Sons Mfg. Co. 

Wallingford Co., Inc. 

Yale, C. I. Mfg. Co. (Yalesville) 


American Manufacturing Co. 

American Mills Co. 

American Pin Co. (Waterville) 

American Ring Co. 

Barlow Bros. Co. 

Benedict & Burnham Mfg. Co. 

Blake & Johnson 

Bristol Co. 

Berbecker & Rowland (Waterville) 

Connecticut Towns and Their Manufacturers 

Chase Rolling Mill Co. 

Coe Brass Co. 

Cross & Speirs Machine Co. 

Daly, M. J. & Sons 

Draher, John 

Fry, B. H. & Co. 

Hartley, George 

Hemingway, M. & Sons 

Henderson Bros. 

Hygeia Ice & Cold Storage Co. 

International Silver Co. 

Judd, W. B. 

Kalbfleisch, F. H. & Co. 

Lane Manufacturing Co. 

Macauley, J. J. 

Manufacturers' Foundry Co. 

Manville Bros. Co. 

Manville, E. J. Machine Co. 

Mattatuck Manufacturing Co. 

Matthews & Willard Mfg. Co. 

McCarthy & Moore 

Morden, L. M. 

National Wire Mattress Co. 

New England Watch Co. 

Noera Manufacturing Co. 

Novelty Manufacturing Co. 

Phoenix, Fred 

Piatt Bros. & Co. 

Plume & Atwood Manufacturing Co. 

Randolph-Clowes Co. 

Risdon, S. A. 

Rowbottom Mach. Co. (Waterville) 

Scoville Manufacturing Co. 

Shoe Hardware Co. 

Smith & Griggs Mfg. Co. 

Smith, J. E. & Co. 

Standard Electric Time Co. 

Steele & Johnson Mfg. Co. 

Tracy Bros. Co. 

Upham, George 

Waterbury Battery Co. 

Waterbury Blank Book Mfg. Co. 

Waterbury Brass Co. 

Waterbury Brass Goods Corp. 

Waterbury Buckle Co. 

Waterbury Button Co. 

Waterbury Clock Co. 

Waterbury Crucible Co. 

W'b'y. Farrel Foundry & Machine Co. 

Waterbury Machine Co. 

Waterbury Manufacturing Co. 

Waterbury Paper Box Co. 

Waterbury Wire Die Co. 

Waterville Cutlery Co. (Waterville) 

Welch, H. L. Hosiery Co. (W'ville) 

Weyand, Henry Co. 

White, L. C. Co. 

White & Wells Co. 


Booth Bros. 

Gardner, Henry (Millstone Pt.) 
Robinson, F. P. Paper Co. (Q. Hill) 
Woodworth, N. A. (Quaker Hill) 


Baird Machine Co. (Oakville) 
Hemingway & Bartlett Silk Co. 

Hemingway, M. & Sons Silk Co. 

Oakville Co. (Oakville) 
Smith, Seymour & Son (Oakville) 
Woolson, J. B. (Watertown) 


Goodwin Bros. Pottery Co. (Elmwood) 
Park Brick Co. (Elmwood) 
Whitlock Coil Pipe Co. (Elmwood) 


Atlantic Starch Co. 

Bradley, G. W. Sons 

Computing Scale Co. (Saugatuck) 

Doscher Plane & Tool Co. (Saugatuck) 

Embalmers' Supply Co. 

Kemper, Charles H., Jr. 

Lees Manufacturing Co. 

Saugatuck Mfg. Co. (Saugatuck) 

Wakeman, Rufus (Saugatuck) 

Westport Paper Co. 


Hartford Blower Co. 


(See Windham) 


Conn. Woolen Mill (E. Willington) 
Hall, Gardner & Son Co. (S. W'ton) 


Gilbert & Bennett Mfg. Co. 



Brown Mach. Co. (Winsted) 

Carter & Hakes Mach. Co. (Winsted) 
Dudley, Geo. & Son Co. (W'td) 
Empire Knife Co. (Winsted) 
Flexible Rubber Goods Co. 
Gilbert, Wm.L. Clock Co. (W'd) 
Goodwin & Kintz Co. (Wt'd) . 
Harrison, B. J. & Son Co. (Winsted) 
Moore, Franklin Co. (Winsted) 
Morgan Silver Plate Co. (Winsted) 
New England Knitting Co. (Winsted) 
New England Pin Co. (Winsted) 
Richards, Benjamin & Co. (Winsted) 

Richards, T. C. Hardware Co. (W'etd) 
Roe, John W. (Winsted) 
Strong Mfg. Co. (Winsted) 
Wilcox, George C. (Winsted) 
Winsted Cabinet Co. (Winsted) 
Winsted Edge Tool Works (Winsted) 
Winsted Hosiery Co. (W'td) 
Winsted Mfg. Co. (Winsted) 
Winsted Silk Co. (Winsted) 
Winsted Yarn Co. (Winsted) 


American Thread Co. (Willimantic) 
Bosson Fibre Board Co. (N. Windham) 
Chaffee Mfg. Co. (Willimantic) 
Harris, C. R. (N. Windham) 
Hartson, L. M. Co. (N. Windham) 
Hillhouse & Taylor (Willimantic) 
Holland Mfg. Co. (Willimantic) 
Latham & Crane (Willimantic) 
Mall, E. H. & Son (N. Windham) 
Sibley, Wm. (N. Windham) 
Smith & Winchester Co. (S. W'ham) 
Thread City Collar Co. (Willimantic) 
Turner, A. G. (Willimantic) 
Vanderman Plumb. & Heat. Co. 

Willimantic Cotton Mills Corp. 

Willimantic Machine Co. (Williman') 
Windham Mfg. Co. (Willimantic) 


Eddy Manufacturing Corp. 
Hartford Paper Co. (Poquonock) 
Health Underwear Co. (Poquonock) 
Hartford Paper Co. (Rainbow) 
Merwin, G. J. (Rainbow) 
Rainbow Mill (Rainbow) 
Windsor Collar & Cuff Co. 


American Writing Paper Co. 
Anchor Mills Paper Co. 
Clark, Geo. P. Co. 
Dexter, C. H. & Sons 
Horton, E. & Son Co. 
Medlicott Co. The 
Montgomery, J. R. Co. 
Whittlesey Paper Co. 
Windsor Locks Machine Co. 
Windsor Silk Co. 


(See Winchester) 


Amer. Shear & Knife Co. 

Curtis, Daniel & Sons 


Concerns named in heavy type are given in full detail in preceding pages. 

Curtiss-Way Co. (Meriden) 


•Cutaway Harrow Co. (Higganum) 

Standard Co. (Hartford) 


Am. & British Mfg Co. (Bridgeport) 
Union Metallic Cartridge Co. " 

V S Rapid Fire Gun & Powder Co. 


Winchester Repeating Arms Co. 

(New Haven) 


Blakesley Novelty Co. (Bristol) 


Electric Vehicle Co. (Htfd.) 

Pope Mfg Co. 

Corbin MotorVehicIeCo.(N.B.) 

Locomobile Co. of America (Bridgep't) 
Eisenhuth Horseless Vehicle Co. 



Whitlock Coil Pipe Co.(Htfd.) 


Uncas Specialty Co. (Norwich) 

BEDSTEADS (Metallic) 

Hartford Bedstead Co.(Htfd.) 
NatM Spg. Bed Co. (N. Brit.) 

Whitcomb Met. Bedstead Co. (Shelt'n) 

Industrial Strength of Connecticut 


Liberty Bell Co. (Bristol) 

New Departure Mfg Co. " 

Bevin Bros Mfg Co. (East Hampton) 

East Hampton Bell Co. 

Gong Bell Mfg Co. " 

N N Hill Brass Co. " 

Star Bros Bell Co. " 

BELTING (Leather) 

Jewell Belting Co. (Hartford) 
Coe & Brown (New Haven) 

Norwich Mfg Co. (Norwich) 

Ulmer Leather Co. " 

N Palmer & Co. (Bridgeport) 

William Sumner Belting Co. (Tolland) 


Pope Mfg. Co. (Hartford) 
Eagle Bicycle Mfg Co. (Torrington) 


Liberty Bell Co. (Bristol) 

New Departure Mfg Co. " 

Veeder Mfg Co. (Hartford) 

Post & Lester " 

Liberty Cycle Co. (Bridgeport) 


Curtiss-Way Co. (Meriden) 
Waterbury Blank Book Mfg Co. 



Standard Co. (Hartford) 


Hartford & N Y Transportation Co. 

Thames Tow Boat Co. (New London) 
Trumbull Marine Co. " 

Leeds Marine Equip. Co. (Bridgeport) 
Palmer Bros (Cos Cob) 

Greenwich Yacht Yard (Greenwich) 
Norwalk Launch Co. (Norwalk) 

Internat. Power Vehicle Co. " 

Stamford Motor Co. " 

S. Gildersleeve & Son (Gildersleeve) 
E. A. Ely (Middletown) 


H B Beach & Son (Hartford 

Bigelow Co. (New Haven) 

New Haven Boiler Works 4 " 

Randolph-Clowes Co. (Waterbury) 

Hopson Chapin Mfg Co. (New London) 
Spiers Bros. " 

Wm H Page Boiler Co. " 

Bridgeport Boiler Works (Bridgeport) 


Rogers & Hubbard Co. (Middletown) 
Rogers Mfg Co. (Rockfall) 


Case, Lockwood & Brainard Co.(Htfd.) 
Price, Lee & Adkins (New Haven) 
Tuttle, Morehouse & Taylor Co. " 
Middlesex County Printery (Portland) 

BOXES (Paper) 

H J Mills (Bristol) 

C J Callaghan (Hartford) 

Hartford Box Co. " 

Nichols Paper Box Co. " 

H H Corbin & Son (New Britain) 


Minor Corbin Box Co. 

S G Redshaw 

E J Doolittle 

C E Schumick 

White & Wells Co. (Naugatuck) 

Benton-Armstrong Fold. Box Co. 

(New Haven) 
Bishop Box & Paste Co. " 

P J Cronan Paper Box Co. " 

Munson & Co. " 

National Fold. Box & Paper Co. " 
New England Mfg Co. " 

W J Hodgetts (Wallingford) 

Waterbury Paper Box Co. (Waterbury) 
White & Wells Co. 

Bingham Paper Box Co. (N. London) 
Norwich Paper Box Co. (Norwich) 
Frank W Clark (Bethel) 

John Reid " 

Bridgeport Paper Box Co. (Bridgeport) 
Compressed Paper Box Co. 
Crown Paper Box Co. " 

Isaac Armstrong & Co. (Danbury) 
Clark Box Co. 
C A Romans 

S Curtiss & Son (Newtown) 

Am. Paper Pail & Box Co. (Norwalk) 
Knapp Box Co. (South Norwalk) 

Norwalk Box Co. " 

S C Trowbridge " 

Nat'l. Fold. Box & Paper Co.(Shelton) 
L S Carpenter & Son (E. Hampton) 
C H Watrous (Middletown) 

Kingsbury Box & Ptg. Co. (S.Coventry) 

BOXES (Wood) 

Bronson & Robinson Co. (Hartford) 
J W Rockwell 

Chas T Dodd (Meriden) 

Chas S St Johns (South Norwalk) 
Putnam Box Corp (Putnam) 


Bristol Brass Co. (Forestville) 

Brewery Appliance Specialty Co. " 
Ansonia Mfg Co. (Ansonia) 

Homer D Bronson Co. (Beacon Falls) 
Andrew B Hendryx Co. (New Haven) 
Rostand Mfg Co. (Milford) 

H A Matthews Mfg Co. (Seymour) 
Rimmon Mfg Co. (Seymour) 

H L Judd & Co. (Wallingford) 

Am. Ring Co. (Waterbury) 

Novelty Mfg Co. 

Plume & Atwood Mfg Co. " 

Steele & Johnson Mfg Co. " 

Waterbury Goods Corp. " 

Waterbury Mfg Co. " 

Ball & Socket Mfg Co. (W. Cheshire) 
Norwich Nickel & Brass Co. (Norwich) 
Eaton, Cole & Burnham Co. (B'port) 
Gaynor & Mitchell Mfg Co. " 

James M Somers " 

Norwalk Brass Co. (Norwalk) 

Artistic Bronze Co. (S. Norwalk) 

Jerals & Townsend Mfg Co. (Stamford) 
Benjamin, Richard & Co. (Winsted) 

BRASS (Sheet) 

Bristol Brass Co. (Bristol) 


Park Brick Co. (Elmwood) 

Eastern Machinery Co. (New Haven) 
Howard Co. " 


New England Broom Co. (N. Haven) 
Geo W Bancroft (New Hartford) 


W L Whittemore & Son (Hartford) 
Standard Brush Co. (New Hartford) 

Flexible Rubber Goods Co. 

Looby & Fargo (Center Brook) 

Rogers Brush Works (Chester) 


(New Britain) 
Russell & Erwin Mfg Co. " 
P & F Corbin 
Stanley Works " 


H Wales Lines Co. (Meriden) 


New Haven Button Co. 
Chas W Reade Button 
Weil Novelty Co. 
E F Smith & Sons 
Lane Mfg Co. 
Piatt Bros & Co. 
Waterbury Button Co. 
L C White Co. 
Elmwood Button Co. 
Hatheway Mfg Co. 
Patrick Crowe 
Saugatuck Mfg Co. 
Griffin Button Co. 

(New Haven) 

(Union City) 






Curtiss-Way Co. (Meriden) 
Beckwith Print. Co. (Norwich) 


Knowles-Lombard Co. (Guilford) 

Sachems Head Canning Co. (Guilford) 


Naubuc Paper Co. (Glastonbury) 

Riverside Paper Mfg Co. 
Hartford Board Co. (Hartford) 

Case Bros (Highland Park) 

Wausuc Mills Co. (Hopewell) 

Willard A Case (Manchester) 

Wm. Foulds Co. 

Brookside Paper Co. (So. Manchester) 
Rogers Paper Mfg rto. " 

New Haven Pulp & Board Co. (N.H.) 
Diamond Match Co. (Southport) 

Eastern Straw Board Co. (Versailles) 
C H Norton (N. Westcheshire) 

Standard Card & Paper Co. (B'port) 
Tait & Sons Paper Co. " 

United Box Board & Paper Co. 

Westport Paper Co. (Westport) 

Bosson Fibre Board Co. (Chaplin) 

F L Case Paper Co. (Andover) 

R K Swett Co. (Vernon) 


Hartford Carpet Co. (Thompsonville) 
Upson, Martin & Co. " 

Reid Carpet Co. (Bridgeport) 


Stanley Rule & Level Co. 

(New Britain) 


Clinton Mills Co. 
Fairfield Rubber Co. 



Guilford Wheel Mfg Co. (Guilford) 
M Armstrong k Co. (New Haven) 

Connecticut Products and Their Manufacturers 

A T Demarest & Co. (New Haven) 
J F Goodrich & Co. " 

H Holcomb 

Henry Hooker & Co. " 

Henry Killian Co. " 

New Haven Carriage Co (New Haven) 
Samuel K. Page " 

Seabrook & Smith Carriage Co. " 

M Seward & Son Co. " 

James W Harry & Son Co. 

(W. Cheshire) 
M B Ring (Norwich) 

Scott & Clark Corp. " 

Blue Ribbon Horse & Carriage Co. 

Gates Carriage Co. " 

C W Hall Carriage Co. " 

Hincks & Johnson " 

Wheel & Wood Bending Co. " 

W P Babcock (Plainfield) 

Flynn & Doyle (Bantam) 

Standard Mfg Co. (Torrington) 

Broderick Carriage Co. (Middletown) 
J. B. Evans 


E J Blake (Hartford) 

J M Craig " 

Phoenix Brass Foundry Co. " 

Wm. Roach (New Britain) 

F L Gaylord Co. (Ansonia) 

H D Phelps 

Edward Miller Co. (Meriden) 
C Upham Ely (New Haven) 

James Graham & Co. " 

J F Green " 

Reynolds Brass Foundry 
Pequot Brass Foundry (Norwich) 

Bridgeport Deoxidized Bronze & Metal 
Co. (Bridgeport) 

P J Donovan Brass Foundry Co. " 
W G Rowell & Co. 
Danbury Brass Works (Danbury) 

Birmingham Brass Co. (Shelton) 

Christian Brown (Stamford) 


Sessions Foundry Co. (Bristol) 
Capitol Foundry Co. (Hartford) 

Hartford Foundry Corp. " 

P Laragy " 

Phoenix Iron Works Corp. " 

Standard Foundry Co. " 

Malleable Iron Works (New Britain) 

D. E. Whiton Machine Co. 

(New London) 
Vulcan Iron Works " 

E T Carter (Plainville) 

Champion Mfg Co. (Rocky Hill) 

Malleable Iron Fittings Co. (Branford) 
Birmingham Iron Foundry (Derby) 
I S Spencer's Sons (Guilford) 

S H Barnum (New Haven) 

McLagon Foundry Co. " 

G F Warner Mrg Co. " 

Robert Wilson " 

Seymour Iron Foundry Co. (Seymour) 
Naugatuck Malleable Iron Co. 

(Union City) 
Manufacturer's Foundry (Waterbury) 
Waterbury Farrel Fdy. & Mach. Co. " 
Vaughn Foundry Co. (Norwich) 

A B Miller Sons (Stonington) 

Bridgeport Malleable Iron Co. 

R E Parsons Co. " 

Pequonnock Foundry Inc. " 

Arnold Co., Inc. (Norwalk) 

Meeker Union Foundry Corp. " 

U S Fdy & Sales Co. (So. Norwalk) 
Meyer Iron & Brass Fdy. (Shelton) 
Putnam Fdy. & Mach. Co. (Putnam) 
Andrew Terry Co. (Terryville) 

H B Murlless (Rockville) 

S B Ami don (Staff ordville) 


National Steel Fdy Co. (New Haven) 
A C Stiles Anti-Friction Metal Co. " 


Naugatuck Chemical Co. (Naugatuck) 
F B Kalbfleisch Co. (Waterbury) 

Mohawk Paint & Chemical (Norwich) 
General Chemical Co. (Bridgeport) 
Vass Chemical Co. (Danbury) 

Chas. H. Phillips Chem. Co. 

Chemical Wooks of America Inc. 


Helmschmied Mfg Co. 


CHUCKS (Lathe) 
Cushman Chuck Co. 

Jacobs Mfg Co. " 

Skinner Chuck Co. (N. Brit.) 
Union Mfg Co. " 

E Horton & Son Co. (Windsor Locks) 
Hoggson & Pettis Mfg Co. 

(New Haven) 

D. E. Whiton Machine Co. 

(New London) 


E Ingraham Co. (Bristol) 

H C Thompson Clock Co. " 

Sessions Clock Co. (Forestville) 

Parker Clock Co. Meriden) 

New Haven Clock Co. (New Haven) 
Standard Elec. Time Co. (Waterbury) 
Waterbury Clock Co. " 

Wm L Gilbert Clock Co. 
Goodwin & Kintz Co. " 

Annual Wind Clock Co. (Middletown) 


Youne- Bros (Forestville) 

Reeves Mfg Co. (Milford) 

Bridgeport Enamel Dial Co. 



Burdick-Corbin Co. (Hartford) 

Henry Killian Co. " 


Derby Comb Co. (Derby) 

Pratt, Read & Co. (Deep River) 


Goodwin Cork Co. 



Brewster Corset Co. (Derby) 

Brooks Corset Co. (New Haven) 

Gilbert Mfg Co. 

Hickok Co. 

I Newman & Sons 

I Strouse & Co. 

Strouse-Adler & Co. 

Henry H. Todd " 

Geo. C. Batcheller & Co. (Bridgeport) 

Birdsey & Somers 

Crown Corset Co. 

Downer, Hawes & Co. 

Warner Bros Corset Co. 

R & G Corset Co. (S. Norwalk) 

R N Bassett Co. (Shelton) 


Arawana Mills (Middletown-) 
J Broadbent & Son (Unionville) 

J R Montgomery Co. (Windsor Locks) 
Ansonia O & C Co. (Ansonia) 

New England Warp Co. (New Haven) 
Baltic Mills Co. (Baltic) 

Ashland Cotton Co. (Jewett City) 
Wm. A Slater Mills " 

Am. Thread Co. (Glasco) 

Palmer Bros Co. (Montville) 

Pequot Mills " 

Mystic Twine Co. (Mystic) 

(New London) 
New England Carpet Lin. Co. 
Blissyille Mills Inc. (Norwich) 

Falls Co. 

Shetucket Co. " 

Peter Strom " 

Emerson P Turner Mfg Co. " 

U S Finishing Co. 
Massosoit Mfg Co. (Oakville) 

Am Thread Co. (Stonington) 

Lorraine Mfg Co. 

Totokett Mills Co. (Versailles) 

Briggs Mfg Co. (Voluntown) 

C W Prentice (Taftville) 

Uncasville Mfg Co. (Uncasville) 

Uncasville Mfg Co. (Versailles) 

Ernest Simpons Mfg Co. (Norwalk) 
Adam Mfg Co. (Shelton) 

Lee's Mfg Co. (Westport) 

Attawaugan Co. (Attawaugan) 

W S Lees Co. (Central Village) 

Danielsonville Cotton Co. (Danielson) 
Quinebaug Co. " 

Fred R Smith (E Killingly) 

Aldrich Mfg Co. (Moosup) 

Floyd Cranska " 

Cutler Mills Co. (Packerville) 

Monohansett Mfg Co. (Putnam) 

Moss Mills Co. " 

Nightingale Mills 
Powhatan Mills 

Putnam Mfg Co. " 

Wauregan Co. (Wauregan) 

Williamsville Mfg Co. (Williamsville) 
Am Thread Co. (Willimantic) 

Windham Co. 

Willimantic Cotton Mills Corp. " 
E H Mall & Son (N Windham) 

M H Marcus & Bros (Elmville) 

Grosvenordale Co. (Grosvenordale) 
Summit Thread Co. (East Hampton) 
Russell Mfg Co. (Higgaum) 

C E Brownell (Moodus) 

Hall, Lincoln & Co. 
Neptune Twine & Cord Mills 
N Y Net & Twine Co. 
A E Purple " 

M Pollock (Conantville) 

John L Ross (Eagleville) 

Gardner Hall & Son (So. Willington) 
Ravine Mills Co. (Vernon) 


Waterbury Crucible Co. (Waterbury) 
Bridgeport Crucible Co. (Bridgep't) 

CUTLERY (Pocket) 

Humason & Beckley Mfg Co. 

(New Britain) 
Southington Cut. Co. (Southington) 
Miller Bros Cut. Co. (Meriden) 
Waterville Cut. Co. (Waterville) 

Challenge Cut. Corp. (Bridgeport) 
Holley Mfg Co. (Lakeville) 

Northfield Knife Co. (Northfield) 

Northfield Knife Co (Reynolds Bridge) 
Thomaston Knife Co. (Thomaston) 

Empire Knife Co. (Winsted) 

CUTLERY (Table) 

Landers, Frary & Clark, 

(New Britain) 
Hart Mfg Co. (Unionville) 

Union Cut. & Hdw. Co. " 

Meriden Cut. Co. (Meriden) 

Internat. Silver Co. (Norwich) 

Industrial Strength of Connecticut 


Hartford Dairy Co. (Hartford) 

New England Dairy Corp (N. Haven) 
Valley Farm Creamery Co. " 

Borden's Cond. Milk Co. (Newtown) 


Everett Horton (Bristol) 

Ira B Smith (Bristol) 

L E Rhodes (Hartford 
Meriden Mach Tool Co. 

Waterbury Wire Die Co. (W'tbury) 
Conn Tool Co. (Bridgeport) 

Omo Mfg Co. (Middletown) 


Union Fabric Co. (Ansonia) 


Henry & Wright Mfg Co. 



Bilings & Spencer Co. (Htfd.) 


Arknot Co. (Hartford) 

Baker Electric Co. (Hartford) 

Franklin Electric Mfg Co. " 

Green & Bauer " 

Hart & Hegeman Mfg Co. " 
Hart Mfg Co. 
Johns- Pratt Co. 
Norton Elec. Instrument Co. 

T H Brady (New Britain) 

Trumbull Elec. Co. (Plainville) 

Eddy Mfg Corp (Windsor) 

Ansonia Electric Co. (Ansonia) 

H P Cameron Elec Mfg Co. " 

Todd Electric Mfg Co. (Meriden) 
Acme Wire Co. (New Haven) 

A E Holaday Mfg Co. " 

N Y Insulated Wire Co. (Wall'gford) 
Waterbury Battery Co. (Waterbury) 
Bryant Electric Co. (Bridgeport) 

Perkins Elec. Switch Mfg Co. " 

E A Perkins Elec. Co. (Torr'gton) 


Johns- Pratt Co. (Hartford) 


Johns- Pratt Co. (Hartford) 


Hart & Hegeman Mfg Co. " 
Hart Mfg Co. 


A Mugford (Hartford) 

Robert Weller 

A Pindar Corp. " 

Hartford Engraving Co. " 

R S Peck & Co. 

W T Barnum & Co. (New Haven) 

Best Mfg Co. " 

E B Sheldon Co. 

Curtiss-Wav Co. (Meriden) 

W W Wheeler Co. (Meriden) 

F A Benton & Son 


EMERY (Ground) 

Oriental Emery Co. (New Haven) 

Bridgeport Safety Emery Wheel Co. 

Springfield Mfg Co. " 


New England Enameling Co. 

New England Enameling Co. (P'land) 


Hasbrook Motor Works (Mystic) 

N. London Marine Iron Works 

(New London) 
Acme Oil Engine Co. (Bridgeport) 
Pacific Iron Works " 

Royal Equipment Co. " 

Norwalk Iron Works (S. Norwalk) 
International Power Vehicle Co. 


ENGINES (Gasoline) 


(N. Britain) 



(N. London) 








Harriman Motor Works 
Hartford Engine Works 
Evarts Mfg Co. 
F A Law Mach Co. 
New Britain Mach Co. 
J W Lathrop 
Mystic Motor Works 
New London Motor Co. 
Fairfield Motor Co. 
Brooklyn Ry Supply Co. 
Palmer Bros 
Norwalk Launch Co. 
Stamford Motor Co. 
E E Johnson 
Eagle Bicycle Mfg Co. 
H W Hubbard 
Keating Motor Co. 


Pickering Governor Co. (Portland) 


A Mugford (Hartford) 

Hartford Engraving Co. " 
Robert Weller 

A Pindar Corp. " 

Brown & Stoddard Co. (N. Haven) 

Curtiss-Way Co. (Meriden) 

W W Wheeler Co. (Meriden) 



Arawana Mills (Middletown) 
New Haven Web Co. (Hamden) 

Cott-A-Lap Co. (New Haven) 

Narrow Fabric Corp " 

Am Mills Co. (Waterbury) 

Jewett City Textile Novelty Co. 

(Jewett City) 
Ponemah Mills (Taftville) 

Bias Narrow Fabric Co. (B'dgep't) 
Bridgeport Coach Lace Co. " 

Bridgeport Elastic Fabric Co. " 

Conn Web Co. (Bridgeport) 

J G Irving (Danbury) 

C E Radcliffe (Long Hill) 

Muller Gloria Mills (Winnipauk) 

Boese, Peppard & Co. (S. Norwalk) 
Hefumos Mfg Co. (Stamford) 

Star Mfg Co. " 

Russell Mfg Co. (Rockfall) 

FAIENCE (Architectural) 

Hartford Faience Co. (H'f'd) 


Colt's Pat. Fire Arms Mfg Co. 

Meriden Fire Arms Co. (Meriden) 
Parker Bros. " 

Ideal Mfg Co. (New Haven) 

Marlin Fire Arms Co. 
Winchester R'ptg. Arms Co. 
Crescent Fire Arms Co. (Norwich) 
W H Davenport Fire Arms Co. 
Hopkins & Allen Arms Co. 
Thames Arms Mfg Co. 
Tobin Mfg Co. 
Otis A Smith (Rockfall) 


G W Backes & Sons (Wallingford) 
M Backes Sons 


E J Martin's Sons (Rockville) 


A Mugford 
Robert Weller 

Calhoun Show Print Co. 
A Pindar Corp. 
R S Peck Co. 


Tavlor-Atkins Paper Co. (Burnside) 

Hartford Mfg Co. (Hartford) 

Plimpton Mfg Co. (Hartford) 

U S Envelope Co. " 

Am Paper Goods Co. (Kensington) 

W J Moffat (New Haven) 

U S Envelope Co. (Rockville) 


Williams & Carleton (Hartford) 

Uncasville Dye Wood & Ext. Co. 

Stamford Mfg Co. ( Stamford) 


Melrose Silver Co. 
Biggins-Rogers Co. 



Imperial Granum Co. (N. Haven) 

C D Boss & Son (New London) 

New England Food Co. (E. Norwalk) 
Echo Farm Corp (Bantam) 

Borden's Cond. Milk Co. (Canaan) 
Borden's Cond. Milk Co. (Lime Rock) 


Benedict & Co. (New Canaan) 

Frank I Lane 

Lounsburv, Matthewson & Co. 

(S. Norwalk) 
Lounsbury & Soule (Stamford) 

W D Case & Co. (Putnam) 

W S Johnson 
Goodyear Rubber Co. (Middletown) 


Billings & Spencer Co. (Hfd.) 
Blakeslee Forging Co. (Plantsville) 
Kilbourn & Bishop Co. (New Haven) 
Bridgeport Forge Co. (Bridgeport) 


Turner Heater Co. 


Connecticut Products and Their Manufacturers 


D Case Co. (Guilford) 

Eastern Lounge Co. (New Milford) 
B J Harrison Son Co. (Winsted) 


Climax Fuse Co. (Avon) 

Bickford & Co. (Simsbury) 


Blakesley Novelty Co. (Bristol) 

C J White & Co. (New Britain) 


Bristol Brass Co. (Bristol) 

GLASS (Cut) 

J D Bergen Co. (Meriden) 

International Silver Co. 

Meriden Cut Glass Co. 

J J Niland " 


W L Barrett (Bristol) 


A J Hall & Co. (Meriden) 

P J Handel " 

Helmschmied Mfg Co. 

F Monroe " 

Fair Haven Art Glass Co. (N. Haven) 
Bridgeport Art Glass Co. (BrJ^ip't) 


G L Bladon 

John M Ney & Co. 

M Swift & Sons 



W C Ladd (Bristol) 


Am. Graphophone Co. (Bridgep't) 


Ashcroft Mfg Co. (Bridgeport) 

D G Cooper ( Terry ville) 

GUNS (Machine & Gatling) 

Colt's Pat. Fire Arms Mfg Co. 


Am. & British Mfg Co. (Bridgep't) 
U S Rapid Fire Gun & Power Co. 



Arawana Mills (Middletown) 
Goodall Hammock Co. (Middletown) 


Ira B Smith (Bristol) 

Clayton Bros " 

C J Root " 
W C Ladd 

J H Sessions & Son " 

L H Snyder " 

New Departure Mfg Co. " 

Collins Co. ~ (Collinsville) 
Peck, Stow & Wilcox (E. Berlin) 

H S Bartholomew (Edgewood) 

Turner & Deegan " 

Am. Bit & Augur Co. (Forestville) 
C E Andrews " 

Capewell Horse Nail Co. (Hartford) 
Billings & Spencer Co. (Hfd.) 
C T McCue Co. 
Pratt & Cady Co. 

W W & C F Tucker " 

Whitney Mfg Co. 

R A Moore & Son (Kensington) 

H Lydall & Foulds (Manchester) 

Orion Treat " 

L D Frost & Son (Marion) 

Clark Bros & Co. (Milldale) 

F L Ellis & Son " 

Am. Needle Works (New Britain) 

Beaton & Bradley Co. " 

Corbin Cabinet Lock Co. 

(New Britain) 
P & F. Corbin 

Corbin Screw Corp. " 

Hart & Cooley Co. 
S Judd " 

Landers, Frary & Clark " 
North & Judd Mfg Co. 
Russell & Erwin Mfg Co. " 
Stanley Rule & Level Co. 
Stanley Works 
Taplin Mfg Co. ' " 

Traut & Hine Mfg Co. 
Union Mfg Co. " 

C H Calor (Plainville) 

L H Carter " 

A N Clark & Son 

Clarke Castor Co. " 

Elm City Brass & Rivet Co. " 

Edwin Hills " 

Osborn & Stephenson " 

Atwater Mfg Co. (Plantsville) 

Peck, Stow & Wilcox Co. " 

H D Smith Co. 
Wolcott Hdw. Co. 
G E Wood Tool Co. 
Aetna Nut Co. (Southington) 

Beaton & Corbin Mfg Co. " 

Peck, Stow & Wilcox " 

Westfield Plate Co. (Thompsonville) 
H W Humphrey Unionville) 

S G Monce " 

Upson Nut Co. " 

Bailey Mfg Co. (Wethersfield) 

Ansonia Novelty Co. (Ansonia) 

H C Cook & Co. 
J B Gardner Sons. 
S & C Co. 

Graham Mfg Co. (Derby) 

Howe Mfg Co. 

Fergus Kelly " 

J T Henry Mfg Co. (Hamden) 

Brown & Dowd Mfg Co. (Meriden) 
Foster-Merriam & Co. 
A H Jones Co. 
Manning Bowman & Co. 
Chas Parker Co. " 

M B Schenck Co. 
F J Wallace 

Wusterbarth Bros " 

Willis M Cook (Mt. Carmel) 

Mt. Carmel Bolt Co. 
W W Woodruff & Son Co. 
Am. Rivet Co. (New Haven) 

Atlas Mfg Co. 

R H Brown & Co. " 

W S Burn Mfg Co. " 

C Cowles & Co. " 

B Druen " 

W & E T Fitch Co. 
Robert Fitzmorris 

Grillev Co. " 

A S Henn & Co. 

H B Ives & Co. " 

Mallory Wheeler Co. 
Metal Mfg Co. " 

James F Molloy & Co. 
National Wire Corp 
New Haven Spring Co. 


(So. Britain) 

(Union City) 




B North & Co. 

Perpente Mfg Co. 

Sargent & Co. 

Wm Schollhorn Co. 

M Seward & Son Co. 

A H Smith & Co. 

L T Snow 

Hobart E Smith 

Fowler Nail Co. 

Garrett & Beach 

Humphreyville Mfg Co 

Little River Mfg Co. 

James Swan Co. 

Hawkins Co. 

Naugatuck Mfg Co 

Hamden Mfg Co. 

Am. Mfg 

Blake & Johnson 

B H Fry & Co. 

Mattatuck Mfg Co. 

L M Morden 

Noera Mfg Co. 

Shoe Hardware Co. 

Smith & Griggs Mfg Co. 

Waterbury Buckle Co. 

Berbecker & Rowland Mfg Co. 

Am Buckle Co. (New Haven) 

West Haven Buckle Co. 
West Haven Mfg Co. 
Griest Mfg Co. (Westville) 

New London Vise Works (N. London) 
Bard, Union Co. (Norwich) 

Chelsea File Works 
Puritan Mfg Co. 
R O Bennett 
Geo B Gruman 
Acme Shear Co. 
Atlantic Mfg Co. 
Atlas Shear Co. 
Automatic Scale Co. 
Bridgeport Hdw Mfg Co. 
Burns, Silver & Co. " 

Columbia Bolt & Nut Co. 
Con. Safety Valve Co. 
Cornwall & Patterson Mfg Co. 
John S Fray & Co. 
Edward S Hotchkiss 
Harwood Mfg Co. 
Jennings Bros Mfg Co. 
Geo S Knapp 
A L Krause 
W E Krause 
Locke Steel Belt Co. 
Metal Ware Mfg Co. 
Smith & Egge Mfg Co. " 

Spring Perch Co. 

Swinnerton & Sniffen Mfg Co. " 

Weildich Bros Mfg Co. 
White Mfg Co. " 

Lennox Shear Co. (Brookfield) 

Russell, Birdsall & Ward 
Bolt & Nut Co. (Glenville) 

Lockwood Mfg Co. (S. Norwalk) 

Norwalk Lock Co. 
D M Bassett Bolt Works " 

Shelton Co. (Shelton) 

Davenport & Tracy (Stamford) 

Excelsior Hardware Co. 
Yale & Towne Mfg Co. " 

Greystone Mfg Co. (Greystone) 

Seymour Smith & Son (Oakville) 
Chapin Stevens Co. (Pine Meadow) 
Eagle Lock Co. (Terryville) 

Progressive Mfg Co. (Torrington) 
Torrington Mfg Co. 
Turner & Seymour Mfg Co. 
Union Hardware Co. 
Franklin Moore Co. (Winsted) 

Morgan Silver Plate Co. 
T C Richards Hdw. Co. " 

Strong Mfg Co. " 

Conn. Valley Mfg Co. (Center Brook) 
Chester Mfg Co. (Chester) 

J S Deuse 

J R Ferguson & Co. 
Jennings, Russell Mfg Co. 
H E Taylor & Co. (Hadlyme) 

Higganum Hdw. Co. (Higgnaum> 

Industrial Strength of Connecticut 

M R Warner & Sons (Little River) 
W H Chapman Co. (Middletown) 

Wilcox, Crittenden & Co. " 


North & Judd Mfg Co. 

(New Britain) 


Peck & Lines 



Naugatuck Valley Ice Co. (B'dg'port) 
Diamond Ice Co. (Stamford) 


Burr Index Co. 


S M Andrews (Hartford) 

Vanderhoef & Co. (Milford) 

H Frankenberger & Co. (New Haven) 

Baird Untiedt Co. (Bethel) 

Bethel Mfg Co. 

Farnum & Fairchild 

Higson & Co. 

Judd & Co. 

Judd & Dunning Hat Co. 

Edwin Short Hat Co. 

Beltaire Bros & Co. (Danbury) 

Connett Hat Co. 

Danbury Co. 

Delohery Hat Co. 

John W Green & Sons Inc. 

Green Soft Hat Mfg Co. 

Hawes, Von Gal Co. 

S C Holley & Co. 

Hoyt, Walthausen & Co. 

Lee Hat Mfg Co. 

Lee Soft Hat Co. 

D E Loewe 

E A Mallory & Sons 

H McLachlan 

Meeker Bros & Co. 

Millard Hat Co. 

J B Murphy & Co. 

National Hat Co. 

Rundle & White 

S A G Hat Co. 

Simon & Keane 

A C Wheeler (Norwalk) 

Otto Barthol Co. (S. Norwalk) 

Crofut & Knapp Co. 

Dennis & Blanchard 

A A Hodson & Co. 

W B Hubbell 

Rough Hat Co. 

Volk Hat Co. 

J C Wilson & Co. 

Walhizer & Dreyer 

New Milford Hat Co. (N. Milford) 


Bethel Hat Forming Co. (Bethel) 

Bridgeport Hat Mfg Co. (B'dg'p't) 

A S Davenport (Danbury) 

F D Tweedy & Co. 

C M Horch 

Hat Forming Co. (S. Norwalk) 

Universal Hat Co. 

HEATERS (Feed Water) 

Whitlock Coil Pipe Co. (Htfd.) 
I B Davis & Son " 

Foskett & Bishop Co. (N. Haven) 

National Pipe Bending Co. " 


Am. Hosiery Co. (N. Britain) 
Dunham Hosiery Co. (Naugatuck) 

Columbia Hosiery Co. (N. Haven) 
Radcliffe Bros. (Shelton) 

Winsted Hosiery Co. (W'sted) 

ICE (Artificial) 

Hygienic Ice Co. (New Haven) 

Hygenia Ice j& Cold Stor. (W'terbury) 

. . ~ INKS 
Standard Co. (Hartford) 


New Haven Iron & Steel Co. (N. H.) 
Barnum, Richardson Co. (E. Canaan) 


Porter & Dyson Co. (N. Brit.) 
C R Harris (N. Windham) 


Corbin Cabinet Lock Co. 

(New Britain) 


Salisbury Cut. & Handle Co. (Sal'b'y) 


Royal Knit. Mills (Putnam) 


Tariffville Lace Mfg Co. (Tariffv'lle) 


New Era Lustre Co. (New Haven) 

Am. Lacquer Co. (Bridgeport) 
David B Crockett Co. 

Parrott Varnish Co. " 

Celluloid Zapon Co. (Stamford) 


E C Bishop & Co. (Hartford) 


Edward Miller & Co. (M'den) 
Scoville & Peck Co. (N. Haven) 

Stevens & Sackett Co. " 

Matthews & Willard Mfg Co (W'bury) 
Plume & Atwood Mfg Co. " 

Goodwin & Kintz (Winsted) 


Meriden Mach. Tool Co. 

New Haven Mfg Co. (N. Haven) 

E E Johnson (Putnam) 

Brown Machine Co. (Winsted) 


Herman Roser (E. Glastonbury) 

Jewell Belting Co. (Hartford) 
Bridgeport Patent Leather Mfg Co. 

Geo Dudley & Son Co. (W'ted) 
Case Leather Works (Hop River) 

LEATHER (Artificial) 

Boston Artificial Leather Co. 



Hartford Leather Goods Co. 

George A Shepard & Sons Co. (Bethel) 
Fred K Braitling (Bridgeport) 

Chas H Kempner, Jr. (Westport) 
E E Robbins (Putnam) 

Corbin Cabinet Lock Co. 

(New Britain) 

Calhoun Show Print Co. (Hartford) 
Dodd Lithographic Co. " 

Kellogg & Bulkeley Co. " 

Dorman Lithographing Co. (N. Haven) 

Corbin Cabinet Lock Co. 

(New Britain) 
A Ochsner & Sons Co. (N. Haven) 


Pratt & Whitney Co. (Htfd.) 

Edred W Clark " 

Cooley & Trevor Mfg Co. " 

Fenn-Sadler Machine Co. " 

Gray & Prior Machine Co. " 

Carlyle Johnson Mach Co. " 

Mutual Machine Co. 

National Machine Co. " 

Phoenix Mfg Co. " 

W H Pickering & Co. " 

L E Rhodes 

Sigourney Tool Co. 

Dwight Slate Machine Co. 

John Thompson Press Co. 

Whitney Mfg Co. " 

New Britain Machine Co. (N. B'tain) 

North & Pfeiffer Mfg Co. 

B Lamb & Co. (Plainville) 

Norton & Jones 

Thompson Drop Forge Co (Plant'v'lle) 

C E Billings Mfg Co. (Rocky Hill) 

George P Clark Co. (Windsor L'ks) 

Windsor Locks Mach Co. 

H C Cook Machine Co. (Ansonia) 

Farrel Foundry & Mach Co. " 

Meriden Mach. Tool Co. 

A H Merriam 
F Wheeler & Son 

C J Brooks (New Haven) 

E A Burgess Est. 

F M Carroll " 

Defiance Button Machine 
Eastern Machinery Co. 
Elm City Engineering Co. 
George M Griswold 
Hemming Bros 
Herrick & Cowell 
George M McKenzie 
F P Pfleghar & Son 
George E Prentice & Co. 
Reynolds & Co. 
James Reynolds Mfg Co. 
F C & A E Rowland 
F B Shuster Co. 
W J Smith & Co. 
Smith & Twiss 
H G Thompson & Son Co. 
J M Smith (Seymour) 

Cross & Spiers Mach Co. (Waterbury) 
John Draher 
Manville Bros 
E J Manville Mach Co. 
Waterbury Farrel Fdy. & Mach Co. || 
Waterbury Mach Co. 
Rowbottom Mach Co. (Waterville) 
Belden Mach Co. (Westville) 

Standard Machinery Co. (Mystic) 

D E Whiton Mach. Co. 

(New London) 
Am Woodworking Mach Co. (Norwich) 
M A Barber 
A Gould 
Hiscox Co. 
Lester & Wasley 

Connecticut Products and Their Manufacturers 

Atwood-Morrison Co. (Stonington 

A L Adams (Bridgeport 

Automatic Mach Co. 

Baker Mach Co. 

H C Bradley 

Bridgeport Fdy. & Mach Co. 

Bridgeport Safety Emery Wheel Co. 

Bullard Mach Tool Co. 

Coulter & McKenzie Mach Co. 

Curtis & Curtis Co. 

Grant Mfg & Mach Co. 

A H Nilson Mach Co. 

Special Mach Co. 

Edward P Walter 

James W Weir 

Boesch Mfg Co. (Danbury 

Doran Bros 

Heim Mach Co. 

Morelock & Husk 

New Mach Co. 

Turner Mach Co. 

Colonial Fdy. & Mach Co. E. Nor'w'k 

H A Tuttle Mfg Co. 

J W Craw (S. Norwalk 

George N McKibben Mfg Co. 

J W Miller 

Computing Scale Co. (Saugatuck 

Dairy Mach'y & Construe. Co. (Shel'n 

Ball Mfg Co. (Stamford 

George Muench Co. 

Stamford Iron Works 

Larkin Reed Co. (Danielson 

Willimantic Mach Co. (Willimantic 

Smith & Winchester Co. (S. Windham 

J A Northrop & Son (N. Milford 

Baird Machine Co. (Oakville 

Hendey Machine Co. (Torrington 

Brown Machine Co. (Winsted 

H B Brown & Co. (E. Hampton 

A Read Co. (Middletown 

Brock way & Meekinsturn (Moodus 


Everett Horton 
J H Sessions & Son 


MACHINERY (Registering) 

C J Root (Bristol) 


Hartford Machine Screw Co. 

MACHINERY (Wood Screw) 

Asa A Cook Co. (Hartford) 

MACHINES (Sewing) 

Merrow Machine Co. (Htfd.) 
Model Mach Co. (Bridgeport) 

Wheeler & Wilson " 


Billings & Spencer Co. (Htfd.) 


Hartford Faience Co. (Htfd.) 

MASSAGE (Rubber Brushes) 

Flexible Rubber Goods Co. 



B Rottman (New Haven) 

B B Savage & Co. " 

Samuel Yudkin " 

Hugh Sterling 
Itufus Wakeman 


MATTRESSES (Woven Wire) 

Hartford Bedstead Co. (Htfd.) 
National Wire Mattress Co. 



Reeves Mfg Co. 
Weld Mfg Co. 



Bridgeport Metallic Pack Co. 



Goodwin & Kintz Co. (W'sted 
Beseman & Bostwick (Hartford 

Sterling Blower & Pipe Mfg Co. 
Ansonia Brass & Copper Co. (Ansonia 
Coe Brass Mfg Co. 
Griswold, Richmond & Glock Co. 

Adlerhurst Iron Co. (N. Haven 

Buckingham, Roth Co. 
Curtiss & Pierpont Co. 
Levine Bros 
Magnus Metal Co. 
Wm A T Smith 

New Haven Copper Co. (Seymour 
Metal Finishing Co. (Union City 
Benedict & Burnham Co. (Waterbury 
Chase Rolling Mill Co. 
Coe Brass Co. 
Randolph-Clowes Co. 
Scovill Mfg Co. 
Waterbury Brass Co. 
Henry Weyand Co. 
Cheshire Brass Co. (W. Cheshire 

Am. Tube & Stamping Co. (Bridgeport 
J W Beach 
Bridgeport Brass Co. 
Farist Steel Co. 
Handy & Harmon 
G Drouve Co. 
C W Moore 
John Schwing Corp. 
Oven Equipment & Mfg Co. (St'ford 
Plume & Atwood Mfg Co. (Thom'ton 
Coe Brass Mfg Co. (Torrington 


E H Jacobs Mfg Co. (Danielson) 

L M Hartson Co. (N. Windham) 


Stephen Maslen Corp. (Htfd.) 
H D Burnham, " 

Thos Phillips & Son (N. Haven) 

John Salter & Son (Groton) 

Henry Gardner (Millstone Pt.) 

F M Ladd New London) 

C A Kuebler (Norwich) 

Monumental Bronze Co. (Br'dg'port) 


Bridgeport Motor Co. (Bridgeport) 

Electric Vehicle Co. (Htfd.) 


Standard Co. (Hartford) 


Aeolian Co. (Meriden) 

Wilcox & White Co. 


Leeds & Catlin Co. (Middletown) 

Tibbals Oakum Co. (Cobalt) 


Edward Miller & Co. (M'den) 


Wilcox & White Co. (M'den) 

Bridgeport Organ Co. (Bridgeport) 

ORGANS (Church) 

Austin Organ Co. (Hartford) 
H Hall & Co. (New Haven) 


Organ Power Co. (Hartford) 


Mansfield Organ Pipe Co. 

(Mansfield Depot) 

ORGAN (Stops & Knobs) 

Denison Bros (Deep River) 


Wm. L. Gilbert Clock Co. 
Goodwin & Kintz Co. " 


Wm H Wiley & Son Co. (Hartford) 


Bridgeport Wood Finishing Co. 



East Hartford Mfg Co. (Burnside) 

Tavlor-Atkins Paper Co. " 

J H Walker 

P Garvan (Hartford) 

Am Writing Paper Co. (Manch'ter) 

Lydall & Foulds Paper Co. " 

Newington Paper Co. (Newington) 

Hartford Paper Co. (Rainbow) 

G J Merwin 

Rainbow Mill " 

J D Stowe & Son (Scitico) 

Am Writing Paper Co. (Unionville) 

Case Mfg Co. *' 

Am Writing Paper Co. (Windsor Lks) 

Anchor Mills Paper Co. 

Whittlesey Paper Co. 

C H Dexter & Son (W. Locks) 

Case & Marshall Inc. (Woodland) 

Cashin Card & Glazed Paper Co. 

(New Haven) 
S Y Beach Paper Co. (Seymour) 

Jos Parker & Son Co. (Westville) 

Brown Bros (Comstock Bridge) 

Harrison Shick & Pratt Co. 

C M Robertson Co. (Montville) 

A H Hubbard Co. (Norwich) 

Uncas Paper Co. 

F P Robinson Poper Co. (W'terford) 
N A Woodworth 

Mc Arthur Bros (Danbury) 

Jerome Paper Co. (Norwalk) 

St. George Pulp & Paper Co. " 

Oronoque Paper Co. (Oronoque) 

Frederick Beck & Co. (Stamford) 

Avery Bates Co. (Ellington) 

Industrial Strength of Connecticut 


J B Burr & Co. Inc. (Htfd.) 


Topping Bros (Hartford) 
Hartford Pat. & Model Co. " 

H P Little & Co. 

Geo D Lambert (N. Haven) 

W B Judd (Waterbury) 

Fred F Beach (Bridgeport) 

O S Piatt " 

Henry S Hale (Stamford) 


Miller Bros Cutlery Co. 



E J Hoadley 
Harris-Hart Co. 

New Haven) 


Anthony & Scovill Co. (New Haven) 

Meriden Gravure Co. (M'den) 


Sterling Co. (Derby) 

Wilcox & White Co. (Meriden) 
B Shoninger Co. (New Haven) 

Steinerstone Co. " 

Mathushek Piano Mfg Co. (W. Haven) 
Huntington Piano Co. (Shelton) 

Schleicher Sons' Piano Co. (St'ford) 


Wilcox & White Co. (Meriden) 


Pratt, Read & Co. (Deep River) 

Comstock Cheney & Co. (Ivoryton) 

PICKLES, (Mixed, Etc.) 

Standard Co. (Hartford) 


Assawan Mill Co. 




Jewell Pin Co. (Hartford) 

Sterling Pin Co. (Derby) 

Am Pin Co. (Waterville) 

Star Pin Co. (Shelton) 

Oakville Co. (Oakville) 

New England Pin Co. (Winsted) 


Whitlock Coil Pipe Co. 



Hartford Pulp Plaster Corp (Hfd) 
Conn Adamant Plaster Co. (N Haven) 


Legate Mfg Co. (Hartford) 

Manning, Bowman & Co. (Meriden) 
R Wallace & Sons Mfg Co. 

Wallingford Co. Inc. " 

E H H Smith Silver Co. (Bridgeport) 


New Departure Mfg Co. (Bristol) 

Whitlock Coil Pipe Co. (Htfd.) 
C Birkery " 

Hogan Mfg Co. " 

Frank J Knox Co. 

P J Flannery (New Britain) 

Landers, Frary & Clark 
Peck Bros & Co. (New Haven) 

Sheahan & Groark " 

Eaton, Cole & Burnham Co. 

John Hamilton " 

Yanderman Plumb. & Heat. Co. 



Goodwin Bros Pottery (Elmwood) 


B P Webler (Bristol) 

PRESSES (Cider & Cotton) 

G H Bushnell Press Co. (Thomp'ville) 
PRESSES (Drill) 

Henry & Wright Mfg Co. 



Miner & Peck Mfg Co. (New Haven) 

PRESSES (Printing) 

Kelsey Press Co. (Meriden) 
Brown Cotton Gin Co. (N. London) 
C B Cottrell & Sons Co. (Stonington) 
Whitlock Print Press Mfg Co.(Sh'lton) 


Bridgeport Type Furnishing Co. 



I B Davis & Son (Hartford) 

Union Mfg Co. (New Britain) 
W & B Douglass (Middle town) 


James L Howard & Co. (Hartford) 
Baldwin & Rowland Sw'ch & Signal Co. 
(New Hi*vrn) 
Recording Fare Registering Co. " 
Standard Coupler Co. (Bridgeport) 
Barnum, Richardson Co. (Lime Rock) 


Rattan Mfg Co. (N. Haven) 

REELS (Fishing) 

Liberty Bell Co. (Bristol) 


Hart & Cooley Co. (New Brit.) 

RODS (Steel Fishing) 

Horton Mfg Co. (Bristol) 


Beacon Falls Rubber Shoe Co. 

(Beacon Falls) 
Goodyear Met. Rubber Shoe Co. 



Seward Rubber Co. (Kensington) 

Windsor Collar & Cuff Co. (Windsor) 
Goodyear's India Rubber Glove Mfg Co. 

Baumann Rubber Co. (New Haven) 
L Candee & Co. " 

Falcon Rubber Co. " 

Seamless Rubber Co. " 

H P & E Day (Seymour) 

H O Canfield (Bridgeport) 

Canfield Rubber Co. " 

Sieman Hard Rub. Corp. " 

Fabric Fire Hose Co. (Sandy Hook) 
Union Novelty Co. (Putnam) 

Thread City Collar Co. (Willimantic) 
Flexible Rubber Goods Co. 



Aetna Stamp Works (Htfd.) 
George W Burch " 


Hartford Rubber Works Co. (Hfd) 


New Haven Rug Co. (New Haven) 

E S Smith 

Excelsior Rug Co. (Norwalk) 


Smith-Worthington Co. (Hartford) 

H Smith's Sons (New Haven) 


Penfield Saw Works (Bristol) 


Fernside Screen Works (Hartford) 

SCREWS (Machine) 

Htfd. Machine Screw Co. 

Spencer Automatic Mach Screw Co. " 
Corbin Screw Corp. (N. Brit.) 

Harvey Hubbell (Bridgeport) 

SCREWS (Metal & Wood) 

Atlantic Screw Works (Htfd.) 
Corbin Screw Corp. (N. Brit.) 


Winsted Mfg Co. (Winsted) 

Merrow Mach Co. (Hartford) 


Clayton Bros (Bristol) 

Am Shear & Knife Co. (Hotchkissville) 
J Mallison Co. (W. Cornwall) 


Parker Shirt Co. (N. Britain) 

R B Halsey & Co. (Bridgeport) 

Hutchinson, Pierce & Co. 

Danbury Shirt Co. (Danbury) 

Rockwell Bros (N«w Canaan) 

Connecticut Products and Their Manufacturers 


Eastern Ship Bldg Co. (Groton) 

Home Ship Bldg Co. (W. Mystic) 

Robert Palmer & Son Co. (Noank) 


Cheney Bros (Hartford & S Man'ch'er) 
Spring Silk Co. (S. Manchester) 

Kossie Velvet Co. (Old Mystic) 

Brainerd * Armstrong Co. 

(New London) 
New London Wash Silk Co. 
Givernaud Bros (Norwich) 

M J Green 

J B Martin & Co. " 

Am Velvet Co. (Stonington) 

Bethel Silk Co. (Bethel) 

Bridgeport Silk Co. (Bridgeport) 

Salt's Textile Mfg Co. " 

A E Tweedy (Danbury) 

Joseph Loth & Co. (Norwalk) 

S Blumenthal & Co. CShelton) 

Specialty Weaving Co. " 

Chaffee Mfg Co. (Willimantic) 

Windham Silk Co. • " 

Merchant Silk Co. (Middletown) 

Portland Silk Co. 
Russell Mfg Co. 

SILK (Sewing) 

Brainerd & Armstrong Co. 

(New London) 
Warehouse Point Silk Co. 

(Warehouse Point) 
Windsor Silk Co. (Windsor) 

Globe Silk Works (New Haven) 

M Heminway & Sons (Waterbury) 
Boas Thread Co. (Stamford) 

John A Dady Corp. (Putnam) 

Hammond & Knowlton Co. " 

Holland Mfg Co. (Willimantic) 

Heminway & Bartlett Silk Co. 

M Heminway & Sons Silk Co. " 

P W Turner (Turnerville) 


Brainerd fc Armstrong Co. 

(New London) 
Nonotuck Silk Co. (Hartford) 

Norwich Silk Co. (Norwich) 

Hampton Silk Co. (Putnam) 

Putnam Silk Co. " 

A G Turner (Willimantic) 

Aetna Silk Co. (Norfolk) 

E L Smith (Gurleyville) 

J S McFarland, (Mansfield Center) 
Belding Bros & Co. (Rockville) 

John A Dady, (S Coventry) 

A Washburn & Son " 

T H Wood " 

G Hanks (Spring Hill) 


Am. Silver Co. ' (Bristol) 

Silver City Plate Co. (Meriden) 

International Silver Co. " 

E A Bliss Co. " 

W B Hall 

Sprenenberg & Co. " 

Williams Brs. Mfg Co. (Glastonbury) 
Legate Mfg Co. (Hartford) 

S L & G H Rogers Co. 
Internat. Silver Co. (WTford) 
S L & G H Rogers Co. 
Internat. Silver Co. (W'bury) 
Internat. Silver Co. (B'd'port) 
Brainard & Wilson Co. (Danburv) 
Rogers Silver Plate Co. " 

Internat. Silver Co. (Shelton) 
Silver Plate Cutlery Co. 


J B Williams Co. 
Bon Ami Co. 
J T Robertson 


L T Frisbie Co. (Rocky Hill) 

Packer Mfg Co. (Mystic) 

Fairchild & Shelton (Bridgeport) 

Allison Bros. (Middletown) 


Allen Spool & Print Co. (Mystic) 


National Spring Bed Co. 

(New Britain) 
Farren Bros Co. (New Haven) 

B B Savage & Co. " 

SPRINGS (Clock) 



Wallace Barnes Co 
Dunbar Co. 
F N Manross 

Bristol Co. (Waterbury) 

Bridgeport Chain Co. (Bridgeport) 

Conn Clasp Co. " 

Geo R Osborn & Co. " 

Thomas R Taylor " 

Ferry-Hallock Co. (Danbury) 

E H Hotchkiss & Co. (Norwalk) 

Bantam Mfg Co. (Bantam) 

Excelsoir Needle Co. (Torrington) 

Tiley, Pratt & Co. (Essex) 

Lyman Gun Sight Works (Middlefield) 

STONE (Artificial) 

Am. Artificial Stone Co. (N. Britain) 
Economy Mfg Co. (New Haven) 

New England Stone Co. " 


Yale Gas Stove Co. (New Haven) 

Stamford Fdy. Co. (Stamford) 

Stamford Gas Stove Co. " 


Am. Bridge Co. (E. Berlin) 

Berlin Construction Co. (Kensington) 
Yale Safe & Iron Co. (W Haven) 


Remsen Mfg Co. (Hartford) 


Traut & Hine Mfg Co. 

(New Britain) 


Conn Tel. & Elec. Co. (Meriden) 
Russell, Tomlinson Elec. Co. (Danb'y) 


Gray Tel. Pay Station Co. (Hartf'd) 


Hartford Faience Co. (Htfd.) 


Merriam Mfg Co. (Durham) 

J Smith Mfg Co. (Little River) 


Ira B Smith (Bristol) 

F G Johnson Co. (Hartford) 

Pratt & Whitney Co. 
L E Rhodes (Hartford 

Sigourney Tool Co. " 

Dwight Slate Mach. Co. " 

Vanderbeek Tool Works, " 

Taylor Mfg Co. " 

Stanley Rule & Level Co. 

(New Britain) 
Omega Steel Tool Co. (Ansonia) 

Meriden Mach. Tool Co. 

Barnes Tool Co. (New Haven) 

Jennings & Griffin Mfg Co. (Tracy) 
S A Risdon (Waterbury) 

Geometric Tool Co. (Westville) 

C I Yale Mfg Co. (Yalesville) 

Armstrong Mfg Co. (Bridgeport) 

Automatic Tool Co. (E Norwalk) 

Wm G Le Count " 

Wheeler Bros (S Norwalk) 

K Tool Holder Co. (Shelton) 

G W Bradley (Westport) 

Brown Mach. Co. (Winsted) 
Carter & Hawes Mach. Co. " 

Winsted Edge Tool Works " 

Ideal Mfg Co. (Gildersleeve) 


Sheffield Dentrifice Co. (N. London) 


New Haven Toy & Game Co. 

(New Haven) 
Ives Mfg. Co. (Bridgeport) 

Austin & Craw (S. Norwalk) 

Murphy Mfg. Co. (Stamford) 

J & E Stevens Co. (Cromwell) 

Kirby Mfg Co. (Middletown) 


Henderson Bros (Waterbury) 


Underwood Typewriter Co. " 

Williams Typewriter Co. (Derby) 

Union Typewriter Co. (Bridgeport) 
Postal Typewriter Co. (Norwalk) 

Blickensderfer Mfg Co. (Stamford) 


J B Woolson 


Strong Mfg Co. (Winsted) 


Glastonbury Knit. Co. (Addison) 

N L Birge & Sons Co. (Bristol) 

Bristol Mfg Co. " 

Glastonbury Knit. Co. (Manchester G.) 
Am. Hosiery Co. (New Brit.) 
Bristol Mfg Co. (Plainville) 

Health Underwear Co. (Poquonock) 
Medlicott Co. (Windsor Locks) 

A H & C B Ailing (Derby) 

H L Welch Hosiery Co. (Waterville) 
W S Mills (Bridgeport) 

R G Toucey (Long Hill) 

Eastern Underwear Co. (S. Norwalk) 
Nichols Underwear Corp 
Radcliffe Bros (Shelton) 

Norfolk & New Brunswick Hosiery Co. 
New England Knit. Co. (Winsted) 

Winsted Hosiery Co. 

Industrial Strength of Connecticut 

Vehicles (Elec. & Gasoline) 

Electric Vehicle Co.(Hartford) 


Sterling Blower & Pipe Mfg Co. 

Hartford Blower Co. (Wethersfield) 


James Pullar & Co. (Hartford) 

Geo. A. Ten Brock & Co. (N. Haven) 


New England Watch Co. (Waterbury) 
Waterbury Clock Co. 


C P Bradway (W. Stafford) 


Meriden Curtain Fixture Co. (M'den) 
J M Crampton (New Haven) 


W R Brixey 
Seymour Mfg Co. 
Geo Hartley 


Atlantic Ins'l. Wire & Cable Co. 


Hartford Bedstead Co. (Htfd.) 
Conn. Steel & Wire Co. 
Edward F Smith & Co. (New Haven) 
Wire Novelty Co. (West Haven) 

Acme Wire Works (Bridgeport) 

Gilbert & Bennett Mfg Co. 

C Jeliff & Co. (New Canaan) 

C Jeliff Corp. (Southport) 

M S Brooks & Sons (Chester) 

Potter & Snell (Deep River) 


Hartford Bedstead Co. (Htfd.) 

Geo A K inner 
Geo B Sherman 



Johnson & Co. (Norwich) 

E E Dickerson & Son (Essex) 

Lenifect Co. *' 


A H Warner & Co. (Bristol) 

R H Cooper (Bridgeport) 

C J Bates (Chester) 


E A Morse (Derby) 

N J Patrick " 

Morehouse Bros (Meriden) 

J W Russell Mfg Co. (Naugatuck) 

Geo Ailing Sons Co. (New Haven) 

Bradley Mfg Co. 

E P Brett 

David H Clark Co. 

Dann Bros & Co. 

Elm City Lumber Co. 

C Upham Ely 

Anton Faith 

J H Griffith & Sons 

Hubbell Merwin & Co. 

Johnstone & Gerrish 

C M Manning 

Morgan & Humiston Co. 

New England Stool Co. 

New Haven Saw Mill Co. 

Norton Bros & White Co. 

Remfler & Thompson 

H G Shepard & Sons 

Sperry & Amos Co. 

W R Hartigan (Burlington) 

Andrews & Peck Co. (Hartford) 

C H Dresser & Son 

H A French 

H Harman 

Hartford Builders Finish Co. 

Hartford Lumber Co. 

John McClary W W Co. 

Wm. Olds & Co. 

C W Shea 

Stoddard & Caulkins 

Edwin Taylor Lumber Co. 

A D Birge (Hazardville) 

F Curtis (New Britain) 

New Brit. Co-operative Bldg. Co. 

New Brit. Plan. & Mold. Works 

John Pinches Co. 

George E Taft (Unionville) 

James E Todd (New Haven) 

Wilbur Corp 

Yale University Carpenter Shop 

J J Macauley (Waterbury) 

J E Smith & Co. 

Tracy Bros Co. 

George Upham 

Haller Brown Co. (Yalesville) 

Charles Parker Co. 

F H & A H Chappell Co. (N. London) 

II R Douglass 

Heath & Hawthorn 

Wm G Rogers 

George G Tyler 

N S Gilbert & Sons (Norwich) 

James A Hiscox 

H B Porter & Son Co. 

V S Stetson 

Maxson & Co. (Stonington) 

Ellis Wood-Working Co. (Bethel) 

A W Burritt Co. (Bridgeport) 

Frederickson Bros & Co. 

H C Hoffman & Co. 

W S Hurlbut Bldg Co. 

James S Jones 

Frank Miller Lumber Co. 

Sewing Machine Cabinet Co. 

W A Smith Bldg Co. 

Albert Wakeman 

Elmer H Barnum (Danbury) 

Foster Bros 

W W Sunderland 

Joseph Brush (Greenwich) 

A R Malkin (Norwalk) 

Carman & Seymour (E. Norwalk) 

Hatch, Bailey & Co. (S. Norwalk) 

H W Mather 

Waldron & Riordan 

Doscher Plane & Tool Co. (Saugatuck) 

Lyman Hoyt Son & Co. (Stamford) 

Imperial Mfg Co. 

Frank Miller Lumber Co. " 

St. Johns' Wood-Working Co. " 

Torrey Bros & Co. (Central Village) 

James A Nichols (Danielson) 

M E Tatem (Eastford) 

C M & E B Kent (Putnam) 

Wheaton Bldg & Lumber Co. " 

J B Tatem & Son (W. Thompson) 

S Arnold (Williamsville) 

Hillhouse & Taylor (Willimantic) 

Latham & Crane " 

Johnson Lindell & Co. 
Hotchkiss Bros Co. 
John W Roe 
George C Wilcox 
Winsted Cabinet Co. 
M L Ryan 

Williams & Marvin Co, 
Essex Wood Turning 
Custav Loewenthal 
Jasper Try on 
Henry Armstrong 





(Deep River) 

Co. (Essex) 


(S. Coventry) 


Broad Brook Woolen Co. (B. Brook) 
E E Hilliard Co. (Buckland) 

Crosby Mfg Co. (E. Glastonbury) 

Hitchcock & Curtiss Knit. Co. (Htfd.) 
Park Knit. Works " 

Gordon Bros (Hazardville) 

Franklin Glazier & Son (Hopewell) 
Meriden Woolen Co. (Meriden) 

Tingue Mfg Co. (Seymour) 

Shetucket Worsted Mills (Baltic) 

Fairbanks & Plainfield (Bozrahville) 
Niantic Mfg Co. (E. Lyme) 

Airlie Mills (Hanover) 

Monarch Woolen Mill (Montville) 

Mystic Mfg Co. (Mystic) 

Mvstic Woolen Co. " 

A B Burleson & Co. (Jewett City) 
Palmer Bros (New London) 

Glen Woolen Goods (Norwich) 

Hall Bros " 

Reliance Worsted Co. " 

B Lucas Co. (Poquetannoc) 

Westerty Woolen Co. (Stonington) 
Yantic Woolen Co. (Yantic) 

Cylindrograph Embroidery Co. 

Am. Felt Co. (Glenville) 

Lounsbury, Bissell & Co. (Winnipauk) 
Norwalk Mills Co. " 

Plainfield Woolen Co. (Cent. Village) 
Danielson Worsted Co. (Danielson) 
Pequot Worsted Co. " 

Assawaga Co. (Dayville) 

Davis & Brown Woolen Co. " 

Brigham Woolen Co. (Elmville) 

Thayer Woolen Co. " 

French River Textile Co. 

Am. Woolen Co. (Moosup) 

T G Murdock & Son (New Boston) 
Putnam Woolen Co. (Putnam) 

Lawrence Keegan (Wilsonville) 

Wm Sibley (N. Windham) 

Warreton Woolen Co. (Torrington) 
Winsted Yarn Co. (Winsted) 

Daniel Curtis & Sons (Woodbury) 
Rockfall Woolen Co. (Middletown) 
Conn. Woolen Mill (E. Wellington) 
Am. Mills Co. (Rockville) 

Hockanum Co. 
New England Co. 

J J Regan Mfg Co. " 

Rock Mfg Co. " 

SpringviHe Mfg Co. " 

Somersville Mfg Co. (Somersville) 
E A Tracy (S. Coventry) 

Phoenix Woolen Co. (Stafford) 

Riverside Woolen Co. 
Beckwith Card Co. (Stafford Springs) 
J J & A D Ellis 
Fabyan Woolen Co. 
Faulkner Woolen Mill 
F T Mullen & Co. " 

A B Paton Mfg Co. 
Smith & Cooley 
Stafford Worsted Co. 
Warren Woolen Co. 
Fabyan Woolen Co. (Staffordville) 
Faulkner Woolen Mill 
Garland Woolen Co. 
Talcott Bros (Talcottville) 

Vernon Woolen Co. (Vernon) 


If you want to 


call on 




FOR . . . 


engage your livery of 

23 Church St., Greenwich, Conn. 

First class turnouts for pleasure parties 
Livery and Boarding Stables 

Teaming and Baggage Transfer 

Established 1866 Telephone 











S0£ ^lctiri><£k 


The Leading Fire Insurance Company of America 1 

Wm. B. Clark, President W. H. King, Secretary 

A. C. Adams, Henry E. Rees, A. N. Williams, Assistant 


Please Mention The Connecticut Magazine when patronizing our Advertisers 




FREDERICK W, LYON, Editor and Proprietor. 

Circulation Over 1700 Copies — More Than Doubles That of Any Other 
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A Live Local Weekly of Fifty-six Columns 




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'PHONE 28 

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Cor. Bowdoin St., opposite STATE HOUSE, 

This Hotel is new and absolutely fire proof; even the floors are of stone; nothing wood but the doors We offer you 
lie following rates: Rooms with hot and cold water and free public bath, $1 and $1 .50 a day for one person; $2 and $2 50 
day for two persons. Rooms with private bath, $1-50 and $2 a day for one person; $2.50 and S3 a day for two persons. 
Pill make a weekly rate for rooms with hot and cold water of $6 to $8; with private bath, $9 to $10. Suites of two rooms 
dth bath, $14 to $22. The cafe and dining room are first class. • 

ro liquor; no bar. STORER F. CRAFTS, Manager. 


Just off Broadway on 47th Street, West 

and Long Acre Square, NEW YORK 

Opened January 1906 





324 Rooms 
private baths 

European Plan 

Within Five Minutes Walk of 


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Broadway and 41st Street, NEW YORK 



Subway Station, one block; Grand Central Station, 5 minutes 
walk; City Hall, eight minutes; Lower Section, eight minutes: 
within two blocks of Fifteen Prominent Theatres; Centre of 
Shopping District. 
Single rooms, near bath, $1.50 per day 

Sinerle rooms, with bath, $2.00 per day 



E. S. CROWELL, Genl. Manager 





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The Connecticut Magazine 


An Illustrated Quarterly Magazine devoted to Connecticut in its various 
phases of History, Literature, Genealogy, Science, Art, Genius and Industry. 
Published in four beautiful books to the annual volume. Following is con- 
tents of this edition, generously illustrated and ably written. Editorial de- 
partment in Cheney Tower, 926 Main Street, Hartford — Business department 
at 671-679 Chapel Street, New Haven. 

Aft Cover — Silhouette of Persis Meacham, born in Enfield, Connecticut, in 1785 

Reproduced in Gold and Purple on Onyx Art Cover 

Introductory — Americans — Excerpt from . Honorable Theodore Roosevelt 569 

President of the United States 

Here Let Me Dwell— A Poem .... Reverend Frederick E. Snow 570 

A Mother's Letter to Her Son in J789— Mrs. Mary Wright Alsop, born 1740, to Joseph 

Wright Alsop, born 1772 — Now in possession of a descendant . Joseph Alsop 572 

American Culture — Have the Fine Arts become subservient to the Art of Business — 
Can mediocrity displace the Supreme in Literary Style through the com- 
mercial channels— What is Literary Quality — An informal discussion by 

Harry Edwards Miller 573 
Sometime Editor Magazine of American History 

Country Life in Connecticut— Portfolio of sixteen beautiful scenic reproductions by 

Mrs. John C. Kendall 583 

Perchance it May Be You— A Poem Bert Francis Case 591 

World's First Champion of Universal Peace— Recollections of Elihu Burritt— Connecti- 
cut farmer lad who rose from blacksmith forge and appealed to the nations to 
cease warfare — Poor American boy who acquired fifty languages and became 
honored by the peers of the age . Honorable David Nelson Camp, M.A. 599 

Department of Education at Washington in 1867 

Elihu Burritt's Favorite Photograph of Himself— Taken while Consular Agent at 

Birmingham, England — Original now in possession of . Oscar J. Murray 606 

Extract from Elihu Burritt's Private Journal— Recording the eloquent prophecy at the 
Peace Conference at Paris in 1849, the most remarkable assembly that had ever 
convened on the Continent of Europe, by . . . . Victor Hugo 607 

The Voice of the Battlefield — A Poem inspired by two old cannon which during the 
Civil War were a part of the armament of Admiral Farragut's flagship, "Hart- 
ford" . Louis Ransom 609 

Courtship of a Sergeant in the "War of J 8 12— Romance of John Burt, First Battalion Ar- 
tillery, and Persis Meacham — With silhouettes and transcripts from corres- 
pondence William Burt Harlow, Ph.D. 610 

Husbandry the First Step in Civilization— Tillage of the earth and domestication of 
animals gave man his first security from hunger — No nation can become per- 
manently great whose foundation is not laid in the cultivation of the soil — 
With nineteen illustrations . Rufus Whittaker Stimson, A.M., B.D. 615 

President Connecticut Agricultural College 

Adventures of an Early American Sea-Captain— Journal of Samuel Hoyt, born in 1744, 
and narrating the roving life of the ambitious American lad of his generation 

— Transcribed for Julius Walter Pease 631 

Grandron of Captain Hoyt 

The Tavern and the Old Post Road — The old Israel Knapp Inn, of 1729, at Greenwich, 
Connecticut, and its transformation into the Putnam Cottage— With nine 
historic illustrations Norman Talcott 647 

Pax Vobiscum— Peace Be With You— A Poem . . . Dr. Louis Smirnow 658 

Entered at the Post-Offloc at New Haven, Connecticut, as Mail Matter of the Second Class.— This Edition for FOURTH 
QUARTER of 1906— October, November, December. 

The Connecticut Magazine 


This book commemorates the TENTH ANNIVERSARY of this pub- 
lication, which for a decade has contributed liberally and conscientiously to the 
History and Literature of the Nation, recording the life-long researches of 
thorough scholars, and inculcating the principles of loyalty to American in- 
stitutions and love of the Home-land. The eleventh volume is entered with 
preparations for even larger achievements which bid fair to make the year 
NINETEEN SEVEN notable in the annals of our State Literature. 

Will of Wyllyam Pynchyn — 15 51 — Accurate Transcript from Original Document . 659 
Will of Nichas Pynchon — 1528 — Accurate Transcript from Original Document . . 662 
William Pynchon— An Immigrant to the New World in J 630— An Oxford Graduate who 
came to the Western Continent as an Indian Trader and settled on the trail- 
Nathaniel Hawthorne's controversy with the Pynchon Family over "The 
House of the Seven Gables " — With coat-of-arms and transcripts from old 

letters Blanche Nichols Hill 663 

The First American Soldiers — Footmen with muskets and pike — Horsemen with pistol 
and carbine— Call " To Arms " began with arrival of first white men in New 
World— The organization of the Continental Army— With transcripts from 

old orders Spencer B. Mead, LL.B. 670 

Author of Mead and Reynolds Genealogies 

When Sorrow Beckons at Thy Door— A Poem . . Howard Arnold Walter 678 

Reminiscences of Three Quarters of a Century in New Haven — Anecdotes of Old Farm- 

ington Canal before railroad days — Beginning of Adams Express Company in 

1841— Parading for Zachary Taylor in 1848 — Quaint characters and customs 

of an old university town Edward C. Beecher 679 

Blessed Office of Sin— A Poem . Horace Holley 691 

Bill of Sale of a Negro Slave in J 72* — Accurate Transcript from Original Document by 

Eliza Comstock 692 
Will of a Negro Slave in J773 — Accurate Transcript from Original Document . . 693 
An Indian Legend of Olde Connecticut— The Flight of Red Bird— A Ballad . Joe Cone 694 
Perilous Tourneys of some of the First Steamboats in American Waters — The Development 
of Steam Navigation— History of Early Steamboating from Ports of Norwich, 
New London and New Haven — Illustrated with twenty-one reproductions from 
rare old prints and original photographs . . C. Seymour Bullock 695 

Boofclovers of J 738— One of the First Libraries in America— Literary Inclinations of Early 
Americans— The old "Philogrammatican" Library at Lebanon, Connecticut — 
With Transcripts from Original Documents 

Mrs. Martha Williams Hooker 715 
Great-Granddaughter of one of the Founders. 
Covenant of the Early American Bibliophiles— Accurate Transcript from Original 

Record Book 719 

Books in one of the First Libraries in America — Complete List of Volumes Selected in J 738 — 

Accurate Transcripts from Original Record Book 720 

Records of the Parish of Amity (now Woodbridge), Connecticut— Original Sources of 

American Genealogical Data Louise Tracy 724 

Records of the Ashford (Congregational Church), Connecticut — From manuscript 
copy owned by the Connecticut Society of Colonial Dames 

Mary Kingsbury Talcott 734 
Original Sources of American Historical Data— Studies in Ancestry— Department 

Edited by Charles L. N. Camp 745 

Index and Title Page for Volume X— Included in this issue 


Address manuscript to The Connecticut Magazine Company, Hartford, Connecticut— Address all business communications 
to publication office at New Haven, Connecticut-Copyright 1906— By The Connecticut Magazine Company 

ff»ere Begintteth the fottrth Part of the tenth BooR 

Showjng the manner of Life ana the 

Attainment thereof in the 

Commonwealth of a 

Diligent People 


MrtUtJLHsQ //i^^c£^a^^^t££^t^ 


Connecticut Magazine 



T behooves us Americans to look ahead and plan out the 
right kind of a civilization, as that which we intend to 
develop from these wonderful new conditions of vast in- 
dustrial growth. It must not be, it shall not be, 
civilization of a mere plutocracy, nor yet can there be sub- 
mission to class hatred, to rancor, brutality, and mob violence, 
for that would mean the end of all civilization. Increased 
powers are susceptible of abuse as well as use; never before 
have the opportunities for selfishness been so great, nor the 
results of selfishness so appalling; for in communities where 
everything is organized on a merely selfish commercial basis, 
such selfishness if unchecked may transform the great forces 
of the new epoch into powers of destruction hitherto unequaled. 
We need to check the forces of greed, to insure just treat- 
ment alike of capital and of labor, and of the general public, 
to prevent any man, rich or poor, from doing or receiving 
wrong, whether this wrong be one of cunning or of violence. 
Much can be done by wise legislation and by resolute enforce- 
ment of the law. But still more must be done by steady 
training of the individual citizen, in conscience and character, 
until he grows to abhor corruption and greed and tyranny 
and brutality and to prize justice and fair dealing. 

The men who are to do the work of the new epoch must 
be trained so as to have a sturdy self-respect, a power of 
sturdy insistence on their own rights, and with it a proud and 
generous recognition of their duties, a sense of honorable ob- 
ligation to their fellows, which will bind them, as by bands of 
steel, to refrain in their daily work at home or in their business 
from doing aught to any man which can not be blazoned un- 
der the noonday sun. 

From a Recent Public Utterance by 






I LOOKED across the valley from my home 
When Winter's frosty hand held in its grip 
The wide and barren landscape ; here and there 
Patches of evergreen stood forth distinct 
And vivid mid the all-pervading gray 
Of sky o'er-head and circling atmosphere. 
A storm had raged through all the day and night, 
And every tree trunk had its snowy coat ; 
The woods looked like a group of spectres wan 
And with uplifted arms in mute appeal 
To Heaven to pity them, bereft and stripped 
Of all of Summer's beauty. A leaden sky 
Still hung above the white and snow-bound earth ; 
Pale shadows lay along the lines of fence ; 
The houses rose from out their muffled yards 
Like ships from out the foam of troubled seas ; 
Deep in the valley, outlined by the trees 
Which sparsely stood along its frozen brim. 
The brook was babbling 'neath its mail of ice ; 
The village looked so like a little world 
Half buried, yet rising from its fleecy tomb. 

'Bove every roof the smoke curled hesitant, 
Reluctant thus to leave the sheltering warmth 
Of wide and generous chimneys. Signs of life 
Were here and there visible ; and forms dark 
Against the universal white moved, now 
From house to barn, from barn to well, 
Tracing the curious labyrinth of paths, 
Through which, as through a loom the shuttle moves, 
The children chased each other back and forth. 
Halfway up the hill, facing the long street 
Stretching southward, stood like a sentinel 
The village church, guarding with jealous eye 
Her trusting children as they worked or slept. 

A little world shut in and by itself; 
A world behind its snowy ramparts hid, 
Having its own sorrows, its own tears ; 
And yet a world " far from the madding crowd," 
Unvexed by mad ambition, eager strife, 
Competition in which one must go down 
To cruel disappointment's black abyss ; 
A world where love delights in ministry 
In common things, nor vaunts itself before 
The eyes of men, as tho' it sought applause ; 
A world where each his neighbor gladly serves 
And counts it scorn to think of recompense ; 
A little world lying beneath God's eye 
Content within the circle of His love ! 

Let those who will dwell midst the noisy din, 
The harsh clamor, of the world's contention, — 
Ceaseless debate of questions without end, 
And strife for earthly dignity and rank,- — 
The heedless scramble after tinseled toys, 
The heated chase for riches' gilded prize ; 
Give me a book before the fireside 
Where the soft nestle of the murmuring flame 
Stirs tender tho't, and soothes the tangled brain ; 
Where, from the circle of the village life 
Some friend congenial and with like taste 
Shall come, tho' all unbidden, yet to find 
His chair set forth, and welcome waiting him; 
Where quiet talk shall glide from lip to lip, 
Or if perchance the flow of words shall cease, 
Unspoken tho't shall tell of sympathy, 
And silence shall be full of golden speech ! 
Here let me dwell in calm serenity, 
Secure from hard, insistent claim, 
From every brazen, insolent demand 
To render homage where desert is not, 
To worship at a shrine whence worth has fled — 
I'll be content and thank a gracious God 
Who lets the lines of life fall happily ! 



Dear Joseph: — 

My great concern for your Prosperity in this World and your Hap- 
piness hereafter, have induced me to give you my Advice in writing; 
hopeing you will read it frequently, and impress it on your Mind, and 

regulate your conduct by it In the first place, I wish you to have a 

due sense of your dependance on God; and that will induce you to be 
careful not to be offensive in thought, word or deed Never Men- 
tion the word of God but with reverence You must never jest with 

anything Sacred or Religious Attend Church constantly, and be- 
have with decency when there Carefully avoid all profane Language, 

for it is very wicked, and no pleasure or advantage can arise from it 

Execute the business allotted to you with the utmost exactness and 

fidelity Always study to give satisfaction to those with whom you 

live Be not difficult to please with respect to your diet, or anything 

else; for it argues an insolent temper, and will gain the ill will of every- 
one that lives with you; and you will not only loose the esteem of the 
family but will fare worse in every respect 

Avoid gameing of every kind; it is a pernicious Vice; Many have 
been ruined by it: shun it in the smallest degree for it will lead you 
imperceptibly on to destruction. God grant my advice on this head may 

be unnecessary; as I hope you have no propensity to gameing 

Shun the company of idle dissolute people; never on any account as- 
sociate with such; if you do they will most certainly hurt your Morals, 
and your character will be ruined 

Be careful never to offend any one; but if you should inadvertently 
do it, readily make a proper acknowledgment; for candidly to confess our 

faults, argues a generous mind, and we are more esteemed for it 

Be not too ready to take or resent an affront; it is much better to pass 
over trifles, than to be continually irritated; a person of that temper 

frequently take offense when there was none intended But if an 

affront is really intended, resent it properly, but not with ill language, 
or too vulgar behaviour 

Be decent in your Dress but not fopish or extravagant; for you will 
not be esteemed by those whose opinion are of any consequence for 
your dress but for your good behaviour 

I flatter myself it is not needful for me to mention Honesty and in- 
tegrity to you 

If there is anything more than I have not particularly mentioned, 
your own reflections will suggest them to your mind, and supply the de- 

I hope you will peruse this with that attention which I think my 

great concern for your present and future welfare demands That 

God will Bless and Protect you, and give you Grace so to conduct your- 
self thro' Life, that you may, thro' the Merits of our Redeemer, be ever- 
lastingly happy, is the fervent prayer of your affectionate mother 

30th March 1789 Mary Alsop. 

Joseph W. Alsop. 


American Culture « Rambles in Oterary iy=(Uays 

flaw the fine Arts become subservient to the Jfrt of Business- 
man meaiocrity displace m Supreme in Eiterary style through the 
commercial channels-lUbat is Eiterary Quality-Jin informal discussion 




JS this an age of decadence ? Have 
the fine arts become subservient 
to the art of business? Is the 
whole world struggling for the 
supremacy of the moment, rearing its 
structures on shifting sands that pass 
away with the out-going tide, heedless 
of the pleading cry of the to-morrows 
for the undying handiwork of man 
that the coming ages may be built 
upon the solid foundation of its yes- 
terdays ? 

A man of genius in the literary art 
told me a few days ago that whatever 
capabilities he may have had have 
been reduced by American publishers 
to commercial values; that "selling 
quality," not "literary quality," is the 
first requisite for position in contem- 
porary American "letters." 

A sculptor, who has been awarded 
many commissions for public works, 
confidentially informed me but yester- 
day that in nearly every instance 
where he exhibited his model of a pro- 
posed memorial the members of the 
commissions are politicians who have 
no understanding of sculpture, and 
about the only quality they consider is 
"size;" the sculptor who gives the 
biggest monument for the money gen- 
erally gets the commission. 

In painting, especially for state 
commissions, I am also informed, on 
good authority, that it is largely a 
matter of political "pull." 

Despite these informations I am 
still an optimist. I have full faith in 
the ultimate high culture of the 
American people and confidence in 
the belief that it will yet produce 
greater masters than the world has 
ever known. 

We are to-day dutifully engaged in 
the building of a great political and 
material structure. We are absorbed 
in the erection of an idealistic edifice 
of self-government that will minister 
to the world. We are establishing 
great business houses and gigantic 
financial institutions to insure the ma- 
terial stability of the republic. We 
are necessarily materialistical and 
practical. But from this edifice of 
human ingenuity there will yet come 
forth men and women who shall cause 
the builders to cease their labors and 
listen to their sweet songs ; who shall 
tell wondrous tales of strong hearts 
and noble lives; who shall make na- 
ture breathe upon the canvas. 

The family tree of art has many 
branches, but it is of one that I here 
speak — that outspreading, flowering 
branch of "literary quality." 

How often have you, and how fre- 
quently have I, in the true and dis- 
cerning love for the perfect prose 
style, been pained by hearing work 
of inferiority lauded to the utmost as 
one more triumphant piece of litera- 
ture. There is too much misdirected 
praise, with its certain vulgarity and 
sadness, and it frequently happens 
that the very praise-mongers who so 
generously advertise a work of "third 
or fourth class" order will pass by the 
superior production without the slight- 
est comment, like children who might 
thoughtlessly cast away diamonds and 
then treasure up bits of glass. 

When we fail to recognize excel- 
lence in prose style and freely give 
attention to mediocrity, we demon- 
strate that to us talent is of more im- 


American Culture ana £ i t c r a r y Quality 

portance than genius. The soul fails 
to place its allegiance under the real 
master and to acknowledge the fine- 
ness of a nature which has transcend- 
ent power. 

You will recall, in your acquaint- 
ance with that good man, Emerson, 
how he denounced this practice of ig- 
noring "worth" when he exclaimed: 
"I do not forgive in my friends the 
failure to know a fine character and 
to entertain it with thankful hospital- 
ity." Dr. Elliot Cones once said : "It 
should be no less a duty than a pleas- 
ure to everyone to recognize genius, 
because that is a rare and precious 
gift, something over and above mere 

Would that we could remember 
this that we might have a wider 
appreciation of the highest literary 
creations which, in turn, would uplift 
society to a standard that has never 
been attained. When we are loyal to 
the supreme in the art of literature so 
are we increasing a more widespread 
love of the beautiful, the inspirational, 
and a reverence for all that has the 
power to lead in the elevation of man- 
kind. This generation, and all gene- 
rations, thirst for the ideal, but, 
strangely enough, we 'seek them 
where they are seldom found, while 
that which is imbued with inspiration 
waits long for recognition. 

How am I to know when a writer 
possesses a great literary style? 

It is, indeed, difficult to distinguish 
between the mass of books and essays 
to which the printing presses are giv- 
ing birth, in too many instances, pre- 
mature birth. 

Let the whole world go to printing 
books. The multitude of weaklings 
cannot overwhelm that production 
disclosing the "light that never fell on 
sea or land." Their number can only 
hold the masterpiece longer hidden 
from the place where it justly be- 
longs, and from which sacred pre- 
cincts they would crowd it. Not a 
few of these works of talent possess 
merits of their own, and some of them 

reveal a literary style, albeit, com- 
pared with style at its best is like the 
faint starlight to the dazzling sun- 
shine. Have we not often been mo- 
mentarily confused by choosing for 
our model the mere shadow of style 
and heaping upon it undeserved hom- 
age? There is always some danger 
in selecting such a model that we may 
drag down to it that which is of ex- 
ceeding worth. The strange light that 
sheds more glow than any we have 
before known is many times too radi- 
ant and penetrating for our eyesight, 
and we turn dazed to the paler lumi- 
nary, whose dim shining is less blind- 
ing and seems sufficient to guide our 
footsteps through the dark mazes of 
literature; we will not tolerate the 
full effulgence of the noon hour to 
dissipate the shadows. 

Then there are the critics — those 
strange, human (?) beings, who tell 
us what to, and what not to, read, and 
are, to a degree, responsible for count- 
less unfounded beliefs of the reader. 
My friend, the Roman-nosed critic, 
tells me emphatically that this writer 
has created "a distinct style." My 
friend, the critic with the tilted nose, 
declares, this same work to be "bosh." 
But I have noted that these disagree- 
ments are nearly always over the man 
of talent, not genius. The discussion 
is seldom concerning the author who 
has an obvious style. We do not 
occupy ourselves with arguments over 
the possibility of Shakespeare having 
a masterly style, nor Addison, nor 
Irving, nor Hawthorne; without it 
they could never have held their high 
position in literature; by this su- 
preme achievement in style nature has 
found a safeguard against the loss of 
her choicest products in the future 
ages. In the art of music, no Ra- 
phael or Mozart can give his best to 
us without his masterpieces being 
indelibly stamped with that all-per- 
vading, indefinable something called 
"style," which will ever protect and 
lift those creations above the efforts 

Informal Discussion of t ft e fine jf r t s 

of a multitude of others who can 
never reach the master's grandeur. 

It takes more than a critic to be- 
stow the infinite power of immortal- 
ity. Discovering men of remarkable 
genius and pronouncing eulogiums 
over them and inscribing their names 
on the pages of posterity, very, very 
often results fatally, and we awaken 
in our own short day to find that, in 
reality, the names of our gods were 
written in the book of oblivion. 

Addison said: "There is no little 
writer of Pindaric who is not men- 
tioned as a prodigious genius." Such 
is the facility with which the genus 
of reviewers introduce new luminaries 
in the world of literature, which are to 
equal or outrival the master-minds be- 
fore them, that, unfortunately, there 
are those among us who have become 
skeptical whenever a reviewer heralds 
the approach of "another author of 

Let no man be trapped by that fal- 
lacy upholding the notion that, in lit- 
erary criticism, one man's views are 
entitled to as much respect as his 
neighbor's. When the multitude shall 
become less enslaved by the book 
which happens to be "the craze of the 
hour," and, instead, directs more 
thought toward the highest that the 
pen has wrought, then, and not until 
then, will the classics command that 
army of worshipers they deserve. It 
will be found that these superior 
works have not become old-fashioned, 
but rather, are more new-fashioned 
than the book latest from the printing 
press. It is this ridiculous fear of be- 
ing classed as unfashionable which 
deters legions from friendship with 
the master works. To follow with 
the restless crowd we waste precious 
hours over the volume of the last pub- 
lisher's puppet. I have heard the con- 
tention that the book of to-day has the 
newest style, and, consequently, mer- 
its our fellowship. Style in litera- 
ture, fortunately, or unfortunately, is 
not related to style in clothing. 

I feel inclined to hold our public 

schools and colleges somewhat re- 
sponsible for whatever disinterest we 
may have in good literature. The 
standards set in public institutions are 
not giving the young Americans a 
clear idea of the difference between a 
poor and a masterly style. The trou- 
ble can often be charged to the in- 
structors in rhetoric, who, themselves, 
do not always have any particular 
comprehension of style and are pre- 
vented from leading those so greatly 
needing a guide in this rare realm of 
thought. Then, again, if an instructor 
has a desire to illustrate the varying 
degrees of style he is not always 
allowed the time, since the English 
language, should it require over-much 
attention, might prevent the students 
from that insipid taste of French and 

As for what style really is, I do not 
know; I cannot speak it; I can only 
feel it. No adequate definition has 
yet been given. One writer has aptly 
remarked: "Style has been written 
about very learnedly by learned men. 
In its highest development it is a very 
complicated thing. It is the very 
essence of culture, knowledge and 
artistic temperament that gives a 
flavor of its own to every sentence 
that an author writes." With a slight 
variation, the foregoing paragraph 
could be applied to the style of the 
great musical composers as it is now 
applicable to the composers of litera- 

Simon Kerl, the rhetorician, in- 
forms us that "A perfect style is so 
transparent a medium for the thought 
as to become itself invisible — a train 
of words presenting the meaning so 
well and impressively that it passes by 
itself unobserved. It has been truly 
said: 'Nature's chief masterpiece is 
writing well.'" Again: "The piece 
should be such that no word, phrase, 
clause, sentence, or paragraph can be 
omitted, inserted, transported, or 
changed, without injuring the excel- 
lence of the whole." Dr. Kerl fur- 
ther observes that: "The most com- 


American culture ana E 1 1 e r a r y Quality 

mon faulty style is that which may be 
described as being stiff, crambed, la- 
bored, heavy and tiresome; its oppo- 
site is the easy, flowing, graceful, 
sprightly and interesting style. One 
of the greatest beauties of style, one 
too little regarded, is simplicity or 
naturalness ; that easy, unaffected, 
earnest, and highly impressive lan- 
guage which indicates a total igno- 
rance, or rather, innocence, of all the 
trickery of art. It seems to consist of 
the pure promptings of nature, 
though in most instances it is not so 
much a natural gift as it is the perfec- 
tion of art." 

To me, the highest attainment that 
a style can reach is elegance, which, 
of itself, results from the combination 
of a thousand other qualities, and 
when at last a style has ascended to 
the supreme height of elegance it is 
no longer of the earth earthy, but of 
heaven heavenly. And elegance is 
that priceless charm flowing sponta- 
neously from the pens of some men of 
genius ; men of talent waste countless 
hours endeavoring to possess it by 
imitating their masters, only to realize 
that they have sought the unattain- 
able. There are writers whom the 
world would name at once among the 
greatest, but who, nevertheless, have 
failed to reveal an elegant style. With 
those who have become masters, ele- 
gance has not always been a principal 
quality of their early writings; in- 
deed, hardly an author has employed 
it to a pronounced degree before his 
thirtieth year. Even without the 
presence of elegance we have yet to 
discover a writer who has presented 
any remarkable style before his 
twenty-fifth birthday. Hawthorne 
did not ; neither did Emerson, Irving, 
Addison, Scott, or Goldsmith. Ele- 
gance seems, then, the point at which 
the style of a genius reaches its ma- 
turity, and beyond which there can be 
no progress, unless it is to a more 
complete mastery of itself. 

May I name some of the attributes 
of elegance: harmony, purity, unity, 


precision, dignity, ease, grace and pol- 
ish with a vigor both masculine and 
delicate. It must possess sufficient 
originality and that perennial fresh- 
ness which is the life-blood and indi- 
viduality of a writer's style, and which 
will carry us enchanted over page 
after page, and only fatigue us be- 
cause it excites the best emotions 
within us, and this fatigue is not one 
begotten of disgust, but one which 
shall find us refreshed when we take 
up our favorite essay or volume again. 

Another essential charm of an ele- 
gant style, and an accomplishment 
displayed by so few ancient or mod- 
ern writers, is that of "accord between 
sense and sound," constituting the 
real music of prose. Roughness and 
harmony, we are told, are the an- 
tipodes of style; the presence of the 
former must ever preclude that ad- 
mirable finish to literature most 
gracefully described by Thomas 
Wentworth Higginson, who says: 
"There is no conceivable beauty of 
blossoms so beautiful as words, none 
so graceful, none so perfumed. It is 
possible to dream of combinations of 
syllables so delicious that all the 
dawning and decay of summer cannot 
rival their perfection, nor winter's 
stainless white and azure match their 
purity and their charm. * * * A 
finely organized sentence should throb 
and palpitate like the most delicate vi- 
brations of the summer air." 

Allow me to mention a sentence 
lacking the charms spoken of by 
Colonel Higginson ; it is one of the 
roughest to be found m Bryce's 
"American Commonwealth :" "An 
impartially rigorous censor from 
some other planet might say of the 
Americans that they are at this mo- 
ment less priggishly supercilious than 
the Germans, less restfully pretentious 
than the French, less pharisaically 
self-satisfied than the English." 

In contrast with this, recall a sen- 
tence by Emerson, which, though not 
entirely answering the ideal of Colo- 
nel Higginson, is yet an hundredfold 

Informal Discussion of t ft e fine B v t $ 

nearer to it: "To the attentive eye, 
each moment of the year has its own 
beauty, and in the same field it be- 
holds every hour a picture that was 
never seen before and shall never be 
seen again." 

It has been frequently asked if a 
writer who has little appreciation of 
music can write musical prose. Such 
seems to be the fact when we are told 
that neither Hawthorne nor Irving 
had an intense love for vocal or in- 
strumental harmony. Whatever the 
relation is between the music of these 
two arts is not an easy task to decide ; 
doubtless when we have a greater 
knowledge of psychology it will be 
more evident. The writer having a 
passionate thirst for music, especially 
for the classical productions, ought to 
reveal himself with the highest style, 
because his communion with music 
should lead him to a loftier commun- 
ion with that supreme art — language. 
So long as he is the master of his 
emotions, he will never give reign in 
prose to those honeyed sentences, 
which, properly, belong to poetical 
construction. To write with a style 
of any particular rhythm, an author 
must, indeed, be a poet in tempera- 
ment, though he clothes his thoughts 
in a foreign form and with a foreign 
melody from the writer of verse. The 
prose artist at his best, we must 
always remember, is as great as the 
verse artist, and surely, he is much 
more rare than his brother; in fact, 
where lives that artist of prose wholly 
entitled to wear the mantle of the 
great? Such are the demands that 
nature makes upon the master of the 
prose style that, while his work is 
slowly approaching its altitude of su- 
premacy, the poet and musical com- 
poser have created much at an earlier 
age which becomes the admiration 
of their worshipers. Prodigies have 
ever attracted favorable consideration 
because of their musical or poetical 
abilities, but where is the prose author 
who, during his youthful years, has 
exhibited a ripe style ranking him 

with the immortals? While America 
has given to mankind such artists of 
the verse form as Poe, Bryant, 
Holmes, Lowell, Whittier and Long- 
fellow, her great prose masters may 
be named Nathaniel Hawthorne and 
Washington Irving. Europe has a 
much larger number of masterly 
poets, but compared to them the num- 
ber of her prose poets is significantly 

Concerning the rhythm in prose 
one critic has observed that: "The 
essentials of good poetic form, with its 
organized measure and accentuation, 
and often its determined rhymes, are 
symmetry and balance, diversified 
uniformity, varied repetition, echoing 
assonance and resonance. The essen- 
tials of good prose form are a grace- 
ful assymmetry, a discreet avoidance 
of actual in favor of suggested bal- 
ance, harmony in perpetual diversity, 
no obvious repetitions or echoings, 
and yet in every phrase a recognition 
of the form and color of all accom- 
panying phrases. Thus a more sub- 
tile, if not a higher technical sense, 
goes to the making of very good prose 
than of even very good poetry ; there 
are no formulas or rules to give assur- 
ance or warning, no signal-cries de- 
termined upon in advance and there- 
after loudly audible as helpers of a 
doubting ear." 

If there is anything needed to make 
a style of vital interest it is the pres- 
ence of variety, and in its widest 
meaning, only the greatest of writers 
have employed it. When we look 
about us to-day and recognize the 
absence of variety from the styles 
offered for our inspection, it seems 
that no living composer of prose has 
gained a position above semi-genius. 
Some of our authors are vigorous, but 
not graceful, while others are just the 
reverse; another will invite attention 
because of his ornate expression, 
which, since it may possess too much 
ornament, soon tires us by its contin- 
ual elaboration. How often we meet 
that ponderous style, all too common, 


n m t r \ z a n Culture ana Literary Quality 

which moves along heavily like a 
sluggish ox, never giving us a hint of 
the buoyant course of a gazelle or a 
chamois leaping so easily from point 
to point aloft on the sublime heights 
of the Alps ! 

Says Herbert Spencer in his essay 
on the "Philosophy of Style" : "The 
perfect writer will express himself as 
Junius when in the Junius frame of 
mind; when he feels as Lamb felt, 
will use a like familiar speech, and 
will fall into the ruggedness of Car- 
lyle when in a Carlylean mood. Now 
he will be rhythmical and now irreg- 
ular; here his language will be plain 
and there ornate ; sometimes his sen- 
tences will be balanced and at other 
times unsymmetrical ; for awhile 
there will be considerable sameness 
and then again, great variety. His 
mode of expression naturally re- 
sponding to his state of feeling, there 
will flow from his pen a composition 
changing to the same degree that the 
aspects of his subjects change." All 
this, as Spencer remarks, will pre- 
vent the "continuous exertion of the 
same faculties," for it must be remem- 
bered that while reading, several du- 
ties must be performed by the brain 
with lightning rapidity. Among them 
we must register in our minds the 
meaning of the author, as well as 
being conscious of his perfections and 
imperfections. Therefore, the brain 
often becomes wearied while we plod 
through the mediocre style; on the 
other hand, when there is a consum- 
mate variety, every sentence creates 
a new stimulus within the soul, for 
every sentence lives and breathes 
having an individuality which solidi- 
fies and makes more fascinating the 
whole work to which it belongs. 

I invite you, as illustrations of an 
extraordinary prose style, to a feast 
of excerpts from Addison, Haw- 
thorne and Irving, characteristic of 
greatness and worthy of study and 
preservation because each is charac- 
teristic of its creator's manner of ex- 

pression. They have, for that rea- 
son, a double value. 

In one of the Spectator essays is a 
description by Addison of a stroll 
which carried him through the shad- 
owy precincts of Westminster Abbey 
and the pensive mood to which this 
ramble brought him. He observes: 
"When I look upon the tombs of the 
great, every emotion of envy dies in 
me; when I read the epitaphs of the 
beautiful, every inordinate desire goes 
out; when I meet with the grief of 
parents upon a tombstone, my heart 
melts with compassion; when I see 
the tomb of the parents themselves, I 
consider the vanity of grieving for 
those whom we must quickly follow; 
when I see kings lying by those who 
deposed them , when I consider rival 
wits placed side by side, or the holy 
men that divided the world with their 
contests and disputes, I reflect with 
sorrow and astonishment on the little 
competitions, factions and debates of 
mankind. When I read the several 
dates of the tombs, of some who died 
yesterday and some six hundred years 
ago, I consider that great day when 
we shall all of us be contemporaries 
and make our appearance together." 

Irving pictures the rare sunset 
scene of the Hudson which Ichabod 
Crane beheld as he rode forward to 
attend the feast and gathering at Van 
Tassel's mansion: "The sun grad- 
ually wheeled his broad disk down 
into the west. The wide bosom of 
the Tappan Zee lay motionless and 
glassy, excepting that here and there 
a gentle undulation waved and pro- 
longed the blue shadow of the distant 
mountain. A few amber clouds float- 
ed in the sky without a breath of air 
to move them. The horizon was of a 
fine golden tint, changing gradually 
into pure apple-green, and from that 
into the deep blue of the mid-heaven." 

Hawthorne portrays the muddy and 
sluggish Concord river flowing by 
the old manse at Concord, which he 
once occupied. Such gems from his 
work frequently incline us to believe 


1 n f o r m a \ Discussion of t ft e Tine Arts 

that, excepting Shakespeare, no other 
writer of English has used a style of 
such classic beauty. Here is the river 
itself: "In the light of a calm and 
golden sunset it becomes lovely be- 
yond expression; the more lovely for 
the quietude that so well accords with 
the hour, when even the wind, after 
blustering all day, usually hushes it- 
self to rest. All the sky glows down- 
ward at our feet ; the rich clouds float 
through the unruffled bosom of the 
stream like heavenly thoughts 
through a peaceful heart. We will 
not then malign our river as gross and 
impure while it can glorify itself with 
so adequate a picture of the heaven 
that broods above it." 

Especially do the foregoing selec- 
tions illustrate the power of a descrip- 
tive style, and the last two their 
faithfulness to nature. The descrip- 
tive style at its best is the rarest of 
all, contrary to the notion that it is a 
matter of ease to "turn off" a really 
excellent description. Many a 
writer of importance can interest us 
so long as his characters are active 
and talkative, but when he attempts 
the difficult art of placing nature be- 
fore our eyes, we are quite willing to 
turn over the pages until his next 
character engages us and to disregard 
all language representing the outdoor 
world as a most tiresome world. 

Moreover, these excerpts show the 
freedom of style in prose, and demon- 
strate that those who demand more 
liberty for it know not what they say. 
There are those who pretend to be 
offended because prose is so much 
more hampered than poetry. They 
would overturn all the laws of litera- 
ture and write something which can 
only be particularized as semi-prose 
or pseudo-verse, resulting not alone 
in the loss of that distinct individual- 
ity which separates prose from poetry, 
but causing a hundred more unfixed 
ideas about each. Such liberty would 
not be the liberty they have fancied, 
but rather anarchy and confusion. 

A thoroughly finished prose style 

must of a necessity permeate every- 
thing that genius creates. In all of 
Scott's writings we expect to be re- 
minded of Scott's personality as cer- 
tain as we look for the spirit of 
Beethoven in every theme by that 
composer. This uniformity we must 
require, and when an author lacks it, 
no matter how famous he may be, we 
can never yield to him the highest 
place in letters because he has not 
earned it. Because of the neglect of 
such regularity, Robert Louis Steven- 
son I cannot name with those having 
great eminence for a style of supreme 
worth. Whatever may be the final 
judgment of the world concerning 
this graceful romancer, some of his 
productions display a style of some 
distinction; others, curiously enough, 
seem almost devoid of a like ele- 
ment, and to such an extent that one 
may sometimes ask if work so differ- 
ent could have been written by the 
same pen. Instead of being dow- 
ered by nature with a masterly style, 
he, like De Maupassant, experimented 
with a variety of styles before finding 
just the style which seemed best for 
the work in hand. In Stevenson's 
writings the thought will come to us 
that here the author wrote with reluc- 
tance instead of spontaneity: we se- 
lect another of his volumes and no 
sooner begin reading than we under- 
stand that with this effort his moods 
have gained a thousandfold more free- 
dom, delivering themselves in a pleas- 
ant fashion we had not before noted. 

Although a number of the most 
famous and deeply loved books and 
essays live for decades to delight us, it 
is not often that they exhibit style of 
the loftiest order, but that their great- 
ness comes from other qualities. 
Shakespeare stands alone and above 
other men of genius, not only since 
his tragedies and comedies reveal his 
marvelous understanding of human 
nature, but for the fact that every 
page and chapter of these revered 
products are moulded with a style 
which has exalted them to the highest 


American Culture and E i f e r a r y Quality 

mountain tops of literature. Thack- 
eray, Dickens, Cooper, and George 
Eliot owe their wide celebrity more to 
other attributes than to a style of rare 
originality — a truth which may sur- 
prise a multitude of readers who have 
forgotten that one may attain great- 
ness in letters without attaining 
marked greatness in style. However, 
we must not, for this cause, too 
greatly underrate such a book as 
''Henry Esmond," so wonderfully has 
it delineated the characters who charm 
us within its pages. But let the stu- 
dent place this volume by the side of 
"The Scarlet Letter" and it will not 
need much attention to disclose how a 
beautiful style has been carried 
throughout the American writer's vol- 
ume, giving to each separate para- 
graph a kingly distinction, making 
every separate chapter a masterpiece 
of itself, and the work, as a whole, a 
sublime achievement of art. In the 
style of the paragraphs and chapters 
of "Henry Esmond" we observe that, 
shining out from the more common- 
place language of Thackeray are 
occasional sentences diffusing a crys- 
talline light, and so far do they seem 
removed from their surroundings, 
that, for the moment, we are aston- 
ished to meet them here. The sen- 
tences from Hawthorne are all of 
royal blood, ever sustaining their 
companions towards an ideal above 
the commonplace with which the 
world suffers and is weighed down. 

Among the plethora of books there 
must be some rule for classifying the 
lesser, the great, and finally the great- 
est works. If this rule be not the de- 
mand that the literary product of fine 
merit shall also possess fineness of 
style before its admittance to that ma- 
jestic place where the chosen of im- 
mortality dwell, then I know not 
what it is. Too many of the unedu- 
cated, or who, being educated, depend 
largely upon the opinions of others, 
cannot free themselves from the im- 
pression that any of the recently pub- 
lished books which, for a season, 

5 8o 

every one is apparently reading and 
commending, could have fallen upon 
such widespread approval without 
conforming to the manifold canons of 
art. As hitherto noted, quick popu- 
larity — which so often means quick 
neglect — may arise for the reason that 
the author has touched upon some 
highly interesting news subject to his 
generation, not that he has given us 
another masterpiece for other genera- 
tions to admire. "Uncle Tom's 
Cabin" enjoys its aftermath, not that 
it is a work of art or even as artistic 
as some of Mrs. Stowe's less known 
volumes, but rather for its pathos, its 
sympathy for an unfortunate race 
forced from its natural home. Al- 
though the Civil War has passed and 
the bonds struck from the bondmen, 
yet that quality of sympathy sincerely 
expressed, but not expressed with a 
master's power, has served to keep the 
volume from oblivion, leading not a 
few to the unsustained belief that it 
must have superior greatness thus to 
last through several decades. 

We hear no little twaddle about au- 
thors creating or acquiring a literary 
style, just as though that was some- 
thing not born with them, but only an 
afterthought, or merely a trifle to be 
possessed by any one after a certain 
amount of practice. An American 
periodical having an extensive distri- 
bution, recently advised a young man 
who had a desire for authorship to 
"study the best literary models with 
the view of acquiring an easy and nat- 
ural style." What really was meant 
was that the young man, providing 
that he had the spirit of an author, 
should seek to develop "an easy and 
natural style." However, if style is 
an element to be "acquired" by some 
labor in the same manner as riches, 
why is it not the property of a thous- 
and or ten thousand more writers? 

Style varies in perfection with 
the individual author, whether he 
is a genius or a man of talent ; for the 
first there is, oftentimes, chance for 
improvement, while most certainly, 

informal Discussion of t ft c Tine H r t s 

the talented person must give con- 
stant attention to carry his work to its 
best development. But even for the 
man of talent, when going through 
this process, there is simply being 
brought to the front those qualities 
which were always latent within him, 
demonstrating that style, if only in its 
minor manifestations, is something in- 
ternal not external. One cannot be- 
come an author of any merit unless 
nature has first determined that he 
should be such! When this truth is 
more carefully and widely entertained 
we shall not have a thoughtless, un- 
prepared multitude who loudly an- 
nounce themselves as authors, but 
who, strange to relate, would not 
have the audacity of offering them- 
selves as carpenters merely because 
they could nail two boards together. 

This pernicious teaching that any- 
one who has the will can become the 
master of a charming prose style, re- 
minds one of an anecdote concerning 
a music teacher and his employer. 
The teacher went to his more wealthy 
than cultivated patron and exclaimed 
in despair: "Sir, your daughter has 
no ear for music !" 

"Then," shouted the other, "she 
shall have one if it costs a thousand 
dollars I" 

While as such it may not appear, 
perhaps from the ease with which it 
was apparently written, a great prose 
style observes the unnumbered rules 
of technique. In each of its separate 
parts, so far as it is able, there is 
offered a model of technical finish 
which will serve as a guide for lesser 
writers through the generations. The 
study of a book, essay, or even a sin- 
gle page having this completeness, 
may be carried on indefinitely, since, 
at every turn, we are led into wider 
fields for exploration, and whenever 
the subject seems to be exhausted 
return to it another day and you shall 
learn many things that were never 
dreamed of yesterday. 

If 'you think there is not much to 
style beyond the simple print, begin a 

technical study of its superior exam- 
ples. Literature, even if it does seem 
to be the easiest of the arts, is really 
more difficult to conquer than music, 
painting, or sculpture. Because 
legions have overlooked the existence 
of this technique, while they have not 
denied the technique of all other arts, 
they have supposed that anything 
scribbled on paper constitutes litera- 
ture ; consequently, notwithstanding 
that the English-speaking people have 
a vast number of publications, these 
are deluged far beyond their needs 
with unsolicited manuscripts until it 
would seem that half of humanity is 
busy in turning out "literature." It 
is perhaps, unnecessary to note that 
the larger percentage of these writers 
are more concerned about the dollar 
than in improving whatever traces of 
style they may accidentally display. 
While an author should not, of 
course, be indifferent to financial 
recompense, let it be not forgotten 
that the world has never given to us 
a master of style who held the mone- 
tary side of his work uppermost in his 
thoughts. Indeed, when the matter 
of such payment is considered, some 
of the talented writers of this decade 
receive far more than the masters of 
the past. Often they are mere imita- 
tors, but how profitable the public 
makes it for such imitators, while he 
who was really original was scoffed 
at, was the theme of ridicule, and was 
fortunate if he received the slightest 
compensation for work not greatly 
honored until after his death. Of such 
was Edgar Allen Poe, dying in pov- 
erty, but since having his imitators; 
one English follower of Poe is frank 
enough to acknowledge his indebted- 
ness to the American genius and prob- 
ably realizes a larger financial return 
every year than Poe could earn in half 
a lifetime. 

There is in literary quality a spir- 
itual atmosphere which excludes all 
mercenary speculations. In the com- 
panionship of the book that shall be 
venerated by posterity, perhaps more 


American Culture ana Literary Quality 

fully than we venerate it now, we 
never pause to wonder how much 
gold it brought for its creator; but 
should we cease reading for an in- 
stant, it is to ask ourselves of the 
countless others who have been de- 
lighted by the same work; how many 
tired souls have been enlarged and re- 
animated because this was written, 
and how many souls in the years un- 
born shall come to love the work 
which has intertwined itself with our 
destinies? Then it will not be neces- 
sary to have pointed out to us when 
we sit reverently with the master 
that we are privileged in having 
spread before us that mysterious and 
spiritual handiwork, a faultless style, 
which has filtered from the pen of 
"something strangely above us." 

That which is not the voice of its 
author's soul is doomed to perish like 
the weeds of a summer's day. It is 
the shallow stream, which, though it 
causes a loud-mouthed babble, de- 
ceives no one as to its depth except- 
ing those who will not look below the 
surface of things. 

The style which has ascended to the 
far heights needs all the love and 
attention we can bring, before its ever 
wonderful beauties will unfold them- 
selves and become a part of our ex- 
istence to abide with us whither we 
may travel. Then may we realize the 
vast meaning of the truth: "We for- 
get the hindrances and limitations of 
our own work in the full comprehen- 
sion of that stronger life that cannot 
be bound nor confined, but grows in 
all soils and climbs heavenward under 
every sky." 

Literary quality denotes that its cre- 
ator is a person of extraordinary indi- 
viduality, and because such a one re- 
veals greatness of soul by the very fin- 
ish of his style, our souls are traitors 
to us if they become not more expand- 
ed thereby. Sad it is, however, that 
the priceless benefits from associating 
with men of this nobility receive so 

scant recognition from the "gentle 
reader." Strange it is that few seem 
to realize the great power which the 
style of a master carries with it, or that 
here is an unlimited force which, if 
only rightly esteemed, will by its 
strength and beauty, establish a more 
ideal condition in the mental and spir- 
itual realms. 

Literary quality breathes incense 
from each sentence. To those who 
will hear, it is speaking in a still but 
earnest voice, of the soul's thirsting 
and longing, a soul which, having 
tasted of immortality, must needs in- 
clude all mankind in its dreams. 

What is this Art of Letters to 
which we have had so little time to 
contribute? What is this genius of 
print that bids the world to stop and 
listen ? It is but the power of man to 
create men and women, not as the 
sons of men, but as the sons of man's 
imagination; to marshall before the 
eyes of the world human strength and 
human frailty; to throw a piercing 
light on the heart of man; to bring 
into our lives men and women who 
live and work with us and yet when 
we lift out our hand to greet them we 
find that they are of a realm higher 
than self, that they live and move as 
fellowmen but in a domain just be- 
yond our reach; we know they exist 
because we see them — and on the 
printed page we hear them talk, and 
walk with them. And when we find 
that while they live as one of us but 
that they are as the mist and sunlight, 
then we lift up our voices unto the 
hills and proclaim their creator great, 
for by some miracle has he not done 
even as his Maker? In him is there 
not a spark of the Divine ? 

I have sat through the night before 
the printed page of the master in feast 
and communion, and when the morn- 
ing hours dispersed my companions, I 
have closed the volume reverently and 
exclaimed: "Lest ye become as 
gods !" 



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World's first gbampion of Universal Peace 



Statistician in Department of Education at Washington in 1867— Member of Faculty at St. John's 

College in Maryland in 1866— Secretary of National Teachers' Association in 1864— Mayor 

of New Britain, Connecticut, the Home of Elihu Burritt, in 1877— Now 

an Active Educator in his Eighty-sixth Year 


Rich in years and experiences, and distinguished as one of "Connecticut's grand old men," Professor Camp in 
his eighty-sixth year is interested in the work of securing some permanent memorial to the life achievement of his 
fellow-townsman, Elihu Burritt. Few communities have produced types of truer Americanism than New Britain, 
Connecticut, as the mother of the first great champion of the world's peace. It is fitting that the city should 
acknowledge the honor that belongs to it by honoring the eminent son who has lain nearly a quarter of a century 
unrecognized by his homefolk. Either through public funds, private donations, or by contributions from the school 
children whom he loved, New Britain should crown the memory of its illustrious dead. While several plans have 
been proposed there has been no organized popular movement. Professor Camp has here recorded his personal 
memories of Elihu Burritt, with notations on his remarkable life. From this should develop concentrated action for 
his native town's memorial to his indefatigable labors for humanity.— Editor 

TO recall my memories of Elihu 
Burritt — that strong man in 
American history who began 
at the blacksmith's forge and 
became a world-renowned linguist and 
advocate of universal peace — is indeed 
a pleasure, and especially so if I can 
throw any new historical light on 
this distinguished figure. 

Elihu Burritt was the world's first 
champion of universal peace. It was 
this distinguished American who ap- 
pealed to the nations to lay down arms 
and to apply reason rather than physi- 
cal force to their misunderstandings. 
He was as well-known in Europe as in 
America, for a good part of his life- 
time was spent in philanthropic enter- 
prise which had England and the 
United States for its field, and his 
books have been as popular on the 
eastern hemisphere as on the western 

Burritt's career has been unique 
in America. He is not the only phil- 
anthropist or self-made man that we 
have produced, but he is the only one 
who has achieved for himself and by 
himself such a wide acquaintance with 
foreign literature, and at the same 
time, given his active life to the ameli- 
oration of the condition of his fellow- 
men throughout the earth. 

The service requested of me is to 
give my reminiscences of the great 
Burritt, who for some years was my 
fellow-townsman and friend. All 
that I record, however, cannot be per- 
sonal recollections. For periods of 
his life during which I saw nothing 
of him I depend upon other records 
to which I here acknowledge my in- 

There is a maxim : "the boy is father 
to the man." If I had known the boy 
Burritt I might have been able to have 




shown the embryo characteristics that 
developed into the man Burritt, but 
unfortunately for me, and possibly 
fortunately for him, he was ten years 
old before I was born, and while our 
birthplaces were not many miles apart 
it was in the era before transportation 
facilities, when a neighboring town 
was almost as foreign as a neighbor- 
ing country. 

Elihu Burritt was born in New 
Britain, Connecticut, December 8, 
i8io;*and ten years later, or in Octo- 
ber, 1820, I was born in Durham, and 
it was not until manhood that I made 
Burritt's acquaintance. I presume the 
boyhoods were very much alike in the 
two Connecticut villages. It was an 
age of barefooted summers and tip- 
peted winters. There was the old 
"swimmin'-hole," the little red school- 
house and the sanctified "meeting- 
house." It was a time when the com- 
munity lived faithfully by the maxim : 
"Early to bed, early to rise, makes a 
man healthy, wealthy and wise." 

Burritt, then, was much the same 
boy as the rest of us. He was the 
product of a long line of rugged an- 
cestry — a descendant of William Bur- 
ritt who came to this country from the 
south of Wales and settled in Strat- 
ford, Connecticut. His father and 
grandfather were both named Elihu 
and were respected in the community 
in which they resided. His father had 
his home in New Britain, working on 
a farm in summer and at the shoe- 
maker's trade in winter. According 
to the custom of the day he had a 
large family and he sometimes found 
it difficult to supply the needs of the 
family by his scanty earnings. 

Elihu Burritt was the youngest son 
of ten children and in his childhood 
was deprived of many things which 
were esteemed the necessaries of life. 
He told it of himself that when he 
went to the district school he was not 
furnished with a single book and he 
learned his lessons from books bor- 
rowed and from listening to the recita- 

tions of other children. As he could 
have a book only when not needed by 
its owner he had to apply himself with 
diligence while he had the book. In 
later life he said that he attributed his 
habits of intense application and close 
observation partially to the circum- 
stances of his earlier experience and 
the necessity of making the best use of 
the few helps he had. 

Soon after he was sixteen years of 
age and on the death of his father he 
felt the need of earning something for 
the family as well as for his own per- 
sonal needs. He was apprenticed to a 
blacksmith and at once applied himself 
diligently to learning the trade. The 
days in the shop were long and he 
worked early and late, but he made 
frequent calls on his mother who was a 
woman of strong powers of mind. 
She encouraged Elihu in his efforts to 
fit himself for usefulness. He was a 
great reader and he read all the histor- 
ical and biographical books in the vil- 
lage library, which was well provided 
with volumes of this class. When 
partly through his apprenticeship he 
commenced the study of Latin. 

At this time his chief aim and desire 
was to become an accurate surveyor. 
As evidence that he possessed more 
than ordinary talent in this direction it 
may be stated that he mentally solved 
two following problems — and unaided 
by pencil, chalk or anything of the 
kind, actually working them in his 
mind while working at the anvil : 

1. How many barley-corns, three to 
an inch, will it take to extend around 
the earth at the equator ? 

2. How many yards of cloth, a yard 
wide, allowing half an inch at each end 
for lapping, would it require to reach 
from the center of the sun to the cen- 
ter of the earth, and what would it all 
cost at one shilling per yard ? 

It will readily be admitted that any 
one who could mentally obtain the cor- 
rect answers of these ^questions as 
Burritt did must be possessed of more 
than ordinary mathematical ability. 



I here give the contents of a per- 
sonal letter which he wrote to 
William Lincoln of Worcester, Mas- 
sachusetts, in 1838. In this letter he 

*• At the expiration of a little more than half 
of my apprenticeship, I suddenly conceived the 
idea of studying Latin. Through the assistance 
of an elder brother, I completed my Virgil dur- 
ing the evenings of one winter. After some 
time devoted to Cicero and a few other Latin 
authors, I commenced the Greek. At this time, 
it was necessary that I should devote every 
, hour of daylight, and a part of the evening, to 
the duties of my apprenticeship. I carried my 
Greek grammar in my hat, and often found a 
moment, when I was heating some large iron, 
when I could place my book open before me, and 
go through with ' tupto, tupters, tupter^ unper- 
ceived by my fellow apprentices, and, to my 
confusion of face, sometimes with a detrimental 
effect to the charge in my fire. At evening, I 
sat down unassisted and alone, to the Iliad of 
Homer, twenty books of which measured my 
progress in that language during the evenings 
of another winter. 

I next turned to the modern languages, and 
was much gratified to learn that my knowledge 
of Latin furnished me with a key to the litera- 
ture of most of the languages of Europe. This 
circumstance gave anew impulse to the desire 
of acquainting myself with the philosophy, de- 
| rivation, and affinity of the different European 

tongues I therefore laid down my 

hammer, and went to New Haven, where I re- 
cited to native teachers in French, Spanish, 
German and Italian. 

At the expiration of two years, I returned to 
the forge, bringing with me such books in those 
languages as I could procure. When I had read 
these books through, I commenced the Hebrew, 
with an awakened desire for examining another 
field; and by assiduous application, I was en- 
abled, in a few weeks, to read this language 
with such facility, that I allotted it to myself, as 
a task, to read two chapters in the Hebrew 
Bible before breakfast, this, and an hour at 
noon, being all the time that I could devote to 
myself during the day. 

After becoming somewhat familiar with the 
Hebrew, I looked around me for the means of 
initiating myself into the fields of Oriental liter- 
ature, and to my deep regret and concern, I found 
my progress in this direction hedged up by the 
want of requisite books." 

In my prolonged years as an educa- 
tor it has been my good fortune to 
make the acquaintance of many bright 
men and women, but there has been 
but one Elihu Burritt. For studious 
concentration, I doubt if his equal has 
ever been known in an American uni- 
versity. With the exception of the two 
years in New Haven, where he had 
the aid of instructors in acquiring a 
few of the modern languages, he had 
no opportunity of aid at school, or 
from teachers, except three months at 
his brother's private school when he 
was twenty-one. He attended the dis- 

trict school somewhat irregularly until 
he was fifteen, but his acquisition of 
foreign languages was made after he 
left school. 

At the end of his school term he re- 
sumed his work at the anvil where he 
resolved to do double work to make ap 
for the time spent in school. He 
found that it would be far more con- 
venient for him to pursue the study of 
languages as he could easily carry in 
his head or pocket a small Greek or 
Latin book at which he could glance 
from time to time without interfering 
with his work at the anvil. His even- 
ings were devoted to the study of 
French and Latin. 

Burritt told his friends that he went 
to New Haven that he might at least 
enjoy the atmosphere of that classic 
city, hoping to be stimulated thereby. 
He was twenty-two years old, and be- 
ing naturally diffident, he felt ashamed 
to ask any one to enlighten or assist 
him in the rudiments of Greek and 
Hebrew. He therefore resolved to de- 
pend upon his own resources and to 
seek aid of no one. On his first day in 
New Haven he took a copy of Ho- 
mer's "Iliad," which he studied, his 
sole aid being a Greek Lexicon with 
Latin definitions. He had never yet 
read a single line in the book, but re- 
solved that if by hard study and close 
application he could succeed in trans- 
lating two lines during the day, he 
would never thereafter ask aid of any 
person in pursuing the study of Greek. 
Before nightfall he had succeeded in 
mastering the first fifteen lines of the 
book. This success gave him great 
courage and confidence which proved 
a great advantage to him in all his sub- 
sequent studies. He now so widened 
his range of studies as to devote his 
time each day to French, Greek, Latin, 
Italian, German, Hebrew and Spanish, 
giving about half his time to the study 
of the "Iliad." 

In this way the studious youth spent 
a winter and on returning to New 
Britain he was induced to accept the 
preceptorship of an academy in a 



neighboring town. Here for a yeir 
he both taught and studied. But the 
change from an active life of manual 
labor to one of sedentary pursuits 
proved too much for him and his 
health became greatly impaired. At 
the expiration of the year he resigned 
the position and engaged in the more 
active business of commercial traveler 
for a New Britain manufacturer, a 
position he filled for many months, un- 
til, in compliance with the earnest 
wishes of his friends, he decided to 
establish himself in the grocery and 
provision business in his native town. 
Here he was soon overtaken by the 
great commercial crash of 1837 and 
all his accumulated earnings disap- 

On finding his little property swept 
away he resolved to start a life anew 
from the new standpoint. He left 
his native town and walked to Boston, 
a distance of more than a hundred 
miles, hoping either to find the books 
he sought or some vessel bound to 
Europe upon which he could go as a 
sailor and collect at different ports 
works in the modern and Oriental lan- 
guages. He was disappointed in not 
finding either, but accidentally heard 
of the American Antiquarian Society 
at Worcester and immediately re- 
turned to that place. He there found 
what he wanted and writes of it as fol- 

"Availing myself of the kindness of the 
directors, I spent about three hours daily at the 
hall which, with an hour at noon, and about 
three hours in the evening, made up the portion 
of the day appropriated to study, the rest being 
occupied in arduous manual labor. Through the 
facilities afforded by this institution I have been 
able to add so much to my previous acquaintance 
with the ancient, modern and Oriental lan- 
guages, as to be able to read upwards of fifty of 
them with more or less facility." 

In August, 1838, he wrote a letter 
in the Celto-Breton language to the 
Royal Antiquarian Society of France. 
The accurate use of the language and 
the knowledge of its structure, evi- 
denced by this letter, attracted the 
attention of scholars and brought Mr. 
Burritt into notice as a linguist. 

At the age of thirty years he had be- 
come more or less familiar with all the 

languages of Europe and several of 
Asia, including Hebrew, Syriac, Chal- 
daic, Sumaritan and Ethiopian. At 
this time he was invited to dine with 
the late Governor Everett, who, in be- 
half of several wealthy citizens, 
offered him all the advantages of Har- 
vard University. This kind offer Mr. 
Burritt felt called upon to decline, feel- 
ing that it would be better for him ^o 
combine manual labor with study. 

In 1839 he commenced the publica- 
tion of the Literary Geminae, made 
up of selections in English and French 
and designed to be an aid to students 
in French. This periodical was sus- 
pended at the close of the year for lack 
of financial support. 

In 1841 Mr. Burritt first entered the 
field as a public lecturer and was 
familiarly known as the "Learned 
Blacksmith." His first lecture was an 
attempt to prove that there was no 
such thing as native agency, but that 
all attainments were the result of con- 
tinued effort and application. In illus- 
trating his position he used the well- 
known story of the boy's climbing the 
Nature bridge of Virginia. In one 
season this lecture was given sixty 
times. Among other places in which 
it was given may be named New 
York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Rich- 

At the close of the successful lec- 
ture season, he returned to his anvil in 
Worcester, working and studying as 
before, and managing to write a new 
lecture for the next winter. At this 
time, cause of anti-slavery was agitat- 
ing the public mind and it readily en- 
listed the sympathy of Mr. Burritt 
who felt that it was worthy of his pen 
and voice, but certain circumstances 
led him to devote his time and energies 
to the cause of peace. He prepared a 
radical lecture on this subject which 
he was invited to deliver in the old . 
Tremont Theater, Boston, which had 
recently been purchased by the Bap- 
tist Church. He had a good audience 
and among them were prominent Bap- 
tist advocates, such as Dr. Worcester 



Ladd and others who cordially en- 
dorsed the views of the lecture. 

On returning to Worcester he de- 
cided to suspend his studies for a sea- 
son and to establish a paper in the in- 
terest of peace, anti-slavery, temper- 
ance, etc. It was called the Christian 
Citizen and was the first paper in 
America that made any considerable 
step to the cause of peace. It had not 
a large circulation and yet many copies 
were circulated through the Northern 
cities and awakened the interest of 
many strong minds and did much 
good. He edited and published several 
other periodicals devoted to the cause 
of peace, anti-slavery and temperance. 
He also prepared leaflets, entitled 
"Olive Leaves," which were sent to 
the weekly and daily papers and were 
very generally published. He had 
been in frequent communication by 
letter with the advocates of universal 
peace in Europe; and in May, 1846, 
he sailed for England to meet the 
friends of the Peace movement, in 
Manchester, Birmingham, and else- 
where in Europe. He planned to be 
absent from this country four months, 
but was induced to prolong his stay to 
four years. He met with the friends 
of peace and co-operated with them 
in devising methods and plans for 
promoting the cause of universal 
brotherhood; addressed large audi- 
ences in London and other places m 
England and was active in forming 
the League of Universal Brother- 
hood. In connection with this asso- 
ciaton he commenced the publication 
of "The Bond of Brotherhood," which 
explained the principles and objects of 
the association and was circulated 
both in this country and Europe. 

In September, 1847, Burritt began 
his campaign for "Ocean Penny Post- 
age" and made more than one hun- 
dred and fifty public addresses on the 
subject in Great Britain. He was 
much interested in efforts to secure 
relief for Ireland on the failure of the 
potato crop and made strong appeals 
to this country to furnish aid. His 

appeals were answered by sending a 
cargo of clothing and provisions from 
Boston to Ireland. 

In 1848 he went to Paris in the in- 
terest of the Peace movement to 
arrange the preliminaries for holding 
a conference in that city. The inter- 
nal disturbance and the civil struggle 
of that year made it impracticable to 
hold the convention in Paris, but it 
was determined to hold a meeting in 
Brussels in the autumn. Mr. Burritt 
was active in making arrangements 
for this meeting, and when the Con- 
gress was organized he was chosen 
the vice-president from America. He 
was active in the proceedings and was 
much gratified with the results. 
After the adjournment of the Con- 
gress Mr. Burritt, as representative of 
the "League of Universal Brother- 
hood," visited many places in England 
and delivered addresses in favor of 
arbitration and universal peace. 

In April, 1849, ne was again in 
Paris, arranging the details of the 
great Peace Congress which was held 
in that city in October. This was one 
of the most important gatherings of 
the friends of peace held in any coun- 
try and Mr. Burritt was one of the 
secretaries. Soon after the adjourn- 
ment of this Congress he came to 
America and to his home in New 
Britain, where a public reception was 
tendered him. In reply to an address 
of welcome, by Professor E. A. An- 
drews, Mr. Burritt recounted events 
connected with his visit to Europe. 
In the course of his address he said : 

" I have received many flattering testimonials 
of consideration and esteem in Great Britain, 
but the little village of New Britain is the 
world of my childhood, the birthplace of my 
first hopes and aspirations, of my first affec- 
tions ; and all the tendrils and fibres of my 
young and earnest love are thrown around it; 
and all its interests, and all its inhabitants, 
with all the glow and warmth of its first 

To become reminiscent, I might 
state that it was at this time, 1850, 
that I became a member of the faculty 
of the Connecticut State Normal 
School. Since 1840 I had been teach- 
ing in public schools and academies 



and was naturally much interested in 
the tremendous undertaking of Mr. 
Burritt and the world-wide impression 
he was creating. His home town, 
New Britain, was beginning to feel 
much pride in him. He did not re- 
main much in New Britain during 
1850 and the winter and spring of the 
year was devoted to lecturing in New 
England and the Middle West. He 
was also in Washington, D. C, where 
he met Henry Clay, Joshua Giddings 
and other men of national reputation, 
who promised cooperation in the 
Peace movement. In May, 1850, he 
again sailed for Europe and visited 
the principal towns and cities of Eng- 
land and Germany in making arrange- 
ments for the Peace Congress which 
was held at Frankfort in August. He 
was accompanied by President Hitch- 
cock of Amherst College and John 
Prentice and John Tappan, delegates 
to the Frankfort Congress. It re- 
quired two steamers to convey the 
English delegates up the Rhine. All 
the German states and Italy were rep- 
resented. America was largely and 
ably represented. Congress contained 
among its members many of the most 
eminent men of the times. The meet- 
ing continued three days and was 
characterized by its statesmanship. He 
also gave considerabletime to the advo- 
cacy of "Ocean Penny Postage," both 
by lectures and conferences with 
friends of the measure and the offi- 
cers of government. He was active 
in preparations for the fourth Peace 
Congress held at Exeter Hall, Lon- 
don, in 1857, and was secretary of this 
Congress and one of the speakers at 
its meetings. Mr. Burritt was pres- 
ent at the Peace Congress at Man- 
chester in 1852 and at Edinburg in 
1853. Soon after the adjournment of 
the latter he returned to the United 
States and devoted several months to 
the agitation of the subject of "Ocean 
Penny Postage." In 1854 he went to 
England again to advocate the same 

In 1855 Mr. Burritt returned to the 

United States, speaking upon the sub- 
ject of "Compensated Emancipation" 
as a proper measure for securing the 
abolition of slavery in this country. 
He had met with some encouragement 
from such men as Sumner, Seward 
and others when the raid of John 
Brown put a stop to any hopeful con- 
sideration on the subject. He then 
retired to his home in New Britain 
and devoted much of his time to the 
improvement of his land and to efforts 
to secure improved methods of agri- 
culture in the vicinity of his home. 

In 1863, however, Mr. Burritt was 
again in Europe to carry out a long- 
cherished plan to pass through Eng- 
land on foot that he might observe the 
methods of agriculture and the sys- 
tem of stock raising. He went from 
London to John O'Groat's during the 
summer and early autumn of this year 
and the next year from London to 
Land's End, making both journeys on 

Under the administration of Abra- 
ham Lincoln as president of the 
United States, in 1865, Elihu Burritt 
was appointed consular agent for the 
United States at Birmingham, Eng- 
land. In the following year I went 
abroad in a desire to visit the principal 
educational institutions of Europe and 
at this time, 1866, I visited my fellow- 
townsman, Mr. Burritt. I found the 
business of the office carefully and 
systematically conducted with the aid 
of a clerk. Consul Burritt was living 
in the parish of Harborne, two miles 
or more from Birmingham. His resi- 
dence had all the charm of an English 
home. On the rustic gate, at the en- 
trance of the grounds, was a plate 
bearing the name, "New Britain 
Villa." His niece, Miss Strickland, 
of New Britain, was abroad with him 
and presided over this charming 
home. Mr. Burritt was enjoying life 
surrounded by his English friends. 
It was interesting to note the respect 
paid to him at all public meetings and 
the esteem felt for him by his Engish 
friends and acquaintances. At the 



Peace meetings and other public 
assemblies he was invited to the plat- 
form and given a seat of honor. His 
modesty often led him to seek an ob- 
scure place when he might have had 
a conspicuous one. 

Elihu Burritt's regard for others 
and his tender sympathy were illus- 
trated by an incident which occurred 
while I was enjoying his hospitality at 
Harborne. A neighbor's bird was 
found dead and the owner attributed 
its death to Mr. Burritt's pet dog. 
Though there was no evidence that 
the dog caused the death of the bird, 
Mr. Burritt spent hours in looking 
through the bird markets of Birming- 
ham to find, if possible, a bird more 
valuable than the one killed that he 
might present it to the woman who 
had lost her pet. 

While discharging his duties as con- 
sul at Birmingham, he visited officially 
the principal manufacturing towns in 
his consular district. These visits led 
him through the large coal and iron 
regions and on the conclusion of his 
visits he published an interesting vol- 
ume entitled "Walks in the Black 
Country and its Green Border Lands." 
He had passed four pleasant years at 
Harborne, when, on the accession of 
Grant to the presidency, a change was 
made in the consular offices and Con- 
sul Burritt retired from the office kt 
Birmingham. He received several 
testimonials from inhabitants and 
manufacturers of the district; among 
them was the following from the peo- 
ple of Harborne, presented by the 
vicar of the parish at a large public 
meeting : 

" Harborne, May 26, 1869. 

To Elihu Burritt, Esq., Consul and Representa- 
tive of the United States of America, Bir- 
Respected and dear Sir 
We have heard, with the most unfeigned re- 
gret, that your residence amongst us is about 
to terminate. During your four years of sojourn 
in the parish of Harborne, we have ever found 
in you a kind and sincere friend, and a warm 
and generous supporter of every good and 
philanthropic work. We are only expressing 
our heart's true feeling in saying that we 

deplore your anticipated departure, and shall 
ever remember, with the liveliest emotions, 
your oft-repeated acts of courteous kindness. 

Your aim has always been to forward the inter- 
ests of the parish from which you are now, on 
the termination of your mission, about to sepa- 
rate. We are sure that the affectionate regard 
of the parishioners, generally, will follow you 
to your new sphere of labor and usefulness ; and 
it is our prayer and heartiest wish that your 
life may long be spared to pursue your honora- 
ble career, so that by your writings, not less 
than by your example, many may receive last- 
ing good. We take leave of you, dear sir, as- 
sured that you will not forget Harborne and it3 
people, on whose hearts your name will long re- 
main engraved. We ask you to accept the 
accompanying volumes, with this numerously 
signed address, which we think will, in your 
estimation, be the most assuring token of our 
deep regard and affectionate remembrance of 
yourself, and respectful appreciation of your 

With this address was presented a 
splendid set of Knight's "Illustrated 
Shakespeare" in eight volumes. Sim- 
ilar addresses and testimonials came 
from others who had known Mr. Bur- 
ritt in Europe. 

After retiring from his official posi- 
tion he passed several weeks in Ox- 
ford and visited other places of inter- 
est, calling on friends and acquaint- 
ances in England, and returned to 
America in 1870. 

When Burritt returned to us in 
New Britain it was as the personal 
friend of the greatest men in Europe, 
— Victor Hugo, M. de Tocqueville, 
Joseph Gamier, John Bright, Sir 
David Brewster, Sir Charles Napier, 
Professor Liebig, and that whole 
brilliant assembly of minds that had 
distinguished the Old World. While 
he had been the hero of the masses 
and entertained by nobility, he was 
still the same benevolent, unassuming 
Burritt — a statesman and still a black- 
smith. One-third of his life on the 
eastern continent had cultivated his 
mind, but not at the expense of his 
heart, for it still throbbed to the time 
of the hammer on the anvil and his 
love for the people was as warm as the 
old forge fire. 

During the more than twenty years 
in which Elihu Burritt had been ab- 
sent from this country he had been 
almost constantly before the public, 
advocating means for the benefitting 
of mankind. He had also, when in 
the United States, devoted much of 
his time to giving public addresses on 
similar subjects. He had seen great 



changes in public sentiment in regard 
to the measures he had advocated and 
he now returned to the place of his 
birth and the home of his childhood 
and youth to pass the remainder of 
his days in comparative quiet. But 
he was not idle. His active efforts 
and his influence set in operation plans 
and forces, which, in their execution 
and results, were beneficial to New 
Britain and the world. His interest 
in agriculture led him to take an act- 
ive part in the management of the 
Agricultural Club of which he was 
secretary. When its members, with 
others, organized a grange it was fitly 
named "The Burritt Grange." Mr. 
Burritt in a quiet way identified him- 
self with the moral and religious inter- 
ests of the community. His desire 
for mutual effort led him to advocate 
fellowship meetings of the churches 
and these were held by the churches 
of the Conference to which he be- 
longed for many years with interest 
and profit. He had a building on his 
farm, which he fitted up for a mission 
school. He erected in another part 
of the town a building for Sunday 
school and religious services, doing 
much of the work with his own hands. 
In this building services have been 
held every Sunday until the present 
time and it is properly named "The 
Burritt mission." 

While Elihu Burritt was a strong 
advocate of municipal improvement 
and good government he would have 
nothing to do with a party measure. 
I recall an occasion during my active 
political years when I was in the pub- 
lic service. A meeting was to be held 
at which a question was to be decided 
which was deemed of importance by 
the political leaders and they were 
very desirous that Mr. Burritt should 
be present and vote. I was requested 
to see him, and if possible, secure his 
attendance. I called on him at his 
home and presented the request. He 
listened to it with attention and then 
said that he had considered the ques- 
tion and while he thought it impor- 

tant he did not think the decision was 
of sufficient importance to justify him 
in voting with either party as by so 
doing he would be voting in opposi- 
tion to friends of the opposite party 
who might have studied the subject 
more than he had and whose judg- 
ment might be superior to his own. 

In his years when I knew Elihu 
Burritt in New Britain he was a 
friend of children and took a deep in- 
terest in their studies and plays. When 
he visited the schools and spoke to the 
students he always received close 
attention and many children and 
youth were influenced for life by his 
words. One of the last times that he 
left his home, and when too feeble to 
walk even a short distance, he rode in 
a carriage to a school in which he had 
special interest, where he said a few 
words which deeply impressed those 
who heard them. 

During the latter years of his life, 
when at his home in New Britain, Mr. 
Burritt's knowledge of foreign lan- 
guages was made practically useful, 
not only by his translation of letters 
and legal documents for his friends 
and the courts, but by teaching classes 
in Hebrew, Sanskrit and other foreign 

I shall state here that this self-edu- 
cated man is credited with knowledge 
of some fifty languages. While no 
one but he ever knew just what were 
the limits of his learning as a linguist, 
I can state that he was familiar with, 
and in many instances a master of, 
Amharic, Arabic, Basque, Bohemian, 
Breton-Celto, Chaldaic, Cornish, Dan- 
ish, Dutch, Ethiopic, Flemish, French, 
Gaelic, German, Greek, Hebrew, Hin- 
dustani, Hungarian, Icelandic, Irish, 
Latin, Manx, Persian, Polish, Portu- 
guese, Russian, Samaritan, Sanskrit, 
Spanish, Swedish, Syraic, Turkish, 
Welsh. He published the first book 
in Sanskrit ever printed in America. 

So remarkable was his proficiency 
in these languages that Yale College 
conferred upon him the honorary de- 
gree of Master of Arts in 1872, and 



Universal BrotbeHoed 

extract from Glibu Burritt's Private Journal recording the eloquent prophesy of 
Uicfor Rugo at tbe Peace gonaros at Paris in i$49, the most remark- 
able assembly tbat baa eper convened on tbe Continent of europe 

A DAY will come when a cannon will be exhibited in 
public museums, just as an instrument of torture is 
now, and people will be amazed that such a thing could 
ever have been. A day will come when those two immense 
groups, the United States of America, and the United States 
of Europe, will be seen placed in the presence of each other, 
extending the hand of fellowship across the ocean, — exchang- 
ing their produce, their commerce, their industries, their arts, 
their genius, — clearing the earth, peopling the desert, improv- 
ing creation under the eye of the Creator, and uniting, for the 
good of all, these two irresistible and infinite powers, — the 
fraternity of men and the power of God. 

'■ Victor Hugo arose — It was to me a moment of most intense interest— the opening of the great drama. 
When silence was restored he poured out his mighty thoughts with all the fervid glow of his poetic genius 
—As the lofty and burning periods fell upon the assembly they responded to their power by repeated bursts 
of applause— Some of his passages were worthy of being chased in gold" — From Elihu Burritt's Journa 



he was similarly honored by other in- 

He had been accustomed to make 
full notes in his travels and his 
books and journals give abundant 
evidence of his fidelity to facts and cir- 
cumstances. Besides the periodicals 
which he edited both in Europe and in 
the United States, he was the author 
of several books, among which were: 
"Sparks from the Anvil," "Thoughts 
and Things at Home and Abroad," 
"Walk from London to John 
O'Groat's," "Walk from London to 
Land's End and Back," "Walks in the 
Black Country," "The Mission of 
Great Sufferings," "Chips from Many 
Blocks," "Lectures and Speeches," 
"Ten Minute Talks," and several 
smaller books and pamphlets, more 
than thirty in all. In the study of 
foreign languages he had, to some ex- 
tent, the aid and use of the treasures 
of antiquarian societies and univer- 
sity libraries, but the dictionaries and 
text-books which he owned and used 
form a very interesting collection of 
more than a hundred volumes which 
have been placed in the historical 
room of the New Britain Institute. 
One of the large grammar schools of 
New Britain, near his home, has been 
named "The Burritt School." 

Elihu Burritt never married and on 
returning to his native town he found 
a delightful home with a widowed sis- 
ter and two nieces who did all that 
could be done to promote happiness of 
one so true to them, so honored by the 
great and good. His last days were 
passed peacefully and though for 
weeks before his death he was fully 
conscious of the near approach of the 
great messenger he knew in whom he 
believed and was sustained by an un- 
faltering trust. To his friends, he 
spoke calmly of the approaching 
death and made known his wishes as 
to the place of burial and matters con- 

nected therewith, earnestly desiring 
that everything might be done in sim- 

Those of us who knew Elihu Bur- 
ritt in his last days loved him most of 
all for his strong manhood — a man- 
hood shaped at the blacksmith's forge. 
When he lay awaiting the passing of 
life into the realm "from which no 
traveler returns," he remarked to a 
friend: "I have had a busy and a 
happy life, but I have finished my 
day's work. I am now only waiting 
for that sleep that comes sooner or 
later to us all." 

It was to this same friend that he 
exclaimed: "I charge you, so far as 
possible, to see that my funeral ser- 
vices are free from unnecessary ex- 
pense and all ostentation. Let my 
coffin be as plain and inexpensive as 
is consistent with propriety." 

It was a few days later on the even- 
ing of March 6, 1879. The day had 
seemed brighter to him than usual. 
As the shades of night were falling he 
called his faithful attendant and walk- 
ing to his bed in an adjoining room, 
he retired 
"Like one who wraps the drapery of his 

About him, and lies down to pleasant 

As his good friend, Charles North- 
end, said: "His life at last went out 
so peacefully that his friends thought 
him 'sleeping when he died.' Like 
the flickering flame of a consumed 
candle, which sometimes brightens 
just before it darkens, so the life 
lamp of our friend, and the friend of 
all the living creatures of the earth, 
seemed to give a brighter and softer 
light just before it went out in dark- 
ness to us. . . . It had come forth 
bearing the precious seeds of peace 
and good-will to all mankind, and the 
harvest has been ripening ever since, 
and in all coming time will the world 
reap the precious fruits of his sow- 

The Voice of the Battlefield 

Two old cannons, which during the Civil War in the United States were a part of the armament of 
Admiral Farragut's flagship, "Hartford," now stand in beautiful Bushnell Park, in front of the State 
Capitol, at Hartford, Connecticut — They are nine-inch iron Dahlgrens (throwing missiles nine inches in 
diamater)— Mr. Ransom, venerable poet and artist, viewing these silenced cannons, inscribed these lines 



SILENCED voices of the battlefield ! Winter 
Beats them with his chill inclemency 
Or tents them o'er at times with snow so still 
There is not a whisper in it. Summer 
Dapples their grim sides with leafy blots 
Of shadowing and yellow flecks of sun, 
While grass grows pettingly about those wheels 
Which, in the hero Sixties, were clot 
With carnage. Children play all over them, 
And soft-eyed little girls throw their bare arms 
About their muzzles and laugh down their idle calibres ; 
But they, old veterans at rest, speak not, 
Save as hill rocks grumble epics to the wind. 

Those there be to whom old battlefields, 
On whose red cast the fate of nations hung, 
Can never seem deserted. As night comes on, 
Lone, stately phantoms, pale as a comet's train, 
Will rise and walk the winds above sunk trenches 
Filled with skeletons, and on the night 
Of their vehement anniversary, 
Ghost regiments, divisions, army corps, 
Take position over all the field. 
Then march and countermarches internet — 
Columns dense to battle ranks deploy — 
Evolutions, keen manoeuvering — 
Serried arms a moment whitening 
In the pale radiance of risen souls — 
The flaunt of banners only seen where dim 
Star scintillings ghost them out of vacancy — 
Long ranks advancing with the Thoring burst 
Of charge, the torrent rush of cavalry- 
Artillery sweeping into battery 
With all the spectacle and whirl of strife 
Armies of souls, star-lit, can make, but dim 
And silent as a stellar nebulae. 

You, whose spirits have a sense like this, 

Go to the venerable guns, alone, 

At night and lay your awed hands on them. 

Be still, still as the moon's midnight, or even 

As the dead city of Zenobia, 

And they will murmur museful, strong and low. 

An epic martial as the avalanches sing. — 

Listen, there is around and in them now 

A monarch soul of ocean and the winds: 

They sing once more of rthe river emperor, 

Mid-continent, which tribute of an empire takes, 

And rich with the flood-wash of bluff and plain 

From chill Itasca to the Gulf, strides out 

Amain, a giant building in the sea. 

Before his delta-parted gates they come ; 

Silenced Voices of the Battlefield 

Against his turbid roll, assembled navies 
Bear them on, till Jackson's fortress wall, 
And Phillip, set over against on either shore, 
Outworks insane revolt established there; 
They smite and bray to battle's overwhelm, 
Then make the Crescent haul rebellion down 
From the insulted sky and raise again 
The light of freedom o'er its heritage. 

Further still the river flood ascending, 

Through mouths of searching stratagem and siege, 

Against batteries intrenched on bluff and beach, 

They hurled war deafening with tintimar 

And devastating as volcanoes do, 

Until, with wide encircling armies leagued, 

They forced an overthrow and captive led 

A host no less in nerve and faculty 

Than those who bore them down. 

On a later day 
With ships of iron joined — near that old field 
Where Tuscaluza, giant Indian king, 
Plotted havoc for gold-crazed De Soto 
And the cavaliers of Spain — 
These turned their fury loose on fortress wall 
And fortress fleet. Mammoth artillery 
Shattering artillery as great ; 
Thunder — equal thunder answering ; 
Projectile iron on mail of iron smashed, 
Crashing and bursting ; concussion resounding 
Through the profoundest gorges of ocean ; 
Explosion shaking the land as earthquake shakes it 
And the air mad with rushes of lightning'; 
These were there, muzzle hot, ruling amain 
The dread, volcanic turbulence of war. 

As here I wait, enrapt and reverent, 

The strident roar of battle rolls away 

And silence follows it. On fleet and fort 

The fated banner of the slave is down, 

The banner of the free is up but torn, 

And dark with the tarnish of ensanguined war. 

Peaceful now are these in their august repose, 
And so still that one believes the soul of years, 
When they wrote history in blood and iron, 
Has gone out from them. But speak to them, — 
Stroke them on the open muzzle with the hand 
And from their throats will moan a memory 
Of hero days when their blows were the blows 
Of Titans and their voices the voice of heaven 
Shouting earthward after its thunderbolts. 

When from the monsters I withdraw at last, 

Longingly I turn again and see 

Shadow-like and dim as phantoms be, 

The high-perched Eagle of their battle day — 

And he who made the armies of the foe 

Cast down their swords was with him. They caressed 

The silent, comrade cannon with their hands, 

Then slow and stately climbed the nebulous, 

Exalted air, yet with many a backward look 

To the old artillery beneath the elms. 




AMONG the ancient papers left 
by my grandmother I find a 
bundle of old letters and from 
them I gather glimpses of a 
real old-time courtship — a romance 
such as our grandmothers and grand- 
fathers experienced when the Ameri- 
can Republic was in the making. 
There is a gentility and a gallantry to 
these worn documents that flavors of 
the Old World. In the changes of 
time these courtly manners have gone 
with those whom they graced and it is 
indeed pleasurable to look upon the 
lines of those who dived "when knight- 
hood was in flower." 

It was one hundred and twenty-one 
years ago that my good grandmother 
was born on Enfield street in northern 
Connecticut. Her name bears the im- 
print of days long gone — "Persis" — 
quaint Persis Meacham. 

Her father's little farm was one of 
several estates that were united to 
form the property of that successful 
founder of the mills from whom 
Thompsonville, Connecticut, is named. 
My grandmother remembered "that 
little Thompson boy" as a ragged 
barefoot urchin running about the lots 
in old Enfield. Only the wells of the 
former farms were allowed to remain 
to tell the tale of the old days and 
the great mansion standing in its com- 
manding position in the midst of a 
fine grove is still seen next the quaint 
old church with its slender spire. 
Here Persis Meacham attended ser- 
vice until she was thirty-one years 
old and the old building remains much 
as it appeared then ninety years ago. 
The wooden bridge from Enfield 
across the Connecticut river to Suf- 
field was a few years ago carried away 
in a spring flood. It was shaky and 
called unsafe when I rode over it ten 

years ago. My grandmother used to 
walk over it daily on her way to the 
Suffield school of which she was mis- 

John Burt of Longmeadow was 
courting her in those days and as he 
was the son of a Revolutionary officer r 
Colonel Gideon Burt, he naturally felt 
called upon to follow in the footsteps 
of his sire who procured him a com- 
mission as sergeant to serve in the War 
of 18 12 at Sackett's Harbor and Fort 
Michilimackinac. His term was for 
five years and the youthful lover, who 
was six years the junior of his lady- 
love, must cease his visits at the En- 
field farm and shouldering a musket 
depart with his regiment into the wil- 

Letters were slow in coming in 
those days and the postage amounted 
to eighteen cents. I fear my grand- 
papa was rather neglectful of his poor 
little Persis. She may perhaps be ex- 
cused for lecturing him a little, for he 
was twenty-two and she was twenty- 
eight. She was old enough to know 
what was what and I am glad she 
gave him a piece of her mind. I will 
copy one of her letters which is in- 
teresting when compared with what 
might be written by a girl to her 
sweetheart at the present day. 

Enfield, February 3, 1816. 
My Dear Friend : 

I received your letter yesterday with 
much pleasure as well as surprise, for I had 
long since supposed myself forgotten by 
you. I am happy to hear that I am still 
remembered by you & that I still retain 
the same friendship and affection for you 
as ever. I think you have been rather too 
neglectful in writing to me; you have 
wrote to your other friends much oftener 
than to me. Allmost three years have 
elapsed since you left Enfield and I have 
received only four letters from you and this 



is the eighth I have addressed to you in 
your absence. However, I am willing to 
make every allowance for your omission in 
writing if you will be more punctual for the 
future, alltho' I am unacquainted with a 
military life I know there must be many 
inconveniences. I rejoice to hear of your 
good health & agreeable situation, may it 
still continue, ma" you receive every bless- 
ing that is necessary to make life agreeable. 
Your father received your letter on 
Thanksgiving day; it gave your friends 
much joy, I was then at Long meadow and 
had an opportunity of perusing it through 
the kindness of Gideon which gave me 
much pleasure as you expressed your love 
for those that loved you only, and I thought 
I might be one of that number. Oh, John ! 
have you got to stay more than two years 
longer? Three years are allmost past 
which seems like a little eternity. Alas! 
must you stay your five years? Write I 
entreat you and let me know if there is a 
probability of your return before that 
period which I live in constant hope there 
is. Thanksgiving eve I attended Wm. 
Stebbins and Eliza B's. wedding. Happy, 
happy union! two fond hearts are joined in 
one. Your brother has once more received 
a wound from little Cupid but I think there 
is a remedy before winter is out I think he 
will be firmly bound in Hymeneal bonds 
with Miss Sally Kibbe; he seems to think 
of nothing else at present but his approach- 
ing nuptials. Write me as often as possible 
and be assured I shall not omit the same. 
Adieu my friend, I still remain your 


The reply of the soldier lover writ- 
ten in good round hand is dated more 
than seven months later, but then it 
took more than four months for his 
lady-love's letter to reach him. One 
had need of much patience in those 
days of uncertain mail transportation. 


14th Septr. 1816. 
My Dear Persis : 

Your kindly letter I received on the 16th 
of June last which I would have Answered 
long since but no opportunity offering from 
the inconvenience of vessels from Detroit 
not arriving as I should wish to convey it. 
I am happy to inform you that I am well at 
present, although afflicted with the fever 
and ague for some time past which I hope 
these few lines will find you in good health 
also. My feelings are rather hurt at find- 
ing that you should imagine or even think 
that you were forgotten by me on account 
of not punctually writing to you. No, my 
Dear Persis, it is the fate of a soldiers life 

to be thus disappointed in the sanguine ex- 
pectation of doing an act of the most im- 
portant concern to be turned from it in a 
moment, but those in private life have no 
Idea of such inconvenience, — I know my 
Dear, the time is long since my departure 
from Enfield, but what can I do ? here I am 
bound and cannot stir without bringing dis- 
grace upon myself and family until regu- 
larly and legally released from such embar- 
assment; if then this should be removed I 
must say you would have enough of room 
to impeach me with neglect but I shall be 
as punctual in Writing for the future as the 
nature of this place will admit — I am 
obliged to you my Dear for your good 
Wishes for my being in good health which 
is more precious than all other riches, and 
equally so for you being in the same state ; 
but as to my Situation although as agreea- 
ble as the nature of it will admit is not to 
me so, particularly being so long apart from 
you and my other relations and friends but 
I hope my Father will shortly effect some- 
thing for my Relief. 

I am glad to hear of the happy Union cf 
Mr. Wm. Stebbins and his Consart and 
wish them all happiness, not but I regret 
the distant period of ours which I hope will 
some time or other take place. I shall 
write you every opportunity and hope you 
won't neglect answering as it will be the 
only consolation I shall have in my present 
situation. The Indians here are quite 
peaceable at present. Remember my love 
to all friends and remains your ever affec- 
tionate and unalterable 

John Burt 
Sergeant Artillery 
Capt. Pierce's Company, 1st Battallion. 

John Burt, it appears, did not get a 
commutation of his term of service, 
but at the end of the five years pa- 
tience had its reward and the lovers 
were united in marriage or I should 
not be telling their story. 

Then came the long journey by 
stage from Enfield out into the great 
wilderness of Ohio. They settled in 
Euclid, now known as a beautiful sub- 
urb of Cleveland. 

I have before me the list of the 
household outfit purchased on their 
arrival in 18 18, amounting to $72.82^2 
and paid for by Colonel Gideon Burt, 
their father. Among the forty-two 
articles are the following : 

1 pair linen sheats, 20s .... $ 2.50 

1 pair pillow cases, 1.00 

5 old table spreads, igS .... 1.87^ 

3 flannel sheats, 15 yds. 6s 11.25 

4 old towels, 6s -75 



1 carving knife and fork, . . . 1.00 

1 snuffer tray, .50 

1 patchwork bedquilt, . . . . 2.00 

2 small flannel gowns, .... .50 

3 pairs mits, .50 

2 pairs socks, .5° 

1 pair stocking legs, .... .25 

3 pieces cotton factory, .... .37K 

1 small red slip, -37^ 

1 pair drawers, .5° 

i chest, 2.00 

1 tea canister, .50 

1 pair buckskin gloves, . . 1.5° 

8 phials, -5° 

15 nutmegs, 1.20 

Nutmegs were costly in those days, 
at eight cents apiece, and were prob- 
ably much more indispensable than 
now as they were largely used, not 
only for flavoring foods, but drinks. 

My mother was the first of three 
children and born in the town of 
Euclid. The father, who was a joiner, 
found plenty of work in the new coun- 
try. When he was not building 
houses and barns he was making cra- 
dles and coffins. He was easy-going 
and kind, never demanding what was 
owed to him, and debts were not 
always voluntarily paid. After spend- 
ing about ten years in the new home 
the father heard of the need of men to 
build the ship canal in the southern 
part of the state, and, tempted by the 
high wages paid, he moved his family 
to Chillicothe, Ohio. It was a sadly 
unfortunate venture. The country 
was swampy and malarial. John Burt, 
who was at the head of a gang of men, 
must be a leader, and as the others 
were often afraid to venture into the 
water to work he would precede them 
to show that there was no danger. 
He must thus stand in water for many 
hours and return home at night with 
wet clothes. My mother, who was 
about nine years old, was attacked by 
the malarial fever and her devoted 
father, after his exhausting work, sat 
up with her during the night. What 
wonder that the soldier's constitution, 
though strong, gave away under the 
strain! The child recovered, but the 
brave and faithful father fell a prey 
to the fever that carried off so many 
of the early settlers and died at the 
age of thirty-nine, leaving a frail 
widow and three small children. 

Poor Persis was in a land of stran- 
gers and her first thoughts were to re- 

turn to Euclid where there were warm 
hearts to welcome her. There were 
weary miles of stage travel and her 
oldest child, hardly recovered, was so 
thin that her little frail hands held up 
to the light showed all the bones ; her 
hair had fallen out and she wore a lit- 
tle cap to cover her bald head. She 
was so sick from the jolting of the 
stage that she was lifted out helpless 
at the way stations. 

At Euclid the mother thought it 
best to return to the east against the 
advice of several good friends. She 
wrote to her husband's brother for 
assistance. He was a well-to-do man 
and childless. He owned a control- 
ling interest in the stage route between 
Albany and Boston, in those days 
bringing in large revenue. 

The letter which he wrote to Persis 
I must transcribe to show a phase of 
human character. It has always 
seemed heartless in its tone, but he 
proved a good friend at last and 
adopted the younger daughter; also 
aided the rest of the little family. 

Worcester, Dec 29, 1830. 
Dear Sister and Stranger : 

Your letter is reed, giving me the de- 
sired situation that you are in and your 
children and imploring some relief. The 
widow and fatherless are objects of charity 
from all and in particular from those that 
are connected by blood or by marriage. 
You are a stranger to me otherwise than by 
3>our connection with a Brother who I have 
not seen but once in twenty years. His 
misfortunes and troubles I have been unac- 
quainted with. With regard to assisting 
you I have concluded to send you fifty dol- 
lars that may be present help if you con- 
clude to stay in Euclid or if you should 
conclude to leave and come to N. England 
it will be sufficient amount to bring you 
here. Whatever should be your determi- 
nation I would say that one of your chil- 
dren, the youngest, if you can make up your 
mind to give it away to us as we have none 
of our own, we have concluded to take it. 
The other two I shall, if they come here 
use my influence to procure them a home. 
Brother Nathaniel will perhaps take one 
of them, but a home shall be provided for 
all until such times as you may be able to 
provide for yourself. 

Poverty you claim and if you should un- 
dertake the journey you will remember that 
at this season of the year it is cold and 
more expensive traveling. I should recom- 



Persis Meacham, born in 1785 

mend to you to dispose of all but what is 
necessary for your comfort and to make 
your children and yourself warm, and that 
you should make some exertions to travel 
as cheap as possible. There is no other 
way but to come all the way in the stage. 
If by misfortune you should fall short of 
cash when you arrive at Albany call at the 
stage office of Rice and Baker and inform 
them who you are and tell them I will see 
that they are paid and show them the post- 
script. " Yo. Simeon Burt. 

And so the forlorn little family, un- 
able to collect the many sums due to 
the poor father, accepted the cold invi- 
tation and took the weary journey 
which in those days must have been in 
undertaking equal to that of crossing 
the continent at the present time. 

The Connecticut home of Persis had 
been broken up. Her father and 
mother had long since died and the 
brothers and sisters had married and 
scattered. The two little daughters 
of Persis were for a time sent to the 
Enfield High School by the benevolent 
uncle. The younger, who had been 
adopted by him, continued her educa- 
tion, but the elder, who had a longing 
for education, was given but one year 


Sergeant John Burt, born in 1791 

of this, to her, happy school life when 
she was required, at the age of six- 
teen, to learn a trade and take care of 
herself and her mother. The one boy, 
Simeon, was of a roving disposition 
and gave his mother much anxiety. 
He could not be kept steadily at any 
occupation. He finally ran away 
while yet in his teens and enlisted on 
board a man-of-war. It was a mis- 
taken kindness on the part of the little 
mother to go down to New York and 
beg him off, for he was afterwards of 
little comfort to her and finally joined 
a tribe of wandering Indians, return- 
ing with them to Maine where he mar- 
ried among them and died without 
issue and with no communication with 
his sisters who had married well and 
lived in New York and elsewhere in 
the growing nation. 

The little mother, Persis, spent her 
last days in Worcester, Massachusetts, 
with her elder daughter who had also 
become a widow, and died among 
kind friends at the age of sixty-one 






President of the Connecticut Agricultural College 

' 'In every department of human affairs, practice 
long precedes science; systematic enquiry into the 
modes of action of the powers of nature, is the 
tardy product of a long course of efforts to use those 
powers for practical ends."— John Stuart Mills; 
" Principles of Political Economy "-1:17. 

FARMING first steps were the 
first steps in civilization. Do- 
mestication of animals and 
cultivation of crops on land 
held in something like permanent ten- 
ure gave that first security from hun- 
.ger, that first abundance of provisions 
for the sustenance of life, which dif- 
ierentiated the condition of the pio- 

Illustrations by courtesy of the 

neers of society from that of their 
wandering, hunting and fishing pro- 
genitors. Farming made possible, 
even when most crudely practiced; the 
original accumulations of permanent 
property, a primitive semblance of 
stable government, the foundations ot 
the arts, sciences and literature. 

"It has been truly remarked that, in order of 
time, decoration precedes dress ... It is not a 
little curious that the like relations hold with the 
mind. Among mental as among bodily acquisi- 
tions, the ornamental comes before the useful. Not 
only in times past, but almost as much in our own 
era, that knowledge which conduces to personal 
well-being has been postponed to that which brings 
applause."— Herbert Spencer: " Education 1 - 

Connect'cut Agricultural College. 



Not to the Esquimau with his har- 
poon, nor to the Patagonian hunter, 
but to the Chaldean shepherd at lei- 
sure among his plenteous flocks does 
tradition trace the beginnings of as- 
tronomy. It was that remarkable 
people who tilled that little strip of 
green land beside the Nile and annu- 
ally exported to Rome corn estimated 
at 20,000,000 bushels who built the 
pyramids and decorated their tombs 
with pictures and inscriptions, many 
of which, it is said, "after the lapse of 
two or three thousand years, retain 
the distinctness of outline and bril- 
liancy of color of recent productions," 
and which as a whole reveal a marvel- 
ous stage of advancement in manners, 
customs and handicrafts. "The Par- 
thenon and Propylaea were built, the 
sculptures of Phidias paid for and 
the festivals celebrated, for which 
Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides and 
Aristophanes composed their dramas," 
out of tribute exacted from a van- 
quished people whose accumulated 
surplus of production over their actual 
needs had made them tempting ob- 

jects for conquest. And it was a peo- 
ple possessing "a land of corn and 
wine, a land of bread and vineyards, a 
land of olive oil and honey," whose 
cattle were grazing on a thousand 
hills — it was this people that built a 
world-famed temple of rare woods 
and adorned it with precious stones 
and metals, who gave the modern 
world the Mosaic law as a foundation 
for its jurisprudence, and who handed 
down to posterity the teachings of 
Christ for the perpetual purification 
of religion. 

In fact, one conversant with the rise 
of nations, and their growth or decay, 
may say without fear of dispute that 
no nation can become permanently 
great which does not rest on a great 
and well guarded agricultural founda- 

Considering the enormous impor- 
tance of farming, the status of farm- 
ing in our own country is most grati- 
fying. The Honorable James Wil- 
son, secretary of agriculture, in his 
last annual report summarizes the sit- 




If the farmers' economic position in the United States is to be con- 
densed to a short paragraph, it may be said that their farms produced this 
year wealth valued at $6,415,000,000; that farm products are yearly 
exported with a port value of $875,000,000; that farmers have reversed 
an adverse international balance of trade and have been building up one 
favorable to this country by sending to foreign nations a surplus which in 
sixteen years has aggregated $12,000,000,000, leaving an apparent net 
balance of trade during that time amounting to $5,092,000,000 after an 
adverse balance against manufactures and other products not agricultural, 
amounting to $543,000,000, has been offset. The manufacturing indus- 
tries that depend upon farm products for raw materials employed 
2,154,000 persons in 1900 and used a capital of $4,132,000,000. Within 
a decade farmers have become prominent as bankers and as money lenders 
throughout large areas, and during the past five years prosperous condi- 
tions and the better-directed efforts of the farmers themselves have 
increased the value of their farms 33.5 per cent, or an amount equal to 

$6,131,000,000 If there is no relapse from this high position 

that the farmer now holds as a wealth producer, three years hence he may 
look back over the preceding decade, and, if he will add the annual figures 
of his wealth production, he will find that the farming element, or about 
35 per cent of the population, has produced an amount of wealth 
within these ten years equal to one-half of the entire national wealth pro- 
duced by the toil and composed of the surpluses and savings of three cen- 
turies The man with the hoe has become the man with the 

harvester and the depositor and shareholder of the bank. 


Prodigious capacity for early rising 
and enormous physical endurance are 
no longer the predominant traits for 
which the farmer is noted. Farmers, 
as a class, are no longer looked upon 
by the ruling men in a progressive re- 
public as the fittest class for periodic 
fleecing. More and more farmers are 
becoming intelligent, business-like, 
progressive — a host to be reckoned 
with. Long the dumb prey of despots, 
they are becoming free men and 
amongst the most stable and enlight- 
ened citizens of our modern common- 

Many influences, no doubt, have 
contributed to this result. But the 
best concerted, and, it is believed, the 

In fact, for more generations than 
one, it has been matter of remark by 
the most competent observers that 
many, if not most, of the leading lights 
both in the learned professions and in 
statesmanship, have come from the 
farms through the gates of the classi- 
cal colleges and professional schools. 

It remained for a Vermont farmer 
to conceive, on a grand scale, a system 
of education — now without an equal 
for extent and efficiency — providing 
for the establishment in each of our 
states and territories of at least one 
college where 

"all the needful sciences for the practical avoca- 
tion of life" 

most powerful influence in our own 
country has been the influence of edu- 

Farmers have always been believers 
in education — for other people, or of 
their own children for other callings 
than their own. This old chronicle, 
date of 1644, the Connecticut reader 
may recall with pride : 

" Mr. Shepherd, the pastor of the church in Cam- 
bridge, being at Connecticut when the commission- 
ers met the'e for the United (New England) Colo- 
nies, moved them for some contribution of help 
towards the maintenance of poor scholars in the 
college, whereupon the commissioners ordered that 
it should be commanded to the deputies of the sev- 
eral general courts and the elders within the several 
colonies to raise (by way of voluntary contribution) 
one peck of corn, or twelve pence money, or o'her 
commodity, of every family, which those of Con- 
necticut presently performed.' 1 

should be taught, and "where," to 
quote the somewhat stately language 
of the originator, 

"agriculture, the foundation of all present and 
future prosperity, may look for troops of earnest 
friends studying its familiar and recondite econo- 

This Vermont farmer was the late 
United States senator, Justin S. 

Mr. Morrill, in 1857, when chair- 
man of the Committee on Agriculture 
of the national House of Representa- 
tives, introduced a bill appropriating 
to the several states a portion of the 
public lands for the promotion of 
what has since been known as the 
Land-Grant College movement. In 


1862 this bill became a law, by which 
it was provided that each state should 
receive land to the value of $30,000 
for each of its senators and represen- 
tatives in Congress under the census 
of i860. Of the proceeds from the 
sales of this land, only ten per cent 
could be "expended for the purchase 
of lands for sites or experimental 
farms." The remainder must be kept 
by the state "forever undiminished" 
and yielding an annual income of "not 
less than five per centum." The Act 
reads : 

" No portion of said fund, nor the interest thereon, 
shall be applied, directly or indirectly, under any 
pretense whatever, to the purchase, erection, pres- 
ervation, or repair of any building or buildings." 
Moreover, the act provided that the interest of this 
fund "shall be inviolably appropriated, by each 
State which may take and claim the benefit of this 

Special federal grants have also 
been made for the establishment and 
more complete support of agricultural 
experiment stations, in connection 
with these land-grant colleges. The 
first of these, made by the Hatch Act 
of 1887, provided that: 

"It shall be the object and duty of said experiment 
stations to conduct original researches or verify ex- 
periments On the physiology of plants and animals; 
the diseases to which they are severally subject, 
with the remedies of the same; the chemical com- 
position of useful plants at their different stages of 
growth; the comparative advantages of rotative 
cropping as pursued under a varying series of crops; 
the capacity of new plants or trees for acclimation; 
the analysis of soils and water; the chemical com- 
posit on of manures, natural or artificial, with ex- 
periments designed to test their comparative effects 
on crops of different kinds: the adaptation and value 
of grasses and forage plants; the composition and 
digestibility of the different kinds of food for domes- 
tic animals; the scientific and economic questions 
involved in the production cf butter and cheese; and 
such other researches or experiments bearing 

act, to the endowment, support, and maintenance of 
at least one college where the leading object shall 
be, without excluding other scientific and classical 
studies, and including military tactics, to teach 
such branches of learning as are related to agricul- 
ture and the mechanic arts, in such manner as the 
legislatures of the States may respectfully pre- 
scribe, in order to promote the liberal and practical 
education of the industrial classes in the several 
pursuits and professions of life.* 1 

In 1890 Mr. Morrill secured the 
passage of a further act, providing 
"for the more complete endowment 
and support" of these colleges and 
prescribing specifically the following 
subjects of instruction to which the 
proceeds of this act should be applied : 

''Agriculture, the mechanic arts, the English lan- 
guage, and the various branches of mathematical, 
physical, natural, and economic science, with special 
reference to their applications in the industries of 
life and to the facilities for such instruction." 

directly on the agricultural industry of the United 
States as may in each case be deemed advisable, 
having due regard to the varying conditions and 
needs of the respective states and territories." 

The second federal grant for agri- 
cultural research was made just be- 
fore the close of the last session of 
Congress and is known as the Adams' 
Act. It is a noble monument both to 
the success of this modern agricultu- 
ral movement and to the untiring zeal 
for the betterment of farming shown 
by the late Honorable H. C. Adams, 
representative in Congress from Wis- 
consin, whose untimely death occurred 
July 9, 1906. 

That federal aid to farming, as 
above outlined, has been appreciated 


by the different states, may be seen by 
a glance at some of the latest available 
statistics : 

There are now sixty-five land-grant colleges. 
Of these, sixty-three teach agriculture. The total 
funds and property of these institutions in 1905 was 
$81,251,764.42, made up of the following items : 
land-grant fund of 1862, $12,049,626.80; other land- 
grant funds, $3,295,193.51; other permanent funds, 
$15,968,463.07; land-grant of 1862 still unsold, $4,101,- 
749. 18; farm and grounds owned by the institutions, 
$6,665,013.43; buildings, $28,192,385.11; apparatus, 
$i>9S7>°3o.42; machinery, $2,623 995-48; libraries, $2,- 
520,350.21; live-stock, $342,998.09; miscellaneous 
equipment, $3,544,959.03. 

Omitting the income of the experi- 
ment stations, the total income of these 
colleges in 1905 was $11,767,154.54, 
of which the following are the major 
items : 

Interest on the land grant of 1862, $721 491.77: in- 
terest on other land grants, $96,960.70; United States 

appropriation under act of 1890, $1,200,000; interest 
on endowment or regular appropriation, $552,004.19; 
State appropriations for current expenses, $3,048,422,- 
.22; State appropriations foi buildings or other 
special purposes, $2,313,060.53; endowments other 
than Federal or State grants, $671,888.10; miscellan- 
eous, $1,674,150.79. 

For 1905 the total additions to the 
permanent endowment and equipment 
of these colleges was estimated at 

The grand total of persons compris- 
ing the faculties of these institutions 
was 4,561. 

The research departments, or agri- 
cultural experiment stations, em- 
ployed 845 persons and had a total in- 
come in 1905 of $1,525,489.18, de- 
rived as follows : 

Prom the National government, $718,163.45; from 
State governments, $540 467.31; from individuals and 



■^>? ;.&,; 


': ' r: ' 




communities, $8,925. 80; from fees for analyses of fer- 
tilizers, $?2, 183.03; from sales of farm products, $93,- 
058; miscellaneous, $72,691.59. 

And the value of additions to the 
equipment of the stations for the year 
was $155,619.12. 

As a result of this land-grant col- 
lege movement, great interest in the 
improvement of farming has been 
aroused, a vast deal of information 
has been given to the public, and 
direct to practical farmers through 
lectures and addresses before their 
associations, through correspondence 
and through printed bulletins contain- 
ing in concise form the results of in- 
vestigations. Perhaps most impor- 
tant of all has been the influence of 
this movement on the younger people. 

In the land-grant colleges — besides 
the 6,294 students in the institutions 
for colored people — there were, in 
1905, 53,518 students, of whom there 
were graduated, at an average age of 
twenty-two years, 5,061. The whole 
number graduated since the colleges 
were organized was, previous to last 
commencement, 62,081. And a good 
proportion of all these have pursued 
thorough courses of training in agri- 
culture, horticulture and closely allied 

Closely akin to these modern means 
for the improvement of farming is the 
United States Department of Agricul- 
ture, now developed into a tremen- 
dous engine for the husbanding and 


promotion of our national farming re- 
sources, and working in the closest 
harmony and mutually helpful rela- 
tions with the land-grant institutions. 

It is well to have in mind something 
of the growth and magnitude of this 
"better farming'' movement. We 
have hardly yet begun to appreciate 
its importance. "You can fool some 
of the people all the time, and all of 
the people some of the time ; but you 
can't fool all of the people all of 'the 
time." The gentleman president, 
James Buchanan, vetoed the Morrill 
bill of 1857. The "rail-splitter," 
Abraham Lincoln, approved the Mor- 
rill bill and made it law in 1862. The 
farmers said to their members of Con- 
gress : "Give us agricultural experi- 
ment stations," and in 1887 they got 
them. At the outset industrial educa- 

tion in all forms was looked on 
askance. In 1890 the people looked 
at the land-grant colleges, saw that 
they were good, and said : "Let them 
be better supoorted ;" and the second 
Morrill act was passed, paying into 
each state at maturity $25,000 a year 
for industrial education which should 
not fail to include instruction in agri- 
culture. Last June President Roose- 
velt saw that the Adams' bill proposed 
honor and assistance where both were 
due, and gave the bill of our people 
his decisive signature. To crown all, 
though Secretary Wilson's proposed 
budget of expenditures for the United 
States Department of Agriculture had 
been carefully made and was consid- 
ered by him adequate, it was increased 
bv popular demand $156,730 beyond 
his estimates, exclusive of the amount 
which will be needed for executing 
the new regulations for meat inspec- 
tion. His grand total for 1907 is now 
fixed at $9,932,940, an increase over 
last year of $3,050,250. In short, 
farming is seen to concern the health 
and prosperity, not merely of a special 
class, but of the people of our nation 
as a whole ; and, accordingly, it is be- 
ing most prudently and nobly cher- 

Connecticut enjoys the distinction 





of having been a pioneer, both in agri- 
cultural teaching and in agricultural 
research. It is believed that the 
Cream Hill Agricultural School at 
West Cornwall, where in 1845 farm- 
ing was taught by the late Honorable 
Theodore Sedgwick Gold, was the 
first school of its kind in America. 
Yale College before the federal grant 

of 1862 had a chair of agriculture. 
And to Connecticut belongs the honor 
of having had the first ''agricultural 
experiment station" to be known by 
that name — the research laboratory 
established in 1875 by Mr. Orange 
Judd, at Wesleyan University, Mid- 
dletown, in co-operation with that 
university and under the directorship 

Photograph taken at the Connecticut Agricultural College 


of Professor W. O. Atwater. Pro- 
fessor Atwater it was who organized 
the office of Experiment Stations of 
the United States Department of 
Agriculture, and who was, while still 
holding his Connecticut professorship, 
the first director of that office. From 
the beginning perhaps no figures have 
been more prominent in connection 
with agricultural research and educa- 
tion than Professor Atwater, who has 
achieved an international reputation, 
and Mr. Theodore Sedgwick Gold, 
the first secretary of the Connecticut 
State Board of Agriculture, the cen- 
tral figure in the organization of the 
Storrs' Agricultural School, and for 
many years a man of marked influence 
in agricultural matters, both within 
and beyond the borders of our own 

For a number of years Yale re- 
ceived the benefits of the Land-Grant 
Act of 1862. At New Haven, also, 
was established a center of research, 
the Connecticut Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station. 

After the founding of the Storrs' 
Agricultural School and its adoption 

by the state, the interest of the Con- 
necticut farming public turned from 
Yale more and more strongly toward 
the institution at Storrs. The pro- 
ceeds of the Hatch Act were divided 
equally between the New Haven and 
Storrs' Agricultural Experiment Sta- 
tions, as are now the proceeds of the 
Adams' Act. Except that these sta- 
tions continue to share equally the 
bounty of these two federal grants for 
agricultural research, and except that 
on the part of farmers there has been 
no diminution of confidence in, and 
loyalty toward the Experiment Sta- 
tion at New Haven, the Storrs' School 
since the early nineties, when it be- 
came the Storrs' Agricultural Col- 
lege — a name later changed to the 
Connecticut Agricultural College — 
has been the sole representative in 
Connecticut of the Land-Grant Col- 
lege movement. 

That Connecticut farming is of con- 
siderable importance will appear from 
a glance at the figures from the last 
census and referring to the year 1899. 
To-day the figures have assumed even 
greater proportions. 



Number of farms, .... 


Number of acres, 


Value of farm property, 


" live stock, 


farm products, 


" hay and grain, 


" vegetables, 


fruits, .... 


live stock products, 


dairy products, 


tobacco products, 


" flowers and plants, 


nursery products, 


" other miscellaneous products, 


Amount paid for farm labor, 


Amount paid for fertilizers, 



No one at all familiar with the en- 
terprising spirit of the better part of 
onr present farming population can 
doubt that these figures are destined 
to be greatly mutiplied in succeeding 

In many land-grant colleges more 
attention is paid to other subjects — 
such as the various courses in engi- 
neering — than is paid to farming. 
The contrary is true at the Connecti- 
cut Agricultural College. A glance 
at the chart showing the courses of 
study, or, better yet, at the illustrated 
catalogue, will make plain that there 
are excellent courses of training pro- 
vided at this institution for students 
who desire a "liberal and practical ed 

for some other calling than 
In this, good faith is being 

kept with the federal government. 
But the leading interest at this insti- 
tution centers in the agricultural 

And this is fitting. The ambition 
of the founders, the late Augustus 
Storrs and his brother, the late 
Charles Storrs, in contributing 
$15,000 in property and money 
toward it, was to secure the establish- 
ment of an agricultural school. In 
accepting the gift the state made its 
own intention unmistakable when it 
said that the object of the school was 

"education of boys whose parents are citizens of 
this State in such branches of scientific knowledge 
as shall tend to increase their proficiency in the 
business of agriculture.' 1 

It was because the Morrill Acts of 
1862 and 1890 included agriculture as 
a leading subject of collegiate instruc- 
tion that the farmers of our state were 
willing to engage in the memorable 
and even bitter struggle with Yale for 
possession of the funds annually to 
accrue from those acts. When $60,000 
was appropriated for our new brick 
and stone dormitory by our last Gene- 
ral Assembly it was because our 
farmers requested it — requested it be- 
cause they desired education for the 
business of farming for an increased 
number of their sons and daughters. 
Writing to the New England Home- 
stead, July 28, 1906, of grange prog- 
ress in Connecticut, the Honorable O. 
S. Wood, master of the Connecticut 
State Grange, said : 

"The Grange maybe steadily depended upon to^ 
support our agricultural college and give it a chance- 
to do the greatest good. 1 '' 

The Rural New Yorker, August 4, 
1906, says, in a prominent editorial 
note : 

" We are sometimes asked if there is any college 
in the country where a person can learn farming— 
it being understood that agriculture can be studied 
at a number of places. This makes a distinction 
between the business and the science of cultivating 
the soil. We should say that the Connecticut Agri- 
cultural College comes nearest to being a farming 

And within a few months the late 
Edwin Gilbert of Georgetown has left 
the college a large farm with all the 
live stock and equipment on it, to- 
gether with an endowment fund of 
$60,000 securely invested for the ex- 


; V 


Photograph of Connecticut Agricultural College in Winter 

Photograph taken at the Connecticut Agricultural College 


press purpose of instruction in "farm- 
ing practically." 

Such substantial evidence of public 
and private approval are most grati- 
fying to those who have established 
and are carrying out the present pol- 
icy of the college. 

The college will receive from fed- 
eral sources during the coming fiscal 
year income as follows : 

Land-grant fund, 
Morrill fund, 
Hatch fund, 
Adams fund, . 

% 6,750 




Total, .... $42,750 

From these funds all of the salaries 
of the officers of administration, in- 
struction and research are paid. 
This is a gift to the state. The state 
itself must furnish, equip and main- 
tain the college plant. For the sup- 
port and improvement of the college 
property, including heating, lighting 
and repairs, the college will receive 
from the state $20,000. Not includ- 
ing the Gilbert bequest, the property 
of the college now inventories $266,- 
181.42. The college has a most ex- 
cellent faculty and good equipment. 
And for the past three years it has not 
been able to receive all applicants for 
its courses, owing to lack of sufficient 
dormitories — a lack now happily in 
large measure overcome by the erec- 
tion of the new dormitory, "Storrs' 

A few years ago the college added 
to the instruction in its longer 
courses, short winter courses, varying 
from ten days to twelve weeks, for the 
benefit of older men. They included 
"Dairying," "Creamery Work and 
Butter Making," "Fruit Growing" 
and "Poultry Culture." These have 
proved to be very useful and have 
been continued. More recently a 
summer school for teachers devoted to 
nature and country life subjects has 
been established. At the fifth annual 
summer school session recently closed 
the enrollment was eighty-three. 

Members of the faculty and of the 
station staff give many lectures and 
addresses at meetings of farmers about 

the state during the year. There is 
much of mutual advantage in attend- 
ing such meetings. Our men by this 
means keep the closer to the practical 
farming problems; and the farmers 
themselves learn of the utter good- 
will of our men and the countless 
ways by which help may be had of the 
college in hours of need. Keener 
questioners can hardly be conceived 
than such meetings bring forward and 
our men are always glad to be of ser- 

California the past year has appro- 
priated $150,000 for the purchase and 
equipment of a farm for the agricul- 
tural department of her university. 
The total appropriation of California 
last year for additions to the equip- 
ment of her Land-Grant College was 
$389,874.77. Small by comparison 
seems the Land-Grant College at 
Storrs. At some day not too far dis- 
tant our college should be given funds 
for a model dairy barn, a convenient 
and commodious horticultural build- 
ing and range of greenhouses, a fire- 
proof library building and a well- 
equipped building for the investiga- 
tions and instruction of the poultry 
department. But even with its modest 
equipment our agricultural college, at 
no cost to the students for tuition or 
room-rent, is graduating young men 
and women whose services are in de- 
mand at good salaries if they are not 
needed at home ; or whose scholar- 
ship at the end of the fourth year is 
such that, if they wish to pursue their 
specialties elsewhere, they are gladly 
admitted to the junior year at Cornell 
and other institutions of like stand- 
ing, and it is conducting investiga- 
tions which already have yielded re- 
sults of large, practical and scientific 
value, particularly in connection with 
poultry farming, fruit growing and 

Motives for farming are many. 
One farms for money ; another farms 
for recreation or the gratification of 
his desire for the beautiful in forest, 
field, fruit, flower, growing animals — 

Photograph taken at the Connecticut Agricultural College 


all the features of a charming coun- 
try, or suburban estate thoughtfully 
created and studiously maintained; a 
third farms for comfort, long life, 
mellow age — content with thrifty 
methods, a congenial occupation, 
means for educating his children and 
power to ease the household burdens 
of his faithful wife as the declining 
years draw on. Most occupations in 
our rushing business world, to-day are 
occupations for young men, men with 
the power of the prime of life in their 

bodies and brains. It is true of farm- 
ing, as it is true of almost no other 
vocation, that it has tasks suited to 
every stage in a man's life. It is a life 
of which the salt does not lose its 
savor. Sheer self-preservation is 
coming with many to be their most 
powerful motive for farming. 

Be the motive for farming what it 
may, no fairer field for its pursuit 
could be desired, all things taken into 
account, than our thrifty, beauty-fos- 
tering, home-loving, age-solacing 
state presents. 



" I come now," the ancient Roman Cato is heard to say, " I come now to the 
pleasures of husbandry, in which I vastly delight. They are not interrupted by 
old age, and they seem to me to be pursuits in which a wise man's life should be 
spent. The earth does not rebel against authority; it never gives back but with 
usury what it receives. The gains of husbandry are not what exclusively com- 
mend it. I am charmed with che nature and productive virtues of the soU Can 
those old men be called unhappy who delight in the cultivation of the soil? In 
my opinion there can be no happier life, not only because the tillage of the earth 
is salutary to all, but from the pleasures it yields. The whole establishment of a 
good and assiduous husbandman is stored with wealth; it abounds in pigs, in kids, 
in lambs, in poultry, in milk, in cheese, in honey. Nothing can be more profit- 
able, nothing more beautiful, than a well-cultivated farm." 


jfttoentum of an early American $ea-gaptain 




Now in His Ninety-Third Year and a Grandson of Captain Samuel Hoyt 

The manuscript left by Captain Samuel Hoyt illuminates the indomitable courage of the pioneer 
Americans, their hardships and their sufferings. It gives one a better understanding of what it meant to 
have lived in the earlier years of the New World. The original of the manuscript is now in possession of 
Mr. Henry Stone of Madison, Connecticut, who is the son of Stephen Stone who was the stepson of the 
rugged seaman who inscribed the narrative, and is now in his ninety-first year. The valuable manuscript 
has been in possession of the Stone family since the death of its writer. Portions of it are here transcribed 
through the courtesy of Mr. Julius Walter Pease, of New Britain, Connecticut, who is the grandson of the 
writer of the manuscript and is now in his ninety-third year. He recalls hearing his mother, who was the 
daughter of the narrator, tell of her father's experiences much the same as here recorded, and also of 
hearing her tell of scenes in the American Revolution. The literary quality of the manuscript is remark- 
able, and its grammatical construction is unusually accurate. In transcribing, it was edited only as neces- 
sary to preserve an illuminating story of the period. In as many instances as possible idiosyncrasies are 
preserved. It is evident that Captain Hoyt rewrote his story from notes and memory in his mature years „ 
probably shortly before his death which occurred at eighty-two years of age.— Editor 

THE adventurous life of the 
early American in the age 
when the land was an un- 
known wilderness and the 
high seas were the more familiar high- 
ways is vividly pictured by the old 
journal left by one Captain Samuel 
Hoyt, an ambitious American youth 
who led the roving life of his genera- 
tion and fought in the early wars of 
his country. 

The journal of this rugged pioneer 
seaman is here recorded. The stal- 
wart character behind the strong hand 
that inscribed it may be suggested by 
the knowledge that Samuel Hoyt was 
the son of one of the New World's 
first families. The Hoyts, who spelled 
their names variously, such as : Hoyte, 
Hoite, Hoit, Hait and Haight, had 
their beginning in America through 
Simon Hoyte, who was born in 1595, 
probably at Curry Rivel, Somerset- 
shire, England, and came to this coun- 

try in 1628 in the ship "Abigail" with 
Governor John Endicott, landing at 
Salem, Massachusetts, and exploring 
and settling Charlestown. In 1630 
he became one of the settlers of Dor- 
chester and in 1631 was made one of 
the first freemen in Massachusetts. 
From Dorchester he went to Scituate 
in 1633 and then became one of the 
settlers of Windsor, Connecticut,, 
about 1639; thence to Fairfield about 
1649, an d ^en to Stamford, where he 
died in 1657, after having been either 
an early, or one of the first settlers in 
seven New England towns. 

Samuel Hoyt, whose journal is here 
recorded, is a product of this family 
in a later generation. His parents 
had migrated into the old seaport 
town of Guilford, Connecticut, where 
he was born at East Guilford (now 
in Madison) April 3, 1744. From his 
own notes one is informed of his ex- 
periences. He was twice married, 

6 3 x 


the first occasion being to Clotilda 
Wilcox who was born April 29, 1745, 
and second to Mary Stone, a widow, 
who was born November 3, 1756. 
After eighty-two years of pioneer life 
Captain Samuel Hoyt died on October 
5, 1826, at Madison. 

Adventures on a Fighting Ship 
in Havana, Cuba, in 1762 

The first pages of the ancient jour- 
nal seem to have been lost and the 
story abruptly begins with a record of 
experiences in Havana, Cuba, about 
1762, when he was eighteen years of 
age, and an attack on Morro Castle 
and states that after the reduction of 
Morro Castle they proceeded up the 

That the Hobson strategy of sink- 
ing a ship in the channel to bottle up 
the enemy in the recent Spanish- 
American War was practiced some 
one hundred and thirty years previ- 
ously is shown by one of the first en- 
tries in this quaint journal. It says: 

"We had not gone far before 
our progress was impeded by a 
large chain thrown across the channel 
and fastened at each end so firmly that 
it was impossible to force our way 
through. We were, however, suc- 
cessful in raising it upon the forecas- 
tle of one of the smallest vessels when 
the carpenters, with their chisels, suc- 
ceeded in cutting it in two. A short 
time after we were again brought up 
by a seventy-four gunship, which the 
inhabitants had sunk to prevent the 
approach of the enemy. We, how- 
ever, soon removed this impediment. 
Before we arrived so near the town 
as to aid the land forces we were a 
second time obliged to stop on account 
of a ninety . . . ship placed in a 
similar manner to the other. As soon 
as the commandant of Cuba saw that 
the fleet had succeeded in clearing the 
channel of the obstacles that were 
thrown in the way he immediately 
capitulated and thus a further effusion 
of blood was prevented." 

"It was not without horror," says 

the journal, "that I beheld a large 
number of bodies that were alive this 
morning in the enjoyment of health, 
now floating upon the surface of the 
water, having been thrown overboard 
from the ships." 

Subsequent to the taking of Cuba 
Captain Crane received compensation 
for his services and sailed on the 
"Friendship," a vessel bound for New 
York. The lad, Samuel Hoyt, was 
his cabin-boy. A short time after they 
left Cuba they sighted an American 
vessel, which had been captured by the 
French and afterwards retaken by 
her own crew. Their situation was 
hazardous and they requested Cap- 
tain Crane to take them and part of 
their cargo on board the "Friendship." 
He complied with their request and 
while performing this benevolent act 
of humanity lost sight of his company 
and for two or three days proceeded 
on his voyage without interruption. 
"At length a sail came into sight," 
says the journal. "For some time 
he kept on his way without seeming 
to regard them, but as the signals 
were often repeated he was induced 
at length, by motives of humanity, 
to bear down for her. He soon 
after discovered her to be a small 
sloop, and from her appearance con- 
cluded her to be the same one from 
which he parted three days before, but 
as he advanced nearer he felt less pos- 
itive about it, and, recollecting that his 
orders were (it being time of war) to 
speak no vessel and let none speak 
with him, attempted to haul his wind 
and get at a greater distance." 

A Cabin=Boy's Experiences as 
Prisoner on a Privateer 

The journal says that it was then a 
little past sunset and unfortunately an 
almost perfect calm succeeded. They 
had not remained long in this anxious 
condition before they heard the sound 
of oars coming from a distance and 
soon after were summoned to strike to 
a French privateer. Captain Crane 
felt no great disposition to surrender 


his hard-earned property and delayed 
a compliance in hopes of being over- 
taken with a favorable gale; but as 
he was unprovided with the means :>f 
resistance, and delaying was danger- 
ous, he surrendered his ship as a 
. . . prize and his men as prison- 
ers. When the officers had taken for- 
mal possession of this brig they took 
the captain and several of his men on 
board their own vessel and left a prize 
master with a number of others to 
plunder at their leisure. Immediately 
upon their arriving on board the pri- 
vateer a fresh breeze sprung up and 
the remainder of the prisoners (after 
having been stripped of nearly all 
their clothing) were forced to con- 
tinue on deck the remainder of the 
night. In the morning they were re- 
moved on board the privateer and con- 
fined in her hold. When they entered 
their new habitation they found the 
vessel's company which sailed with 
them from Cuba. She was captured 
immediately after parting with the 
"Friendship" and sent off in another 
direction that the privateer might bet- 
ter succeed in decoying her compan- 
ion. Here they were kept on a short 
illowance of provision and were 
illowed no water but what they 
>ucked through a gun-barrel three 
feet in length, and even this privilege 
r as not granted them but one minute 
in twenty-four hours. Yet notwith- 
standing the great severity of the cap- 
tors Captain Crane had the address to 
)btain from them the chest which con- 
tained the ... of his voyage, 
"he captain of the privateer, upon ex- 
imining his prisoners, observed many 
if them to be almost or quite naked, 
laving been stripped of their coats, 
lats and breeches, upon which he 
lade an immediate inquiry into the 
iffair, and finding out the true cause 
»f their present appearance, ordered 
his men, upon pain of his displeasure, 
to deliver up those things they had so 
barbarously forced from them. 

After relating his experiences as a 
prisoner on a privateer, Samuel Hoyt 

in his journal says that his captors, 
having taken a number of prizes, pro- 
ceeded to the Gulf of Florida, where 
she was met by an English battleship, 
which came for the purpose of ex- 
changing prisoners. The captives 
were then ordered on deck and taken 
on board the "Beneato," a vessel of 
twenty guns. Here their situation 
was somewhat more comfortable, but 
the rigorous discipline which they ex- 
perienced in the ship soon made them 
sigh to regain their native liberty. 
Yet for the inestimable blessing all of 
them, except Captain Crane and his 
cabin boy, sighed in vain. 

Samuel Hoyt tells this anecdote of 
his fidelity, as a cabin-boy, to his mas- 
ter: "Upon Captain Crane's leaving 
the ship, observing the first officer 
walking the quarter deck, I went to 
him, and pulling off my hat, requested 
leave to go on shore in company with 
Captain Crane. The officer immedi- 
ately made this reply: 'We cannot 
spare you at present.' For the sake of 
consolation he, however, told me I 
might go on shore when the main- 
mast went. Not long after, having 
sprung the mainmast, they took it out 
and carried it on shore. When the 
boat was just shoving off, recollect- 
ing the promise given by the first 
lieutenant, I immediately stepped up 
to him with my hat under my arm 
and reminded him of his promise, 
when the mate, laughing heartily at 
the joke, told me I must wait until 
the foremast went on shore." 

Life on the High Seas off the 
American Coast in Early Wars 

The thrilling adventures of the 
cabin boy, who later became a cap- 
tain, are now best told in his own 
words. The story in his journal, 
from this point, is narrated with the 
clearness and vigor of a born narra- 
tor as well as navigator. Here is the 
story as transcribed from the old 
manuscript : 

"After parting from the privateer 
the 'Beneato' returned to South Car- 


olina and continued to cruise off the 
coast several months. One day we 
discovered a large ship, and as we 
took her to be an envoy the vessel was 
immediately cleared for action and all 
agreeably were we surprised when 
we found it was a British packet 
which brought intelligence that a 
treaty of peace had been signed be- 
tween the sovereigns of France and 
Great Britain. Upon this news all 
hands, dropping their arms, sprang 
upon the yards and saluted the packet 
with three cheers and being answered 
on board the packet we immediately 
hove about and stood for Charleston ' 
in company. The great joy at the 
news of peace was somewhat damped 
upon opening the mail from London 
wherein were orders for the immedi- 
ate return of the 'Beneato.' This 
made the prisoners somewhat sorrow- 
ful. However, their manly courage 
never forsook them. A few days 
after, while lying at anchor, it being 
very early in the morning, a midship- 
man was ordered to go on shore for 
the purpose of filling the water casks. 
The midshipman, proceeding accord- 
ing to orders, we lashed the casks to- 
gether, and, throwing them over- 
board, proceeded to man the boat 
when the officer, calling to the captain, 
requested more men. His answer 
was: 'Take what number you shall 
think necessary.' Upon the midship- 
man hearing this he called out to the 
men on board, saying: 'Come, my 
boys, jump into the boat.' 

"I was on deck at this critical time 
and knowing that if I left this chance 
to slip unimproved I must, of course, 
go to England, the hopes of again 
seeing my friends and escaping from 
such cruel masters stimulated my 
drooping spirits and made me resolve 
to try my legs if I should be so fortu- 
nate as once more to feel terra Hrrna 
under me. Having made this re- 
solve and hearing the officer call, 
out at the same time for more men 
I immediately sprang into the boat 
and sliding under one of the benches 

lay secreted until we all landed 
near the watering place. It be- 
ing still duskish on account of the 
earliness of the hour I assisted in get- 
ting the casks out of the water and 
helped to secure the boat when the 
officer, calling to his men, says: 
'Come, my boys, we will go and drink 
some bitters before we proceed any 
further in our work.' Fortune at last 
seemed to favor me, and, lagging a lit- 
tle behind, I gladly saw them enter the 
house without observing my reluc- 
tance to follow them. The house was 
situated about forty or fifty rods from 
the boats. On the opposite side of the 
watering place was a lofty pine forest 
with thick underbrush at the entrance. 
"A neighbor by the name of 
John Murray, who belonged on board 
the 'Friendship' at the time of her cap- 
ture, happened at this time to be 
appointed boat-keeper. I made known 
my determination to Murray and re- 
quested him to accompany me. He at 
first thought my undertaking to be 
foolish in the extreme. I told him I 
had no time to lose and was resolved 
to try it myself should he still persist 
in his resolution of not accompanying 
me. I then began to walk toward the 
woods; when I had gone but a few 
rods, looking back I saw Murray fol- 
lowing close at my heels. We contin- 
ued to walk until we gained the woods, 
when, looking back, we saw the officer 
and men coming out of the house 
where they had gone for their bitters 
and walking very moderately down to 
the boat. This was the last time we 
saw this gentleman officer. 

A Fugitive's Wanderings along 
the Desolate Atlantic Shore 

"We had but just entered the woods 
when we began to try our skill in run- 
ning. We directed our course into 
the thickest of the forest and ran until 
nearly out of breath when we beheld, 
to our great joy, a safe asylum from 
our pursuers. A large pine had, it 
seemed, been broken off near the 
ground; the tree being hollow we- 


both crept into it where we remained 
through the day. When night ap- 
proached we, creeping out of our den 
or hole like the wild beasts of forest, 
pursued our way unmolested; taking 
the stars for our guide we proceeded 
in an easterly direction until we 
found a road running to the north- 
east. We kept this road, walking as 
fast as possible through the whole 

"Whenever we saw anybody trav- 
eling to meet, interrupt or over- 
take us we immediately sprang into 
the woods, so fearful were we of be- 
ing apprehended. The next day we 
quit the road and traveled in the 
woods, taking the sun for our guide. 
The next night we proceeded in a 
quick pace, following the road 
through the night. The distance we 
had traveled gave us some hopes of 
escaping and we traveled through this 
day without leaving the road. We, 
however, kept a suspicious eye on all 
travelers we met; our fears of being 
taken somewhat subsiding, we found 
to our surprise we had appetites, not 
having eaten anything for the span of 
three days. We had no quarreling on 
the road, for money, the bane of soci- 
ety and source of all evil, was not in 
our possession, the officers being very 
cautious while on board not to corrupt 
our morals by leaving us the possibil- 
ity of becoming spendthrifts. Our 
only resort now was to beg, which we 
tried, but without success, the inhabi- 
tants agreeing with the external ap- 
pearance of the cottage, it being a 
wretched hovel, not fit for stabling 
cattle. Necessity knows no law; 
neither will hunger permit a man to 
slight the meanest hovel while there is 
a possibility of obtaining the least 
morsel of food to satiate an enraged 
stomach growling for its prey. We, 
however, made a shift to keep on our 
journey, but our steps were feeble and 
slow through the remainder of the 

In an old Southern Mansion 
before America was a Nation 

"Just at sunset we discovered a 
large and beautiful house standing 
upon a plantation. We quickened our 
pace and reaching the house a short 
time after sunset immediately knocked 
for admittance. When being told to 
walk in we obeyed and were shown 
into a room where a gentleman sat 
alone by the fire playing upon a violin 
for his own diversion. Immediately 
upon our entering the room the gen- 
tleman ordered us to be seated. When 
we had told our story (one which we 
had framed before) he ordered one of 
the servants to boil us a small kettle of 
rice and in the meantime began to 
question us. At length, laughing -it 
our fictitious stories, he gave us to un- 
derstand he was fully persuaded we 
were runaways, but, to silence our 
fears, told us he would not expose us. 
Having eaten very heartily of the 
boiled rice he ordered for our lodging 
a couple bundles of straw which were 
laid on the floor before the fire. We 
slept well and arose in good season to 
proceed on our way. 

"We traveled onward till near the 
middle of the afternoon when we came 
to a ferry where we were hindered for 
some time before we could get across, 
not having anything with which to re- 
ward the ferryman for his trouble. 
We, however, at length prevailed upon 
him to let his negro man set us across. 
After thanking him we proceeded on 
our journey. Sometime after sunset we 
were stopped by a narrow river which 
was very deep. We now perceived 
that we were on an island which was 
not inhabited. We cast our eyes 
around and, though it was night, we 
perceived a large magnificent house 
on the opposite side of the river. 
Upon this discovery we immediately 
hailed the ferryman as loud as we 
could holler, and being answered by n 
large negro it was not long before we 
were safe on the opposite side of the 

"As soon as we were across we 


thanked the negro and telling him we 
were entirely unable to reward him as 
he deserved, were about to proceed on 
when he gave us to understand we 
must go see massa. We obeyed 
accordingly and following the negro 
through a spacious hall we were at 
last introduced into an elegant room 
where sat a young man and three 
ladies. The eldest of the family 
appeared to be about sixty years of 
age and had become a widow but a 
short time since. There we were left 
standing for some time ; at length, 
after having surveyed us with appar- 
ent astonishment, he at last ordered us 
in a stern voice to be seated. After 
we had obeyed the young man and 
taken our seats we immediately began 
our lamentable story. He seemed to 
listen to it very attentively until we 
informed him that we were landed at 
Charlestown, when he interrupted us 
to inquire why we did not seek a pas- 
sage by water as there were always 
plenty of northern vessels in Charles- 
town. We told him the small-pox 
was very prevalent there when we 
arrived at that port, and, as we had 
neither of us had it, we preferred go- 
ing by land to Georgetown and taking 
a passage from there. 'You lie/ said 
he, 'you rascals ! You have deserted 
from a man-of-war and in the morn- 
ing I will take you back to Charles- 
town as I am authorized to return all 
deserters and receive five pounds ster- 
ling for every one I deliver.' We, 
however, (like old Job) held fast our 
integrity while he proceeded to exam- 
ine and cross-examine us at his lei- 

'When he had pursued this 
method for some time to no purpose 
he became very humorsome and asked 
us a variety of questions about the 
amusements of the Yankees and the 
different productions of the New 
England states, etc., etc., but in the 
meantime he took care, now and then, 
to advert suddenly to the old subject 
in hopes, no doubt, of making us con- 
tradict our former assertions. We 

were, however, too much on our guard 
to be ensnared by this artifice ; recol- 
lecting the old saying that 'a lie well 
stuck to is as good as the truth' we 
adhered to our story so firmly that he 
at last appeared to be convinced of our 
innocence. The aforementioned old 
lady, whom we took to be the mother 
of this young man, speaking to her 
son, said: T wonder you can be so 
much pleased in teasing those young 
men. I really believe they are honest 
lads and speak the truth.' Before this 
we observed she was setting an ele- 
gant table and concluded that the fam- 
ily had not drank tea before we 
arrived. Then judge of our surprise 
and astonishment when the old lady 
informed us that this elegant enter- 
tainment had been prepared solely for 
us and gave us a cordial invitation to 
help ourselves to whatever we liked 
best. We had been some time without 
food and should probably have in- 
jured our health had not the idea of 
being carried back and delivered up as 
deserters taken away our appetites. 

"As soon as we had supped the old 
lady commanded us to follow her ; we 
obeyed and being led through numer- 
ous apartments we at length arrived 
in a small bed-room which was ele- 
gantly furnished, when the old lady, 
pointing to a bed in a corner of the 
room and setting down the light, says : 
'My lads, you must sleep there,' telling 
us at the same time not to run away m 
the morning before she was up and 
bidding us 'Good evening,' left us to 
our repose. On the ensuing morning 
we arose early and the old lady, get- 
ting up soon after, loaded us with 
victuals, and, giving us some bitters, 
told us we now were at liberty to pro- 
ceed on our journey. As soon as we 
had left the house we observed the ne- 
gro, who had ferried us across the 
preceding evening, coming to meet us. 
Upon seeing him we told him his mas- 
ter had given us liberty to depart. 
'Very well, massa,' was his reply. 
We then proceeded to state our pov- 
erty to him, making that as an excuse 


for our not rewarding him for his ser- 
vices to us the evening before. While 
racking my brains how to reward him 
I bethought myself of a pair of flannel 
drawers which I had constantly worn 
for near three months. These I de- 
termined at length to make him a 
present of. This I did the more will- 
ingly for two special reasons ; the first 
was, the weather being so warm as to 
render them uncomfortable; the sec- 
ond reason being far the most 
weighty, as no doubt everyone will 
admit when they come to be informed 
that they contained living animals 
almost innumerable. The negro 
seemed to be highly pleased with his 
present and I of getting rid of so large 
a quantity of live stock, so that all 
parties being suited, we parted on 
good terms — he to his daily labor and 
we to our occupation of traveling and 

In the old Seaport Town of 
Newport, 145 Years Ago 

"We arrived at Georgetown just be- 
fore the sun left the earth for the 
lesser lights to rule. We walked 
round amongst the shipping for some 
time without being able to find any 
vessel which belonged to New York. 
We, however, at last agreed with a 
certain captain, belonging to a brig, 
for our lodging on board of his vessel. 
We continued in this situation, work- 
ing hard for the span of fifteen or six- 
teen days, and all the wages we re- 
ceived was our daily bread. We at 
length engaged a passage on board of 
two different vessels bound to Rhode 
Island. We, however, got separated 
soon after we left Georgetown by a 
gale of wind from the northeast, 
which continued to blow for the span 

I of twenty-four hours with unabated 
fury. After the storm subsided we 
proceeded on our way without any- 
thing remarkable taking place. I shall 
only observe that after fourteen days' 
passage we arrived safe in Rhode 
Island about thirty miles east from 
Newport, where I arrived just after 

sunset the same day. 

"After arriving at Newport I spent 
the evening in wandering about the 
town and among the shipping in hopes 
of finding some one of my acquaint- 
ance who would be humane enough 
to find me a lodging, I being wholly 
destitute of money, not even having 
anything I could barter for a lodging. 
At length, my strength and fortitude 
leaving me, I seated myself upon a log 
and wept over my cruel fate. I re- 
mained in this melancholy train of re- 
flection for some time till at length, 
arousing from this horrible train of 
ideas, I determined, if possible, to get 
liberty to sleep in some vessel's hold, 
that the deck might cover me from the 
dews, which were very large at this 
season of the year. I had not pro- 
ceeded far down the wharf with this 
intention, when lo ! to my astonished 
sight, I beheld Captain Thomson, 
an old acquaintance. He imme- 
diately invited me on board of his ves- 
sel which lay down at the end of the 
long wharf. When we arrived on 
board he gave orders for a supper to 
be got ready as soon as possible. After 
supper I was requested by all present 
to give them a relation of my adven- 

"According to their request I gave 
them a true account of the dangers 
and hardships I had gone through, 
which kept us up to a very late hour. 
We at length, however, retired to rest 
and arose the ensuing morning in high 
spirits, being refreshed by that all- 
powerful god, called by the ancients 
Morpheus, who befriends the misera- 
ble and revives the drooping spirits of 
the meanest slave. The vessel which 
I slept on board of, sailing the next 
morning, I found myself once more 
alone, without friends or acquaint- 
ance. I once more sat myself down 
without knowing what to do or which 
way to go. While I remained in this 
situation I once more cast a wistful 
look upon the harbor in hopes of see- 
ing some vessel enter it with some 
acquaintance on board who might 


contribute to my relief, or, to state my 
still stronger hopes, I was trying my 
utmost to find a vessel in which I 
might embark for New Haven or even 
New York. After looking some time 
I at length beheld a vessel beating up 
the harbor (the wind being ahead). 

"After looking some time at the 
vessel, I again falling into my old 
train of melancholy reflections, con- 
tinued to ponder over my unhappy 
fate until I was broken off by having 
my name called in an audible voice, 
when, standing up, I looked around 
me with amazement, wondering who 
the person could possibly be, as I had 
no acquaintance in Newport. After 
looking for some time without being 
able to learn from whence the voice 
proceeded I was again about to reseat 
myself and concluded it was nothing 
more than disturbed imagination when 
my ears were again saluted by hearing 
my name called a second time, more 
distinctly and much louder than I did 
the first time. I again looked around 
me, somewhat perplexed at my not be- 
ing able to find the person who had re- 
peated my name twice undiscovered. 
At length, however, I espied the per- 
son who had been hailing me standing 
upon the windlass of a vessel I have 
mentioned before that was beating up 
the harbor. 

"Upon observing the person more 
narrowly I recognized my old 
friend and fellow-sufferer, Murray 
(who came from Georgetown in 
another vessel and had been separated 
from us by a storm soon after we left 
that place.) As soon as the vessel 
reached the wharf we were in each 
other's arms and resolved not to sep- 
arate again, let what would take place, 
until we should arrive safe at home. 
N. B. This makes the old proverb 
good, 'Misery loves company.' I be- 
ing happy in the acquisition of my old 
friend, Murray, we remained together 
through the day. It growing towards 
night, we thought it advisable to look 
about us for a lodging ; walking down 
the wharf for this purpose, we saw a 

vessel just arrived, and going on 
board, inquired of the captain where 
she was bound, and being embarked 
on board and arrived safe in New 
Haven the next day before sunset. 
We immediately went on shore and 
proceeded as far as East Haven, when 
we took up our lodging with a distant 
relative of mine for that night. 

"The next morning we arose early, 
and not having anything to impede 
our progress, proceeded on our jour- 
ney with alacrity and arrived home at 
Guilford soon after the sun had passed 
the meridian, where, to the no small 
joy and surprise of our friends, we 
were received with exclamations of 
satisfaction and wonder almost ex- 
ceeding belief. We on our part were 
highly delighted with the idea of hav- 
ing arrived safe home after having 
been absent twelve months. 

On the Sloop •« Dove" bound 
for the far Mediterranean 

"In less than one month after my 
arrival, I again embarked on board of 
the sloop 'Dove/ Captain Meigs, 
bound to Italia. In about eight or 
ten days after our departure we ob- 
served a heavy rolling sea, which ap- 
peared very singular, as we had but 
very moderate weather for three or 
four days previous to our observing 
this strange tumult in the watery ele- 
ment. This weather continued until 
about one of the clock the next day, 
when a heavy gale of wind set in from 
the southward and westward. Every 
exertion to save the vessel proving 
useless, we gave ourselves up for lost. 
The vessel soon after upset. Captain 
Meigs being in the cabin at the time 
was with much difficulty saved from 
drowning. We, however, made a 
shift to hang on to the upper gunnel 
for the span of ten hours, which 
brought night, but gave us no encour- 
agement, as the storm continued to in- 
crease. The vessel being laden with 
live stock on deck and lumber in the 
hold, with some barrels of flour, kept 


her on the surface of the water, 
although filled. 

"Soon after she upset we ob- 
served the boat (to our great sat- 
isfaction) was lashed to the wind- 
ward gunnel, and of course was out of 
water. Upon my observing the lash- 
ing to be out of water, I made a shift 
to get to it, and cut the boat loose with 
a small knife I had saved in the gen- 
eral consternation. We all being 
without clothes, except trousers (our 
hats having been washed overboard 
some time before night) we had no 
knife excepting the one just men- 
tioned, this being too small for a sail- 
or's use, yet notwithstanding by care- 
ful management it proved a means in 
the hand of Providence of saving the 
whole crew from a watery grave. 
Soon after the boat was cut loose by 
this small knife, we made a shift to 
get her into the water the leeward side 
of the wreck. 

"After trying some time to free her 
from the water which was in her, 
without success, we, however, suc- 
ceeded at length in clearing the coat 
of water, and by giving her a large 
scope of rigging for a painter, we suc- 
ceeded in keeping her above water. 
We now began to consider what 
would be the best means possible for 
our preservation. After reflecting 
upon this subject a short time, we 
unanimously agreed (as we had no 
provision or anything to support na- 
ture, except about one gallon of rum 
which we found washed out of the 
cabin in a small keg) as soon as day- 
light appeared to risque ourselves in 
the long-boat, in hopes of falling in With 
some vessel. For the purpose of put- 
ting our plan in execution, we hauled 
alongside of the wreck, and found 
means of getting the topsail, which lay 
in the buckets. We next undertook 
to get into our possession the topsail- 
yard, which with much difficulty we at 
length effected. After much labor 
we succeeded in cutting the yard in 
two, and making a mast for the yawl ; 
the topsail with a slight alteration 

answered for a sail. All this was 
accomplished before daylight, a small 
penknife being the only tool we had to 
perform our night's job with. 

Wrecked on the Atlantic Ocean 
and Adrift in the Storm 

"When daylight appeared we cast 
off from the wreck and commending 
ourselves to the care of Providence, 
bore away before the wind. One man 
was stationed at the helm to steer with 
a broken arm, a second stood on his 
knees to bail, while the two others 
were forced to lie in the bottom of the 
boat for ballast ; and this was our con- 
stant situation while we remained in 
it. For the space of three days we 
were driven before the wind without 
any cessation from our labor of steer- 
ing and hauling as the storm appeared 
to increase. Neither sun, moon nor 
stars appeared, and exhausted nature 
almost sunk under the severe suffer- 
ings we were obliged to encounter. 
The fourth day the gale broke and the 
weather cleared up, the wind blowing 
as near as we could guess from the 
northwest. The sun continued to 
shine through the whole day, and at 
night set in a cloudless sky. Night 
coming on we observed a heavy black 
cloud arise out of the southwest; a 
storm of thunder ensued. As soon as 
the thunder and lightning ceased a 
violent gale of wind set in from the 
southwest. Every ray of hope seemed 
to vanish and we expected no other 
than that one hour, or even half an 
hour, longer to live, would be the 
utmost of our probationary time. 
When daylight appeared we discov- 
ered a large breaker some distance 
astern and concluded among ourselves 
that the moment of our dissolution 
was at hand, when we should be 
buried in a watery grave. When the 
breaker overtook us we were for a 
while buried beneath the surface of 
the water. The wave, however, left 
us in a much better situation than we 
could possibly have imagined. Upon 
our wiping the water from our eyes, 


we again beheld each other with emo- 
tions of joy and surprise. We imme- 
diately set ourselves to work clearing 
the boat of water, it being almost even 
full, (having had forethought suffi- 
cient to lash the bucket to the boat be- 
fore the wave overtook us). 

"We soon cleared the boat of water 
and again secured the bucket as be- 
fore. We had but just time to secure 
ourselves and bucket before a sec- 
ond wave, similar to the first, 
broke over us with great furry. 
We, however, continued to stick 
to the boat until this wave had 
subsided, when, quitting our holds, we 
again succeeded in freeing the boat 
from water; the wave ensuing, being 
the third, was more moderate, and we 
were again relieved from the fear of 
immediate destruction. We remained 
in this perilous situation until the next 
day, when the captain, worn down 
with fatigue and trouble, sank under 
hardships too great for human nature 
to bear. Nature appeared exhausted, 
and, unable to support himself longer 
in an upright position, he fell down 
into the bottom of the boat unable to 
help himself in the least. One man 
by the name of Hand (it seems but a 
tribute of justice to the memory of 
William Hand to remark that he, un- 
der God, was the means of our preser- 
vation. During the whole time of 
our continuance in the boat he was re- 
markable for calmness, judgment and 
perseverance, and after the captain 
was deprived both of strength and 
reason, Hand's courage and patience 
were not exhausted in the least), was 
the only person able to steer the boat. 

"About the middle of the day the 
sun made its appearance through the 
clouds, which, excepting one day, had 
been hidden from our sight by clouds 
and darkness ever since we were ship- 
wrecked. During the whole period 
we had never discovered a vessel and 
all hopes of life seemed to be taken 
away; but that ever gracious Being, 
who hears the cry of the raven and 
condescends to regard the minutest 

occurrences of life, saw all our afflic- 
tion and had determined to grant 
them relief. About three of the clock, 
as near as we could judge, we espied 
a lofty ship, but as she was plying to 
the windward and we were obliged 
to sail before the wind, the probabil- 
ity of our being discovered by the ship 
was so small that we in a measure 
gave up all hopes of being saved. Yet 
was the hand of Providence visible at 
this time, it being about four o'clock 
when we passed the ship. We had 
but just passed her, when the watch 
on board of her being called, the man 
who was going to take the helm, 
stepped forward to take an observa- 
tion of the weather, and looking 
around, observed our boat at a dis- 
tance, but could not ascertain what it 
was, as it instantly disappeared in the 
hollow of a sea. He stood till it arose 
to his sight the second time, when, be- 
ing convinced it was in reality a boat, 
he cried out to the officer of the 
watch: 'A boat! A boat!' 

Heroic Struggle Against the 
Elements — and a Rescue at Sea 

"The ship's courses were immedi- 
ately hauled up in compliance (as we 
afterwards learned) with the orders 
of the chief officer on deck. They 
soon gave her stern way, by throw- 
ing her topsail aback (the wind 
blowing too fresh to admit of 
their heaving about, and standing 
down for the purpose of catching 
us) and proceeded down for us; 
after coming within hail, an offi- 
cer on board of the ship called out to 
us to be of good courage, saying at 
the same time to his men on board: 
'Get a line ready, my boys, we will 
soon catch them.' When the ship 
came alongside of us, the first mate 
(to whose generous exertions we 
were at this time indebted) asked us 
if we could hold on to a rope. We 
replied that we thought ourselves too 
much exhausted by long abstinence 
and fatigue to perform any service 
that required much bodily strength. 


He then directed us to fasten it to the 
boat by taking two or three turns 
round the forethought after having 
passed it through the ringbolt. A 
rope was then thrown us, and, we 
obeying the mate's directions, were 
soon alongside of the ship. We were, 
however, so much exhausted that we 
found it impossible to gain the ship's 
deck without assistance. The mate 
seeing the condition we were in, com- 
manded some of his men to jump into 
the boat and assist us in getting on 

"When we found ourselves once 
more out of immediate danger our 
happiness was indescribable. The 
mate then desired us to make our- 
selves as comfortable as possible while 
he secured the boat (it being a very 
handsome yawl). Captain Meigs was 
too far gone to realize what had 
passed, and was laid gentle on the 
deck, while the mate was hoisting the 
boat on board. The captain of the 
ship now made his appearance on deck 
for the purpose (as it appeared) of 
inquiring how long we had been in 
the boat and whether we had lived 
without food for any length of time. 
Upon his being answered in the 
affirmative, he replied: 'And what 
would have become of you if it had 
not been for me?' We remarked for 
answer that we must soon have per- 
ished. The captain then turned and 
went below where he remained until 
the Sabbath ensuing. We were then 
taken to a fire and stripped of our re- 
maining clothes (which were shirts 
and trousers) as they had not been 
dry a single moment since our ship- 
wreck. Upon the mate's inquiring 
which we stood most in need of, vict- 
uals or drink, we informed him that 
our thirst was the most distressing. 
Accordingly he made us some weak 
sling, and after a short time he gave 
us a small quantity of boiled rice to- 
gether with a small piece of bread and 
cheese, which seemed more like 
aggravating when relieving our en- 
raged appetites. His precaution was 

undoubtedly the most safe method he 
could devise for those incapable of 
using judgment for themselves. After 
we had supped we were removed to 
another apartment and furnished with 
a comfortable field bed, and as we had 
been for a long time a stranger to 
'Nature's kind restorer, balmy sleep,' 
my companions soon fell into a sound 
sleep, which I found impossible to do, 
without first satisfying in some degree 
my enraged appetite. 

At the Mercy of a Strange 
Crew after Long Suffering 

"I had not remained long in this 
situation before several of the ship's 
crew came down for the purpose of 
getting a bite of cold- junk (as they 
termed it). Unfortunately for me, 
they supped in the same room where I 
lay. I lay all the time they were at 
supper entirely still, not making the 
least noise for fear of being noticed, 
wishing to keep them in entire igno- 
rance of my voracious appetite keep- 
ing me awake while my companions 
were asleep. After they had finished 
their repast, they, laying aside their 
victuals and drink, returned on deck. 
As soon as they were gone I crept off 
from my bed, and being too feeble to 
walk, I made the best of my way 
toward the place in which I saw the 
sailors deposit their victuals, on my 
hands and knees. Having arrived, I 
loaded my hands with meat and bread, 
and leaving- the locker, I crept to a 
large can filled with water, with a full 
determination to drink only three 
swallows ; but, alas ! how feeble are 
our resolutions when crazed by en- 
raged appetites ! I put it to my mouth 
and before my judgment could come 
to my assistance, I had almost emptied 
the can. I now undertook to crawl 
back to my bed. I had not proceeded 
half way before I was taken suddenly 
ill and remained where I was, being 
totally unable to proceed farther. I 
remained in this situation during the 
remainder of the night, being racked 


with the most excruciating pains that 
man ever suffered by imprudence. 
"Having no one to blame except 
myself, I determined, if I must die by 
my own hand, to leave the world in 
ignorance of the nature of my com- 
plaint. A little before day, oppressed 
nature seemed to exert itself to her 
utmost, and after having discharged 
the contents of my stomach, I felt 
myself so much relieved that I was 
enabled to regain my bed. In the 
morning the mate came down to 
see how we fared, and when he 
learnt what I had been about 
through the night, he exclaimed : 
'Thank God that you are still 
alive.' In consequence of the hu- 
mane attentions of our new friends, 
Captain Meigs and crew gradually re- 
gained their health. I remained ill 
much longer than any of my compan- 
ions on account of my imprudent con- 
duct. The Sabbath morning after we 
had been taken on board the ship, the 
boatswain, who had charge of Captain 
Warner's watch, had the politeness at 
eight of the clock to go down and in- 
form him of the time, that he might 
as usual give orders to call another 
watch. The captain replied that he 
would tell him whether it were eight 
o'clock or not. He then took a quad- 
rant and came up with a disturbed air, 
and after looking some time at the 
sun, said : Tt is not eight yet.' After 
this his manners continued to be very 
singular during the forenoon, and his 
motions were unusually precipitant. 

Sad Fate of Ship's Captain who 
Loses his Life in Delirium 

"At twelve o'clock the mate took his 
observation and went below to per- 
form his necessary labor of naviga- 
tion. In the meantime the captain 
was on deck, and after advancing to 
the side of the ship, took a handker- 
chief from his pocket and applied it to 
his eyes. He then (after taking '.t 
away from his eyes) looked around to 
see if anyone observed him, and, 
thinking himself unnoticed, actually 

proceeded to tie it over his face. The 
man at the helm had narrowly 
watched all his strange manoeuvres, 
and instantly cried out: 'The captain 
is going overboard!' The mate then 
ran from the cabin, seized hold of his 
clothes just as he was plunging over 
the side of the ship and pulled him in 
with such fury that they both fell 
backwards on deck. After strug- 
gling a few moments, he disengaged 
himself from the mate and ran up to 
the forecastle, and made a second 
attempt to leap overboard, being pre- 
vented by some of the sailors ; he 
seemed to be more calm; while the 
officers held a consultation for the 
purpose of determining what was best 
to be done with Captain Warner. As 
they considered it to be a hazardous 
thing to put their commander under 
close confinement, they chose rather 
to watch him on deck. They accord- 
ingly placed him aft, where he contin- 
ued walking the remainder of the day. 
He soon after became agitated and 
often prayed earnestly with an audible 
voice. At the close of his prayers he 
would exclaim with much emphasis: 
'Oh, if I must be buffeted, I must be !' 
Towards night his agony appeared to 
increase and he prayed with greater 
frequency and earnestness. In the 
evening a light being placed in the 
binnacle, as the captain walked past 
it, the light discovered to us large 
drops of sweat standing upon his 

"Not long after he imagined that he 
saw a fire-ship and directed the 
helmsman to change his course. The 
mate (by the name of Sewards) en- 
deavored to pacify him, and ordered 
the man at helm to steer, as he had 
done before. The captain insisted 
that it was a fire-ship and that it was 
making towards them very fast. He 
then ran to the helm and placing it 
hard up, ordered the yards to be 
quared immediately, apparently with a 
view to our preservation; yet after 
some time Mr. Sewards prevailed on 
him to let him take it, and in order, if 


possible, to divert him, called out: 
'Boys, get up the guns on deck; it is 
the devil that Captain Warner sees; 
silver will kill him. We will put all 
the money we have into the guns and 
shoot him.' But the captain's mind 
was too gloomy to be amused by this 
stratagem. Shortly after, he remarked 
that the ship was near at hand and 
took a speaking trumpet and hailed 
her. He then applied it to his ear as 
if to hear the reply. 

"After listening a while he again 
put the trumpet to his mouth and 
cried out: 'Oh! Do spare me a 
little longer!' After again wait- 
ing as if to know the result, he 
mournfully exclaimed: 'Oh! if I am 
to be buffeted, I must be!' He then 
observed that the boat was coming 
from the fire-ship, and said: 'Boys, 
man the sides.' Accordingly, two 
men descended to the side of the ship 
with their hats under their arms. 
This was only customary civility and 
performed to honor gentlemen when 
entering and returning from a ship. 
He then made the compliments which 
are usual when gentlemen of distinc- 
tion came on board, and said: 'Sir, 
will you please to walk below?' and 
immediately repaired below into the 
cabin, where he continued fifteen or 
twenty minutes. So novel and sur- 
prising was the same that not a loud 
word was spoken on deck during the 
whole time. 

"When Captain Warner again came 
on deck he seemed to compliment a 
departing stranger, and gave orders 
to man the sides. His orders were 
immediately obeyed and two men de- 
scended as before. He next made a 
short prayer, and afterwards took a 
gold watch from his pocket and 
offered it to the mate. 'Here,' said 
he, 'Mr. Sewards is my watch; keep 
it to remember me, for I have not long 
to stay without.' 'I don't know what 
you mean, Captain Warner/ rejoined 

Mr. S , 'by not having long to 

stay; I don't want your watch, for I 
have one of my own.' The captain 

then laid it on the binnacle, and Mr.. 
Sewards, thinking it unsafe to have 
him remain longer on deck, prevailed 
on him to go below. Having occa- 
sion shortly after to leave the cabin* 
he directed one of the people to re- 
main in it, and if anything happened 
to call for help. It was not long be- 
fore the man cried out, and when Mr. 
Sewards came to his assistance he 
found Captain Warner suspended out 
of the cabin window. They both suc- 
ceeded in drawing him in, and after 
shutting the windows, Mr. Sewards 
stationed three men before each win- 
dow to guard them. 

"After this Captain Warner con- 
tinued walking for a few minutes. 
All on a sudden (to the astonish- 
ment of the whole) he seemed 
actuated by supernatural springs, for 
turning upon his heel (as he was 
walking from the windows) he ap- 
peared to spring at least the distance 
of eighteen or twenty feet, passing out 
of the window head first, and carrying 
it together with the frame and case- 
ment along with him. Mr. Sewards 
then hastened on deck, and, bursting 
into tears, gave orders to have the 
ship immediately put in stays. He 
then repaired aft and called out : 'Cap- 
tain Warner ! Captain Warner !' with 
a loud voice, but received no answer. 
After they had made two unsuccess- 
ful attempts to heave the vessel in 
stays, he (the mate) ordered to have 
the boat immediately cleared. 

At Leeward Islands after 
Several Tragedies at Sea 

"After the men had obeyed their 
officer's commands in clearing the 
boat, they inquired if it were best to 
throw the boat over, as nothing was to 
be seen or heard of the captain. Mr. 
Sewards made answer that he thought 
it would be entirely useless to throw 
the boat over, adding that the captain 
went off very strangely without leav- 
ing any wake on the surface of the 
water, which was discernible to any 
man aboard, or even without leaving 


them any room to conjecture what 
had become of him. The former 
mate (now master) of the ship then 
gave orders to have the light sails all 
taken in and the others closely reefed, 
and continued them in a similar situa- 
tion, (notwithstanding the lightness 
of the breeze) until the next day, 
when his men enquired the reason of 
his shortening sail, as the captain was 
irrecoverably lost. He replied that 
the ship and cargo were Captain 
Warner's and that if the devil had 
such power over him, he knew not 
how much he might have over his 
property. Mr. Sewards continued to 
prosecute his voyage, and thirty-seven 
days after arrived at Antigua. Just 
at evening we approached the mouth 
of Param Harbour, where we an- 
chored during the night. 

''In the morning we were much sur- 
prised to find that Mr. Boling, our 
then chief mate, did not as usual make 
his appearance. After waiting im- 
patiently for some time Captain Sew- 
ards sent to his stateroom and ex- 
pected to be informed that he was 
within sick or dead, but upon investi- 
gation it was found that neither he 
nor anything belonging to him was on 
board. We afterwards learned that 
the night preceding his elopement he 
had privately hailed a boat of negroes 
and prevailed on them to convey him 
to one of His Majesty's ships-of-war, 
choosing rather to be anywhere than 
in that melancholy place (as he 
termed it.) After sailing up the Har- 
bour Captain Sewards landed us in 
the same destitute circumstance of 
money and clothes as we were when 
taken on board the ship. A number 
of gentlemen soon collected on shore 
and inquired of Captain Sewards 
where he was from. 'Portsmouth, 
N. H.,' was his reply. They then 
asked him what news he brought. He 
answered that it was very bad, and 
proceeded to inform them of our hav- 
ing been taken up by him when almost 
famished for the want of food and 
rest. Pie then proceeded to inform 

them of the awful event which had de- 
prived him of his captain. 

"As soon as Mr. Sewards had 
finished his narrative these humane 
gentlemen gave us an invitation 
to walk uo with them to a Public 
House, which stood near by, and 
after feeding and clothing us, had 
a subscription made up for the 
purpose of alleviating our pecuniary 
wants for the present. We had been 
in port but a few days when to our 
great joy we learned that Captain Vail 
(one of our former acquaintances) 
was just arrived at the port of St. 
Johns in the same Island. All of 
us (except Capt. Meigs) repaired 
thither immediately, where we met 
with a kind reception from our old 
friend, Captain Vail. About eight or 
ten days after we arrived, Captain 
Meigs made his appearance laden 
with presents which he had received 
from his truly noble and disinterested 
patron in Param. 

The Sea-farer's Home-coming 
Back in old New England 

"Soon after I embarked on board a 
vessel bound for New London in 
North America, which was short of 
hands, and after a passage of four- 
teen days (having been about three 
months) arrived safe in New London, 
and from thence proceeded home by 
land; found my friends well at Guil- 
ford and pleased at my return. They 
were, however, much surprised at my 
coming home alone, and still more 
were they surprised by hearing the re- 
cital of my voyage. Captain Meigs 
and one of my brothers in tribulation 
had the happiness of reaching home 
the same evening on which I arrived. 
Next day, being Sabbath, Captain 
Meigs, myself and the sailor who 
accompanied the Captain home, at- 
tended Divine Service and jointly 
offered up a tribute of Gratitude and 
Praise to our Almighty Preserver and 
Benefactor, who had saved us amidst 
the furious Seas ! In the interval be- 
tween the meetings Wm. Hand 


arrived. He attended public worship 
in the afternoon and returned public 
and hearty thanks to Him, whom the 
winds and seas obey, for his safe re- 
turn to his family and friends. 

"After a sufficient length of time 
had elapsed since my arrival I 
inquired of every person which I 
thought likely to be able to give 
me any information about Captain 
Seward, but without any success, 
until near three years afterwards, 
when I saw the former boatswain 
of the ship and learned from him 
that after we left the ship the 
hands became frightened and would 
continue in her no longer; that Cap- 
tain Seward offered to advance him 
to the office of Chief Mate if he would 
remain with him, but that he (the 
boatswain) was unable to reconcile 
his mind to the idea of staying, and 
consequently obtained a dismission; 
that the Captain shipped another crew, 
but they also became timid and de- 
serted the ship. 

"After Captain S had dis- 
charged his cargo he took a freight 
of sugar for London, but was 
forced to hire laborers by the day to 
load the vessel. He was then obliged 
to contract with a ship's crew only for 
the run, and when he reached London 
was again left alone. And being very 
much discouraged he sold the ship 
and cargo to free himself from any 
further embarrassment, and had never 
(to his knowledge) made any returns 
of the voyage previous to that period. 
But to return to my narrative. 

A Voyage on the Brig *« Delight " 
to Barbadoes in 1763 

"Near the close of the year 1763 I 
again embarked on board a brig, 
called the 'Delight,' bound to Barba- 
does. The repeated losses which I 
had sustained sat heavy on my mind 
and I resolved once more to attempt 
repairing them. I shall omit men- 
tioning particulars for fear of tres- 
passing upon the patience of my 
reader, and only observe that after a 

quick and pleasant passage we arrived 
at our destined port in high spirits and 
good health. Soon after our arrival 
at Barbadoes we landed our cargo, 
and leaving the captain to dispose of 
the property (the Mate taking charge 
of the Brig) proceeded to Salt 
Tudas (?) for the purpose of procur- 
ing a load of salt. When we arrived 
at that place we found ourselves un- 
der the necessity of transporting the 
salt the distance of one mile by land 
over a rough and almost barren coun- 
try. This so much impeded our 
progress that fourteen days elapsed 
before we had finished loading the 
Brig. During this time a great part 
of our provisions being exhausted, 
and the Island without inhabitants, we 
could obtain no provisions to recruit 
our almost exhausted stores without 
endangering our lives and property, 
as Great Britain and Spain were at 
open hostilities and we on a Spanish 
coast surrounded by enemies; we 
were obliged to proceed on. Not- 
withstanding our scanty allowance, 
ten days after we left the Island, our 
small store of provision being divided 
we found to our sorrow that twenty 
biscuits and four pounds of meat per 
man was all we had to depend upon 
during the remainder of our voyage, 
which proved very long. 

"Thirty days elapsed before we 
were able to obtain a fresh supply. 
In the meantime, after our provisions 
were exhausted, we betook ourselves 
to a new occupation, even that of 
catching rats, which was all we had 
to subsist on for the space of five days. 
Even these animals were so embold- 
ened by hunger that they frequently 
sallied forth from the scaling of the 
vessel and attacked us when asleep. 
Several of our people were badly bit- 
ten by them, losing large pieces of 
flesh from our hands and feet. Dur- 
ing the passage we had never spoken 
a vessel, and as we had often experi- 
enced contrary winds, hope the only 
friend of the unfortunate, had almost 
taken his flight from on board our 


famished ship. Just as the time that 
we made the N. American Coast we 
fell in with a vessel bound to the West 
Indies, of whom we obtained some 
fresh supplies of provision, which so 
much enlivened the ship's crew that 
joy was perspicuous in every counte- 
nance, and every eye sparkled with 
hope of soon again beholding their 
beloved friends. Soon after we part- 
ed with the vessel that supplied us ; a 
favorable breeze sprang up, and in the 
space of four days we arrived in Guil- 
ford, found our friends all in good 
health and pleased at our safe return, 
after an absence of five months and 
ten days. 

Bound for the Island of 
Jamaica, West Indies, in 1764 

"In June 1764, I again shipped on 
board the same Brig and set sail for 
Jamaica. Fortune at length, seeming 
tired of opposing one who had so long 
been her sport, made some amends by 
giving us fair winds and a quick mar- 
ket. Soon after we arrived in port 
one of the mates sickened and died. 
We soon accomplished our business 
in port and set out on our return 
home. Not long after we left Jamaica 
we were overtaken by a terrible hurri- 
cane, which carried our mast by the 
board, and left us a complete wreck, 
for the winds and seas to toss us 
wherever Providence saw fit. Through 
the protecting hand of Heaven our 
lives were preserved, but at the close 
of the hurricane our vessel presented 

us with a dreary prospect, not having 
a strand of rigging on deck except the 
main ropes. We, however, by un- 
wearied exertions, erected jury masts, 
which in seventeen days (the weather 
being good) brought us to our de- 
sired haven, viz. : Guilford. 

"After remaining with my friends a 
short time I again made a voyage to 
Jamaica. It proved to be fortunate, 
and no unusual event occurred during 
my absence from Guilford. Subse- 
quent to my return I continued at 
Guilford several months, and was 
busily employed in repairing a small 
house, which I had just purchased. 
Not long after I engaged another trip 
for the West Indies, but was pre- 
vented by a fall from my house, which 
at first I looked upon as a severe mis- 
fortune, but Providence meant it for 
my good. The vessel in which I had 
designed to sail was (owing to con- 
trary winds) sixty days on her home- 
ward bound passage without being 
able to reach the American coast dur- 
ing which time the person who sailed 
in my room was lost overboard, and 
they were finally obliged to return to 
the West Indies before they could ter- 
minate the voyage." 

The journal of Captain Hoyt now 
enters upon a narration of his experi- 
ences in the years just before and 
during the American Revolution. 
His thrilling story of adventures in 
these "knighthood days in America" 
will be recorded in another chapter. 

"All are architects of Fate, 

Working in these walls of Time ! 

Some with massive deeds and great, 
Some with ornaments of rhyme. 

"Nothing useless is and low; 

Each thing in its place is best; 
And what seems but idle show 

Strengthens and supports the rest. 

"For the structure that we raise, 
Time is with materials filled; 
Our to-days and yesterdays 
Are the blocks) with which we build." 




(An Old Tavern Song) 

Our life is nothing but a winter's day, 
Some only break their fast and so away ; 
Others stay dinner and depart full fed; 
The deepest age but sups and goes to bed. 
He's most in debt who lingers out the day, 
Who dies betimes, has less and less to pay. 

Th5 article herewith continues Historic Greenwich, which was so ably introduced by Mr. Elisha Jay 
Edwards, formerly editor of the New York Evening Sun, in the preceding issue. Several phases of ancient 
Greenwich will be presented by several writers, concluding with Mr. Edwards, "Modern Greenwich." 



IT is not long since the great net- 
work of thoroughfares that 
cross and counter-cross the 
Western Continent, and over 
which some eighty million people 
now pass, were but rough trails 
through dense forest wilderness. , 

Then as the axe blazed broader 
paths and the trails widened, the turn- 
pike and the post-road stretched 
through the woodland and fields, 
winding its course over hills and 
down the slopes into the valleys, join- 
ing the neighboring villages. 

Not long ago a single highway was 
the sole artery between New York 
and Boston, taking and bearing on- 
ward all the life and traffic which 
flowed into it from the smaller arte- 
ries leading from the less populous 
villages and settlements. So impor- 
tant a part did this road have in the 

early life of the nation that there is 
hardly a momentous event in her his- 
tory which it does not recall. 

Along it rode His Majesty's gov- 
ernor of New England, Sir Edmund 
Andros, as he journeyed to take his 
seat at Boston. In 1775 spurred over 
it the messenger who bore the news 
of Lexington, and through its dust 
resolutely trudged the trained bands 
that in answer to his summons hur- 
ried to the relief of Boston. Later it 
was traveled by Washington and 
Lafayette and other great men who 
received, from the country people 
dwelling on it, ovations amounting 
almost to worship. 

In those days, instead of the stri- 
dent voice of the automobile, echoed 
from hill and vale the soaring notes 
of the post horn. It brought the 
good folk of the towns along the way 



hurrying to their windows and doors 
to see the coach roll in with its cargo 
of mail and passengers from the out- 
side world. 

Among the Colonial and Revolu- 
tionary hostelries which were scat- 
tered along the Post Road between 
New York and Boston, none is more 
intimately linked with the life of early 
days than the old Israel Knapp Inn, 
in Greenwich, Connecticut, which 
was the headquarters of General 
Israel Putnam for a time in 1779, and 
where he was surprised by the Brit- 
ish on the day of his daring ride down 
the stone steps, the tale of which is so 
dear to every American school-boy. 

The house must have been built 
about two hundred years ago. The 
land on which it stands was bought 
in 1692 by one Timothy Knapp, and 
there is in the Greenwich Land Rec- 

ords a deed of a gift of a half of the 
house and land to his son, Israel 
Knapp, in 1729. The erection was 
of course between these two dates. 
From earliest times it was used as an 
inn, and its hospitable roof has cov- 
ered many a famous man who jour- 
neyed on horseback or in stage coach 
between Boston and New York. 

In 1766 the town records show that 
a meeting of freeholders was held at 
the house of "Israel Knapp, Inn- 
holder." In this house were held 
meetings of one of the first Masonic 
lodges in America, and in recent 
years while repairs were being made, 
certain of the regalia was found and 
is now in the possession of Acacia 
Masonic Lodge of Greenwich. 

The really interesting period in the 
history of the place begins with the 
American Revolution. During most 



of the war Greenwich was debatable 
ground. Much of the time there 
were American troops stationed in 
the town, but there were frequent 
raids by the British soldiers and by 
the hands of guerillas, known as 
"cow boys," while a large proportion 
of the inhabitants were loyal to the 

Among the most inveterate Tories 
was the inn-keeper, Israel Knapp, and 
it is said that his tavern was for a 
long time a secret meeting-place for 
those who sought to defeat the pa- 
triot cause. It is certain that he was 
held in ill-repute by all good patriots, 
and his name was on the dangerous 
list held bv the local "committee of 

Connected with the cottage is a 
most romantic, though dismal tale. 
The old inn-keeper's favorite son, 

Timothy Knapp, though as ardent a 
Tory as his father, was in love with 
the beautiful daughter of the patriot, 
Jonathan Mead, who lived nearby. 
Tradition says that the girl recipro- 
cated his affection, but she was im- 
bued with a spirit of loyalty to the 
cause of the Revolutionists that made 
her indignantly refuse when Timothy 
sought her hand in marriage. The 
youth, as might be expected, was 
deeply hurt. 

He called to her reproachfully and 
angrily as he left the house that even- 
ing : "You shall speak to me one day, 
but I shall never answer you !" 

He little knew how true were his 
words. One evening shortly after- 
ward when he was approaching the 
house, perhaps to make another at- 
tempt to win the maid, her father, 
mistaking him for a "cow boy" 


marauder, shot him through the 
heart. The girl, recognizing him, 
threw herself upon his lifeless body 
and implored him to speak, but he 
was dead and unable to answer to the 
caresses that were showered upon 
him. The body lies buried on the 
grounds of the ancient inn. 

On the 26th of February, 1779, 
General Israel Putnam was staying 
in the house when surprised by a 
large party of British and Tories un- 
der General Tryon. The story re- 
lates that the general, old gallant that 
he was, that night escorted a pretty 
maiden, Mistress Bush of Cos Cob, 
to a dance in a part of the town 
known as Pecksland, and did not re- 
turn until the wee small hours of the 
morning. It is only reasonable to 
assume that he did not rise early once 
he had retired. Tradition also 

affirms that he was shaving in the 
morning when an American officer, 
one Titus Watson, rode in and in- 
formed him of the approach of Gene- 
ral Tryon with a large force of Brit- 
ish and Tories along the Post Road 
from New York. He hastened to 
the Congregational meeting-house, 
which was but a few rods west of the 
Knapp tavern, and drew up his little 
body of Continentals. Resistance 
by such a small force was futile, and 
after the first volley Putnam ordered 
his men to seek safety wherever they 
might find it, and himself started on 
a gallop toward Stamford for rein- 

A quarter of a mile east of the 
Congregational Church is a precipi- 
tous and rocky hill, now known as 
"Put's Hill." In it were cut steps, 
twentv-four, it is said, in number, 



An American Antiquarian and Philanthropist Who Recently Saved the Ancient Knapp Tavern 

from Demolition and Inaugurated the Movement Which Prhshrved 

It as an American Landmark 



whereby on Sundays the members of 
Christ Church, the Episcopal Church 
at the top of the hill, ascended. The 
British were confident that they had 
captured the American general when 
they saw him spurring his horse 
toward the steps. Not so, however. 
With reckless daring he galloped his 
horse down the stone steps, turning in 
the saddle as he went, shaking his fist 
and calling out, defiantly : "God cuss 
ye, I'll hang ye to the next tree when 
I get ye." 

The astounded dragoons reined up 
at the head of the steps, catching a 
glimpse of the "flying horseman," 
looked at one another in bewilder- 
ment. Putnam returned that day 
with reinforcements in time to cap- 
ture a considerable number of them 
as prisoners. 

One of the eye-witnesses of the 
daring ride was Rose Fitch, an old 
slave woman belonging to Jabez 
Fitch, who lived on the brow of the 
hill. She died in Port Chester about 
sixty years ago at a very advanced 
age. Mr. Thomas T. Tompkins, of 
Port Chester, who is now about 
eighty years old, tells the story which 
the old slave woman related to him 
when he was a boy. 

"T was standing at the gate on the 
morning when the British raided the 
town,' she often told me," said Mr. 
Tompkins to the writer. "T had 
heard the firing near the Congrega- 
tional Church, and like everyone else 
in town, had rushed out to see what 
was the matter. As I looked down 
the road I saw a man riding up the 
road at a break-neck pace. Hardly a 
hundred yards behind him rode a 
dozen or more men in scarlet uni- 

"'Across the brow of the hill ran a 
stone wall in which there was an 
opening at the point where the path- 
way reached the summit. Leaving 
the main road the first horseman 
dashed straight through and down 
the pathway which was very steep 
and in which a number of steps were 

cut. The men who followed reined 
up at the stone wall and were silent 
for a moment as if astonished. Then 
they fell to arguing with one another, 
and later rode away. I did not know 
at the time who the daring rider was, 
but was told later that the man was 
General Putnam and that his pursuers 
were British soldiers.'" 

"At _ that time," explains Mr. 
Tompkins, "no roadway had been cut 
through the rocks, as at present, but 
stretched over the hill to the south of 
the present one. The pathway men- 
tioned was a short cut for pedestrians, 
and as it descended precipitously, 
steps had been cut in the earth and 
long stones laid to keep the earth in 
place. It was down these that Put- 
nam took his flight." 

Since the Revolution the old 
Knapp tavern has been the property 
of various owners. It was held until 
about 181 2 by Margaret Knapp, 
daughter of the old tavern-keeper. 
In 1814 it was purchased by a Dr. 
Tracey, who came to Greenwich from 
New York, and it remained in the 
Tracey family for more than fifty 
years. In 1901 the late Colonel 
Henry Herschel Adams, a wealthy 
iron merchant, whose wife, Helen 
Reddington Adams, a descendant of 
John Reddington, one of the soldiers 
who served at Greenwich during the 
Revolution, is regent of the Putnam 
Hill Chapter, Daughters of the 
American Revolution, bought the cot- 
tage and induced several wealthy men 
who make their home in the town 
to join him in presenting it to the 
Daughters. Shortly afterward a 
"kirmess" was held, principally 
through the efforts of Colonel and 
Mrs. Adams and Miss Jennie Kent, 
and a fund of between three and four 
thousand dollars was raised to pre- 
serve it an American historic shrine. 

It was mainly through Colonel 
Adams' endeavors that the public 
dedication of the cottage on June 14, 
1906, was brought about. He spent 
most of the painful illness that pre- 


ceded his death, which took place on 
May 6th of this year, in dictating let- 
ters of invitation to his many promi- 
nent acquaintances all over the coun- 
try and in otherwise arranging for 
the coining event. He hoped to live 
to see the dedication, but expressed 
the wish that in case of his death the 
affair would go on as nearly as possi- 
ble as if he were present to take part. 
The dedication was probably the 
most elaborate gala day ever held in 
Greenwich. One of the features of 
the day was a military parade in 
which the Putnam Phalanx of Hart- 
ford, the Governor's Foot Guard of 
New Haven, Company L, Third In- 
fantry, Connecticut National Guard, 
of Greenwich, members of New York 
Chapters Sons of the American Revo- 
lution, and the Minute Men and other 
organizations took part. 

Among the speakers present were : 
General Stewart S. Woodford, Gov- 
ernor Roberts, Rear Admiral J. C. 
Coghlan, and Darius Cobb of Boston, 
the eminent historical artist. The 
parade was in charge of Colonel Rob- 
ert B. Baker, well-known in New 
York and Philadelphia military and 
social circles. 

A short time before his death, 
Colonel Adams commissioned Artist 
Cobb to paint a portrait of General 
Israel Putnam, which he loaned per- 
petually to the cottage. Mr. Cobb 
had spent the year previous to begin- 
ning the painting in studying the 
Connecticut general's life, and all the 
enthusiasm and admiration of the art- 
ist is apparent in the work. 

Like all the pictures of Putnam, it 
is taken from Trumbull's sketch, but 
it is entirely different from any of the 




The Eminent Historical Painter 
For Colonel Henry Herschel Adams 



Know all men by these presents that I Timothy Knap of Greenwich in the County 
of fairfield & Colony of Connecticut for ye love good will & fatherly afection which I 
have and do bear to my loving & dutiful son Israel Knap of the same place County and 
Colony aforesd do fully freely & absolutely give & grant unto my aforesd son Israel 
Knap his heirs excrs or admrs for ever soietin pearsal or pearsals of land within ye 
bounds of greenwich the half of my now Dwelling hous and the one half of my home lot 
& ye one half of a barn when it is bilt and finished & the one half of my orchard & the 
land on south side of the street that is bounded north by the street & east by the land 
of Ebeneezer Mead & south by the land of Sam'l Mills & west by ye meads land for him 
ye sd Israel Knap his heirs asigns for to have & to hold ye above bargained premises 
with all Rights privalidgs and apurtanances to ye same belonging or in any wis apurtain- 
ing & do promis to warrant secure & defend the abovebargained premises from all former 
bargains seals rents taxes or in cumbrances what so ever made or contracted before the 
Daye & Date hereof always provided that the sd Israel Knap is not to sell nor let out sd 
premises to any man or persons who so ever during the life of his father & for the con- 
firmation of this above written Deed of gift I have hereunto sett my hand & seal this 
twenty first Day of March anno qui Domini 1729 

Signed sealed & delivered The tenth day of Aprill anno domini 1729 

In the presents of then appeared the person of Timothy 

Caleb Knap Jue. Knap & did acknowlidg the above written 

John Marshall deed of gift to be his free and voluntary 

Entered April ye 19th Day act & deed. 

1729 by Joshua Knap Recorder Gershom Lockwood Justice of ye peace 

others in expression. There is a cer- 
tain dash and gallantry in it which 
is lacking in the other pictures and 
which at once recalls the incident of 
the wolf hunt and the dash down the 
stone steps. It also makes the story 
of his escorting the young lady to the 
dance on the night before the attack 
seem very plausible. 

To-day the old Knapp tavern is not 
only an American landmark but un- 
der the hospitality of Miss M. E. Tal- 
cott and her sister, Mrs. M. A. 
Sharkey, is a genteel Colonial tea- 
room. The hostesses are members of 
an old Connecticut family, and their 
great-grandfather, Nehemiah Risley, 
of Hartford, like Mrs. Adams' ances- 
tor, was quartered in Greenwich dur- 
ing the Revolution ; indeed, in all 
probability he often visited the old 

The furniture is of the Colonial and 
Revolutionary periods, most of it 
bearing historical significance. In 
some cases it has been necessary to 
use reproductions of particularly in- 
teresting historical pieces. Among 

property of Colonel Barrett, who 
led the American troops at Concord. 
Putnam was at one time a guest of 
Colonel Barrett, and wrote a letter to 
Washington at the desk. Among the 
reproductions are those of the table 
upon which was signed the Declara- 
tion of Independence and that of a 
"highboy" which belonged in the Tal- 
cott family, and is the most perfect 
specimen of that article of furniture 
in existence, and the Washington 
chairs now at Mount Vernon. The 
work in all of these is remarkable, so 
that it would be almost impossible to 
distinguish them from the originals. 

To wayside farers who are still 
passing along the route of the old 
Post Road, the ancient Knapp tavern 
still extends its hospitality. 

To-day the house is open to pil- 
grims and offers its traditional rest 
and refreshment to the weary traveler 
as it did in days of yore when Israel 
Knapp, the indomitable Tory, stood 
before the glowing fireplace on cold 
winter nights and argued against the 

the old pieces is a desk which was the American Revolution. 


Pax Uobi$cum*«Peace Be Klitb Vou 

By Dr. Eouis Smirnow 

MY mind is gone — a lonely wanderer 
Like in the dark of Night a single star, 
Pale, trembling, undulating, groping, lost, 
Congealed, dismayed and stricken in the frost 
Of blasting Winter, endless as the Dark 
On which my soul was driven to embark. 
Shoreless the sea of Night and endless seem 
The clouded skies where not a single beam 
Of light appears, but all is Emptiness, 
Void, vain, uncertain, waving, bottomless! 
I hail some kindred spirits — none appear; 
I call aloud— the echoes only hear: 
And, back recoiling on the trembling air, 
Reverberate my murmur of despair! 
As when a star, that twinkles all alone 
In those unfriendly depths, is tossed and blown 
From place to place, but nowhere findeth rest, 
So doth my soul go roving, all-distressed, 
In far ethereal regions where no light 
Nor hope nor joy nor life dispels the night. 
No human sign appears; yet hark! meseems 
I hear faint voices, as in peaceful dreams 
Bright angels chant and charm the sleeping mind; 
Soft comes the sound, as if a minstrel, blind 
And erring, wander'd 'mong the stars and tried 
With his frail lyre to woo an hesperid bride. 
Softly the murmur runs of female song, 
In mingled siren voices; if among 
The evil spirits they or angels fair, 
Nought is to tell me, none can now declare. 
Who knows its purport; who is there to tell? 
Calls it to heaven ; summons it to hell? 
Alas! blind man in darkness gropes, live men 
In sin, dead men in pain— what boots it then? 
The infants stumble and the adults fall, 
The struggling grapple and the erring call; 
They call on God, when lo! beside them stands 
Bright Lucifer with blood-becrimsoned hands; 
Hands that through dreadful deeds have done their worst 
To make the cursed one three times accurs'd. 
At the right hand of man he stands, commands. 
Impels, forswears and swells his rebel bands. 
So man himself can ne'er salvation find, 
Since he is a blind follower of the blind. 
But when the world by fire shall be destroyed, 
And all shall be a charnel vast and void, 
Charred, black, burned, in ashes hidden all, 
Yet one — but one — thing, man's immortal fall, 
Will still survive and with its quenchless shame 
Will grieve poor earth more than the blasting flame. 
Such were the thoughts the women's song inspired, 
As a heap of nitre by a spark is fired. 
Nathless it seemed to me I likewise heard, 
In deeper tones, the magic of a word, 
Like from the Delphic oracle in Greece, 
The assuring "Pax vobiscum," "peace, peace, peace!" 




Accurate Transcript 



MY body to be buried in the churchyard of All Saints in Writtle. I bequeath 
for my tythes and oblations negligently forgotten a cow or else twenty 
shillings in money, at the election of Mr. Vicar. Towards the reparations 
of the church twenty shillings. I will that twenty shirts and twenty smocks 
and forty bushels of wheat be given and divided amongst the poor folk in 
Writtle and Roxwell, and that same to be don by the discretion of the church war- 
dens and two or three honest men of the parish. Elizabeth my wife to have all that 
my house and garden called the Swan, with the "Orteyarde" called Safforn garden 
thereto belonging, and Calpat field and the "mede, orteyard" and garden, the barn 
and the barn yard now in the tenure of William Jervyes, for term of her life nat- 
ural. After her decease I will the same to remain to George Pynchyn my son. 
And if the said George die without issue then I will that all the premises remain 
to John Pynchyn mine eldest son and his heirs forever. To the said Elizabeth my 
wife two of my best beds, with all things belonging to them, the bed in the wardens 
chamber, with the appurtenances thereunto belonging, except and reserved. To the 
said Elizabeth forty pounds in money, to be paid her by six pounds thirteen 
shillings four pence yearly until it be paid. To the said Elizabeth "tenne fearme 
able kyne and fortye Ewyes" of two or three years age, a dozen of silver spoons 
next the best, the best salt saving one, a goblet, a little silver pot, a dozen of pewter 
platters, a dozen of pewter dishes, eight saucers, six pottingers, six "coysshons," 
that is to say, two of the best, two of the second and two of the "redde," a carpet, 
the best saving one, the bed-steddles, the counter and the "cheestes that had been 
nowe at the Swanne," painted clothes for hanging, the best that she can choose, 
saving them that be in the wardens chambers, a cupboard, the best saving one, two 
brass pots, two brass pans, two kettles and two postnets, and of everything else 
touching household and not before named such part as may be spared, the house 
for my son first being furnished of that it shall need. Provided always that if my 
said wife will not be contented and agreed to take in the name of her third the 
house and lands above expressed which I have given her for term of her life 
together with nine pounds of money to be paid yearly during her said life, that is to 
say, out of the lands I have given Edward my son five pounds by the year and out of 
the lands that I have given George my son forty shillings by the year and out of the 
lands that I have given Henry my son other forty shillings by the year, but refus- 
ing the same, which I trust she will not do, will ask, demand and claim the third 
of my lands contrary unto my meaning and contrary unto her promise made unto 
me in that behalf, to the trouble, vexation and hindrance as well of my children to 
whom I have given my lands as also of other to whom I have sold some lands, then 
I will that all and every gift, bequest or legacy before mentioned be clearly void and 
stand as nought. And if she be contented &c. then she shall stand bound to dis- 
charge my lands of the said third by all such ways and means as shall be devised 
by mine executor or his learned counsel before the legacies before written be deliv- 
ered unto her. 



Whereas I do intend to give, as beneath doth appear, an house to Richard 
Allyn, my wife's brother, another house to Edmund Church's wife, another house 
to Grove's wife, my said wife's sisters, if my said wife do claim, ask or challenge the 
third of my lands, contrary to my meaning and to her promise, then I will that all 
such gifts to her said brother and sisters, of houses as abovesaid, shall likewise be 
void, frustrate and nought. To Edward Pynchyn my son my house, with orchard, 
garden and dovehouse called Skygg's and Turner's, with Skygg's field, Bridgemead 
and Cheremead at the end of Bridgemead, windmill field, Clement's field next unto 
the windmill, the little "brome" and all the little crofts in Widford parish, by the 
little "brome and by yonde" the same that divideth the parishes of Writtle and 
Widford, with all the crofts lying together towards "Byffortye amedynge by yonde" 
Skygg's gate on the right hand as we go to the water mill on this sideAdam 
Salmon's "pyghtell," and a "pyghtell" that I bought of Ramsall lying right over 
against Skygg's wall, upon this condition, that he shall pay his mother yearly five 
pounds out of the same lands during her life. If he die without issue all these lands 
•&c. shall remain to John Pynchyn, my eldest son, and his heirs forever. To George, 
mv son, my tenement called Hasylls, with the lands lying and adjoining to the same, 
"that ys to say Bochors" Croofte ffoosters Croofte norryes mede, otherwyse callid 
Swanne mede and a Croofte and a mede late belonging to an Obite and bought of 
Mr. Celye as they lye all togyther in lenngith bytwene the Ryver that rynneth from 
Wryttell bridge towardes lordes myll and the same that leadeth from Wryttell to 
Loweford bridge, one headde abuttynge upon the same tenemets callid Hasylls and 
thother hedde abuttynge upon mede of Penny fathers nowe in the tenure of Mr. 
Bygges, and Loweford Leaf and Bryckes Brydge meade with all the reentes com- 
_ynge into the said Hasylls," upon similar condition to pay out of these lands forty 
shillings a year to his mother &c. If he die without issue all the said lands to 
remain to John mine eldest son. To Henry, my son, my tenement and garden called 
the "Sterre," now in the tenure of Prentyze, three crofts of arable land and a mead 
thereto belonging lying all together at Cowbridge nigh unto "Patchors Foorde," a 
mead at Cowbridge now in the tenure of Thomas Argoo and two crofts late 
belonging unto the Chapel Chauntry, whereof one I do occupy &c. and the other is 
now in the tenure of Richard Asser, and the crofts at "Tonstrete and Harvies 
hoopes" at Oxney Green, &c. (upon similar condition of payment of forty shillings 
a year to his mother). Remainder, as before, to Son John. The tenement called 
Dunmowes, now in the tenure of Reede the wheelwright, the tenement wherein 
mother Brewer now dwelleth and the little house adjoining wherein Ayre sometime 
dwelled (other lands) two crofts, whereof one I bought of late Mr. Pawne and his 
wife and Mr. Thomas Byddell their son and the other I bought of Thomas Byddell 
uncle unto Thomas Byddell before named, shall be sold and the money thereof com- 
ing equally divided between my two daughters Agnes Pynchon and Margery 
Pynchon and paid them at their full age or day of marriage. If not sold for so 
much as it is worth then the rents thereof coming to be equally divided between 
them. I will that Dennys Pynchyn my daughter have all these lands and ten- 
ments that I bought lately of Mr. Manne and his brothers, now in the tenure and 
occupation of John Squyer. Remainder to John mine eldest son. To Joane my 
daughter, now Brytton's wife, my tenement at the church gate late my brother 


Borrell's and wherein my said brother dwelled. To Emme Brytton, the daughter 
of the said Joane, the tenement next adjoining to the same, wherein Roydon the 
shoemaker now dwelleth. To Joyce Pynchyn my daughter, now the wife of John 
Athye, my tenement on the North side of Greenbury wherein John Clerke now 
dwelleth. To Elizabeth Athye, her daughter, the tenement next adjoining, wherein 
Thomas Smythe now dwelleth. To Elizabeth Pynchon, the daughter of John 
Pynchon and Helyn his wife, my two tenements, late Salmon's, wherein John New- 
ton and Thomlyn now dwell. To the same Elizabeth the land called Cookes or 
Cockes in Roxwell, bought of Mr. Browne (and other land). I will that two tene- 
ments adjoining Hasylls and two on the N. end of Greenbury shall be the poor's 
forever, and my executor, and after his decease the church wardens, shall place in 
the said houses such person or persons as they shall think good, there to dwell 
without any rent therefore to be paid. I will that Thomas Badcock and Joanne his 
wife have all the house wherein he now dwelleth, called Skygg's and Tumor's, 
with all the lands I have given Edward Pynchyn my son, from the Feast of St. 
Michael the Archangel next after my decease unto the end and term of ten years 
next following, if they do live so long, paying therefor yearly thirteen pounds, &c. 
To Richard Allen, my wife's brother, my tenement and garden at the North end of 
the town, where Gregory Joyce now dwelleth. But if his sister, my wife, do 
refuse the portion I have appointed her &c. then this gift be made void and stand 
for nought. To Edward Church and Agnes his wife, my wife's sister, and their 
heirs my tenement wherein Cocks now dwelleth, upon the same condition. To 
Robert Grove and Joanne his wife, sister also to my wife, &c. the tenement 
wherein Rose now dwelleth, upon the same condition. To William Plowright the 
tenement where Mother Lukes now dwelleth, to give and to sell. To Thomas 
Plowright the tenement where Maunselld the miller now dwelleth, to give and to 
sell. To Joanne Plowright the tenement where Roger the weaver now dwelleth, 
to give and to sell. To Mary Plowright the tenement where Brette the carpenter 
now dwelleth, to give and to sell. I will that the tenement next unto Peter 
Brewer's, where the weaver now dwelleth, be sold and the money thereof com- 
ing be distributed amongst my servants, by discretion of John Pynchon my son. 
Sundry small gifts to John Genyns and his wife and William Genyns (a godson) 
and every other of their children. To Margery Kinge the wife of John Kinge and 
to Lettys Kinge the wife of Robert Kynge. To William Kynge the son of John 
Kinge and to William Kynge the son of Robert Kinge, to every of them a silver 
spoon. Certain other bequests to members of the Plowright family. To every 
of my daughters Agnes, Margery and Dennyce so much household stuff as shall be 
worth three pounds in money, at their election. To Richard Dakyn, clerk, three 
shillings, four pence in money. The residue of all my lands and goods herein not 
given nor bequeathed I give and bequeath unto John Pynchon mine eldest son, 
whom I make and ordain my sole executor &c. And my brother Richard Everard 
and my cousin, Robert Kinge my supervisors and for their pains herein to be taken 
I give unto either of them ten shillings &c. 

Wit: William Harper, clerk, Rychard Dakyn, clerk, John Jenyns and Thomas 
Badcocke. Horne, 47 (Consistory Court of London). 

1528— PROVED 22 APRIL, 1533 

Accurate Transcript 



I BEQUEATH and recommend my soul unto Almighty God my maker and 
redeemer and to the most glorious Virgin his mother, our lady Saint Mary, and 
to all "tholy and blissid company of Saintes in hevin." And my body to be 
buried in the church of St. Nichas Flesh shambles of London before the image 
of our lady there, where the body of my late wife lyeth buried. To the high altar 
of the aforesaid church for my tithes and oblations negligently forgotten or with- 
holden, in discharge N of my soul and conscience, ten shillings. To Edward Pinchon 
my son, in the name of his full portion and part of all my goods &c. to him after 
the use and custom of the City of London belonging, thirty three pounds six shill- 
ings eight pence, to be delivered to him when it shall fortune him to come to his 
full age of twenty one years. A like bequest to sons William, Robert and John 
Pynchon. And I charge all my said children on my blessing that they shall hold 
themselves contented and pleased with my said bequests to them made and that 
they be loving and kind to my wife their mother and be ruled after her, and if they 
or any of them grudge or hold not them contented with my said bequests or will 
not be ruled after my said wife then I will that the portion and part of him or them 
so not contented nor ruled shall be abated and "mynishid" after the discretion of 
my said wife. Provisions as to the decease of any of them. And if it fortune all 
my said "childern" before their said lawful ages to decease then I will that "oon 
hundreth mrc" (marks) of their portions shall be applied towards the gilding of 
the Rood loft of the said "paroche" church of St. Nichas and the residue bestowed 
in deeds of charity for the wealth of my soul. "Itm I will that assone after my 
deceas as conueniently may be there shalbe ordeynid an honest able preest of good 
conuersacion to sing in the . foresaid church of St. Nichas for nry soule my late 
wifes souls our fathers and mothers soules and all chren soules by the space of three 
yeres complete. And I bequeth to hym for his salary in that behalf vijli vj8 viijd 
by the yere. And I will that another preest shall sing in the churche of Writtell in 
the Countie of Essex for my soule and for the soules of my father and mother and 
all chren soules by the space of oon hole yere." To Parnell my "suster" forty shil- 
lings sterling and my gown next the best, and to every of her own children six 
shillings eight pence. To John Pinchon my cousin dwelling in Writtell, in dis- 
charge of my soul and conscience, twenty shillings. "I bequeth to the place of finer 
mvnours in London to thentent that they shall say a trigintall of masses and pray 
for my soule xl8 st. Itm I bequeth to eury of thorder of ffriers, Preachours, Car- 
melites, Augustines and Crossid friers to thentent that they shall doo in eury of 
their Couent churches for my soule and all chren soules oon trigintall of masses 
x8st. a pece siu xl8." Bequests to the prison houses. To every poor man and 
woman keeping chambers in Penthecost Lane, Hunt's Alley and Scaldinghouse 
Alley in the parish of St. Nichas four pence apiece. Ten pounds to be applied in 
buying of coals in the Winter season, in ten years next after my decease, to be dis- 
tributed amongst the most needy of the poor in St. Nichas. To Geffrey Boyland of 
Mountnesing my best ring. To frier John Burthan towards his exhibition at the 
University sixty shillings. Watkin Bissett my servant. "Itm I will that lxvj8 
viijd shall be distributed in peny doole among poore people at tyme of my buriall 
and at my monthes minde." To the "warkes" of the church of our Lady of Wood- 
ford, of Harnesey, of West Tilbury and of East Tilbury. The residue to Agnes 
my wife to her own proper use. I make and ordain the said Agnes, John Martyn, 
butcher, and John Hone, tallow chandler, my executors, and Sir John Mundye 
knight, alderman of London, overseer. Hogen, 2. 


militant Pyncbon-fln Immigrant to tbe Hew World 

in 1630 




WHEN America's greatest 
novelist, Nathaniel Haw- 
4 thorne, wrote "The House 
of the Seven Gables" the 
Pynchon family protested against 
what they considered an unwarranted 
use of the family name in the story. 
One of the novelist's strongest char- 
acters was stern old ColonelPyncheon 
— Hawthorne spelled the name with 
"e," but the Pynchon family invaria- 
bly omitted it. Another of his char- 
acters was Hepzibah Pyncheon and 
her heroic, self-sacrificing love for her 
brother Clifford, — and there was little 
Phoebe Pyncheon, the only illuminat- 
ing ray in the decaying old house. 

Hawthorne, when informed of the 
disfavor of the Pynchon family in be- 
ing incorporated into his admirable 
picture of the dignified and austere 
Puritan period, made an apology. 
The family in its sense of dignified re- 
pose and propriety considered that the 
celebrity of the novel brought them 
into an undesired notoriety which to 
them was offensive. 

The Pynchon family treasures 
among its heirlooms the letter of apol- 
ogy from the distinguished American 
novelist, and Hawthorne refers to the 
incident in a letter to his sister Louisa, 
dated Lenox, May 20, 185 1 : 

"How do you like 'The House of the Seven Gables?' Not so well as 'The Scarlet Letter,' I judge 
from your saying nothing about it. I receive very complimentary letters from poets and prosers, 
and adoring ones from young ladies; and I have almost a challenge from a gentleman who com- 
plains of my introducing his grandfather, Judge Pyncheon. It seems that there was really a Pyn- 
cheon family, formerly resident in Salem and one of them bore the title of Judge and was a Tory at 
the time of the Revolution,— with which facts I was entirely unacquainted. I pacified the gentle- 
man by a letter." 


No apology was really necessary, 
Hawthorne having really written 
from his own experience rather than 
from his imagination, for in another 
letter he refers to the curse which, 
according to those who knew him 
best, oppressed and affected him, and 
was brought upon the family by 
Judge Hawthorne of Salem, the 
aforesaid malediction having been in- 
voked by Rebekah Nurse, who was 
condemned to death by the judge in 
his official capacity. Matthew Maule 
was Hawthorne, and Phcebe was in- 
spired by Hawthorne's wife. The 
episode of the Pyncheon deed, which 
was lost and restored after it was 
valueless, was suggested by similar 
facts in the Hawthorne history. 

It is of this Pynchon family that I 
shall here relate: While doubtless 
there have been members of the Pyn- 
chon family, who with Yankee fore- 
sight, accumulated their share of this 
world's goods, they possessed another 
equally strong New England charac- 
teristic, for the American branch of 
the Pynchon family has been more or 
less identified with the intellectual and 
scholastic life of the country rather 
than with the commercial world, as 
the Hawthorne view implied, the 
English members claiming Oxford for 
their Alma Mater and the American 
Pynchons matriculating at Harvard, 
Trinity or Yale. 

The name is one of the oldest in 
England and as far back as 1277-8, in 
the sixth year of King Edward First, 
Richard Pinchon, a citizen of Lon- 
don, bequeaths his property to his 
daughter Agnes. Many of these old 
wills are very quaint. That of 
Nichas Pynchon, citizen and "bocher" 
of London, indicates that he was a de- 
vout believer, for he says, February 
15, 1528: "I bequeath and recom- 
mend my soul unto Almighty God, 
my maker and my redeemer and to 
the most glorious Virgin his mother, 
our lady Saint Mary, and to all 'tholy 
and Blissid company of Saintes in 
hevin.'" After carefully providing 

for his family and his church, he 
leaves among other charities "ten 
pounds to be applied in buying coals 
in the Winter season, in ten years next 
after my decease, to be distributed 
amongst the most needv poor of St. 

Another member of the same fam- 
ily, Wyllyam Pynchon, bequeaths 
"twenty shirts and twenty smocks and 
forty bushels of wheat to be given and 
divided amongst the poor folk in 
Writtle and Roxwell, and that the 
same may be done by the church war- 
dens and two or three honest men of 
the parish," thus in his last moments 
showing a shrewd estimate of frail 
human nature. 

A common legacy in those wills 
were rings of remembrance, often "of 
gold of weight of 40 shillings," or 
"of the weight of 3 pounds 5 shillings 
and 8 pence," and the scale varies in 
different wills according to the degree 
of friendship or obligation. In many, 
"a black cloak" or "a black gown" is 
bequeathed, that the beneficiary may 
show that proper respect for the dead 
that still has such a firm hold on Eng- 
lish customs. 

Wyllyam Pynchon was buried at 
Writtle, and the chancel of the beau- 
tiful little church there is nearly filled 
with the monuments and memorial 
tablets of the Pynchon family. In the 
church in Springfield, England, not 
far from Writtle, there is a tablet on 
the wall of the vestry room with the 
name of William Pynchon inscribed 
on it as one of the church wardens, 
dated 1624. This is the William 
Pynchon who was one of the original 
patentees of the Massachusetts Bay 
Colony, and who six years later assist- 
ed in bringing that charter to Amer- 
ica. He was educated at Oxford, 
matriculating at Hart Hall, after- 
wards Hertford College, October 14, 
1596, when he was but eleven years 
old. It was in 1630 that he brought 
over the charter in a fleet of three ves- 
sels. In the same year he founded 
Roxbury and six years later Spring- 


field, Massachusetts. This last named 
was on the direct Indian trail leading 
from the Narragansett and Pequot 
country by way of the Westfield River 
to the Mohawk country above Albany, 
so that parties of Indians were con- 
stantly passing his door in every di- 
rection. He accumulated wealth by 
trading, and Warehouse Point, Con- 
necticut, just below Springfield, re- 
ceived its name from John Pynchon's 
warehouse situated there. So great 
was William Pynchon's influence 
among the Indians of the West as 
those of New England, that the Mo- 
hawks used to call New Englanders 
"Pynchon's men." 

He also indulged in the literary 
bent of the family, publishing a book 
entitled, "The Meritorious Price of 
Our Redemption," which being anti- 
Calvinistic in its views so stirred up 
the colony that the book was ordered 
to be burned and the author cited to 
appear before the general court. 
After being summoned to court a sec- 
ond time, he left the colony in Sep- 
tember, 1652, and returned to Eng- 
land. Two copies of this work are 
extant. One is at the Lenox library 
and the other is owned by the present 
head of the family. His only son, 
John Pynchon, remained in New 
England, and from him are descended 
all who bear the name in America. 

One of the most illustrious of his 
descendants was Rev. Thomas Rug- 
gles Pynchon, who from 1874 to 1883 
was president of Trinity College and 
was a most potent agent in extending 
the influence of the college as well as 
adding more buildings. But from the 
time he entered college as a student 
until his death in October, 1904, he 
was closely identified with the work 
and power of that institution. He 
was ordained at Trinity Church, Bos- 
ton, and from 1849 to ^55 had charge 
of churches in Stockbridge and 
Lenox, Massachusetts. He held the 
degree of D.D. from Stevens College, 
and LL.D. from Columbia. After his 
death a large part of the old family 

possessions came into the hands of 
their present owner, the eighth in de- 
scent from William Pynchon, the 
founder of the American branch of 
the family. 

Most of the furniture is very old 
and of that severely plain and massive 
type so long associated with our Puri- 
tan ancestors. Exquisite housekeep- 
ers were those female members of the 
family, for few marks of time mar the 
softly glowing mahogany. One of 
the most interesting pieces is a clothes 
press with deep shelves behind two 
large single-paneled doors. Below 
are three drawers, with brass handles, 
the design showing a lion's head with 
a ring in his mouth. A similar 
"Cloaths Prefs" but with another style 
of feet, is shown in the book of 
Thomas Chippendale, who thus naively 
expresses himself on the title page: 

"The gentleman and cabinet mak- 
er's director : Being a large collection 
of the most elegant and useful designs 
of household furniture in the most 
fashionable taste." 

The mahogany bed is handsomely 
carved at the corners of the head and 
foot boards, just enough for ornament 
but not enough to mar the beautiful 
grain of the wood. A plain massive 
bureau of the same red mahogany and 
with severely plain wooden knobs, is 
filled to bursting with hand-woven 
linen. There are huge linen sheets 
and pillow slips, with knitted linen 
lace. There are bedquilts and testers 
and curtains, and a beautiful hand- 
made tufted spread, woven double, 
with the pattern picked up on the right 
side, the design being a six-pointed star 
in the center with a Greek key pattern 
around the edge above the twisted 
fringe. The latter bears in precise 
cross-stitch the initials of Alicia Van 
Epps Murdoch, a daughter of Mis- 
tress Murdoch, through whom the 
Pynchon's became allied to the Hales. 
For she had two daughters, one of 
whom married William Henry Rug- 
gles Pynchon, of Connecticut, and the 
other Dr. Enoch Hale, of Boston, who 


was an uncle of Edward Everett Hale 
and a nephew of the young patriot, 
Nathan Hale. 

There is her portrait, framed in a 
band of dull gold. What a sweet 
strong face it is under the white cap 
and framed by the folds of the white 
shawl, with its narrow border, a gay 
note of bright cherry relieving the de- 
mure Quakerish effect of the costume. 
Ah, Polly Miller, more than your 
pointed bowl silver spoons, marked 
with flamboyant capitals, and your pa- 
tiently woven linen sheets and baby 
garments, filmy and fine enough for a 
royal infant, is the legacy of the char- 
acter you left behind you and which 
reflects itself in those who revere your 

There is another quaint bed, a 
"bachelor bed," as they called single 
beds in those days. It has four slen- 
der posts and is the prized possession 
of the little daughter of the family. 
Whether pride of race is dormant in 
children at an early age, no one can 
tell, but she is very proud of the little 
bed. Environment plays its part in 
the development of children and the 
practical methods of modern life ap- 
peal to her just as strongly, even 
though she be but six years old. For 
example, when taken recently to visit 
a grand-aunt, whose home has no 
modern innovations, and at bed-time 
her mother told her to mount the steps 
to get into the huge four-poster bed, 
with its well-shaken feather-bed, she 
objected, wailing: 

"Oh, mama, I don't want to sleep 
on a big fat stomach." 

So her little bed has been fitted with 
a modern spring and mattress. 

One of the most attractive pieces of 
furniture is the old mahogany desk 
that for many years was used by Dr. 
Enoch Hale in his office in Boston and 
later was used by President Pynchon 
at Trinity. If it could speak, what a 
host of memories the solid, substan- 
tial, respectable piece of wood could 
give forth. It has the indescribable 
velvety look that only the cabinet-fin- 

isher, Time, can give to mahogany. 
The Hales have always been college 
bred and with literary proclivities no 
matter what profession they followed. 
Enoch's father was the first minister 
of Westhampton, and his uncle Na- 
than, the father of Edward Everett 
Hale, was a journalist. Enoch was 
educated at Harvard but decided to 
minister to bodies instead of souls. 
In spite of the demands made on the 
busy physician, he found time to write 
various pamphlets and treatises rela- 
tive to his profession. In view of the 
recent conflicting opinions among 
medical authorities regarding the 
cause and cure of cerebro-spinal men- 
ingitis, it is interesting to note that 
one of the earliest of these pamphlets, 
published when he was but twenty- 
four years old and in the first year of 
his practice, is called "The History 
and Description of the Spotted Fever, 
Which Prevailed in Gardiner, Maine, 
in 18 1 4." And after nearly an hun- 
dred years, the problem has not even 
yet been satisfactorily solved. 

On the left side of the desk is an 
octagonal mat worked by Enoch 
Hale's wife. It is in cross-stitch in 
wool and silk. The greens and blues 
are softened by age. It serves as a 
mat for a quaint urn-shaped inkwell 
of dull bronze, exquisitely modeled in 
detail, with places for quill pens and 
a tiny seal. Another inkstand of the 
same dull bronze is more modern in 
appearance, with its inkwell at either 
end and a tray for pens, but it was evi- 
dently in use long before envelopes 
were employed, for the center space is 
occupied by a small candlestick, the 
tiny snuffer hanging by a wire hook 
through a hole in the side of the can- 
dlestick, to snuff the candle when the 
wax had been melted and the missive 
sealed. A rack for letters or papers 
of the same bronze is. an artistic de- 
sign formed of a branching spray of 

There are two Davenports, and 
nine open, low-backed chairs, uphol- 
stered in haircloth. These are asso- 


ciated particularly with the home of 
Thomas Pynchon, in whose parlor 
they stood for many years. 

There is a graceful Hepplewhite 
table, with folded' top and slender 
legs inlaid with a beautiful pattern in 
satinwood. The old sideboard is 
massive and plain, following the gen- 
eral style of the desk and clothes 
press. Furniture was built for use in 
the early struggling days of the colo- 
nies. But only great care and careful 
handling could have preserved the 
wine and spirit glasses, the heavy gob- 
lets, the slender decanters and the ex- 
quisite china. One member of the 
family owns a complete set of old blue 
and white Canton china, of that dull 
soft blue that is so beloved by collect- 
ors and is valued at $1,500. But if 
collectors should ever have an oppor- 
tunity to bid for it, which is unlikely, 
there is no knowing to what high fig- 
ures it would go. 

Quite in contrast to the highly pol- 
ished glass is a pitcher, which will 
belong to the ninth generation of 
Pynchons, coming through the moth- 
er's side of the family. It is espec- 
ially interesting for it is a piece of the 
first glass made in the colonies. But 
whether it all came from Jamestown 
in 1607 or came from the factory in 
Salem, Massachusetts, which was 
started in 1629, no one knows. But it 
is very old and the edges of the handle 
are rough and the glass is crude in- 
deed when placed beside two beauti- 
ful fruit dishes, one high and one low, 
of the old English cut glass. The 
edges of these are scalloped and an 
engraved pattern of grape leaves 
makes the high polish of the plain 
portion but shine the more. 

There is old china, curious pitchers 
of graceful shape, bits of pewter and 
old plate. There was a plate-warmer 
of china, with two handles and made 
exactly like a pewter one that came 
from the Cogswell family, another of 
historic prominence, but it has become 
broken or lost. There is an interest- 
ing story connected with the pewter 

one: It was kept for one member of 
the family who was always late to 
meals. What an intimate view that 
chance phrase gives of the mother of 
the household — tender and indulgent 
and with a proper pride that her culi- 
nary art should not be spoiled by the 
laggard. But imagination can only 
finish out the picture and whether the 
late-comer was the staid and dignified 
head of the family, busied with many 
cares, or a handsome lad with impet- 
uous way, full of the many interests 
and subject to the allurements that 
appeal to us when we are young, or a 
little beauty who had but to smile and 
the rest of the family obeyed her bid- 
ding, no record remains. 

Even some of the children's play- 
things have been preserved. There is 
a much worn miniature bed with four 
posts. It is almost gone now, but no 
wonder, considering how many gene- 
rations of young mothers have put 
their dollies to bed in it. Speaking 
of dolls, there are two treasured care- 
fully for many years. Both are very 
small and made of wood. Their feat- 
ures carved and painted. One of 
them is brave in a frock of buff cotton 
with pantalets of the same, and her 
muttonleg sleeves shirred at the inner 
arm would serve as a model for the 
present mode. The paint on her 
cheeks is still fresh and her comb 
carved on is a good imitation of shell. 
The other doll is an inch taller and 
represents a bride. Her veil, falling 
over her modest face is hanging in 
shreds and tatters, and the sight 
brings sadness, so emblematic is it of 
life and those other brides whose 
heart illusions have faded away long 
before their veils had lost their pris- 
tine freshness. 

There are heavy curtains of curious 
colors. There is an old blue and 
white Staffordshire washbowl and 
pitcher. There is a curious brazier 
and a low silver candlestick with 
carved ornament around the edge, and 
the handle is twisted into a graceful 
curve, and many other quaint and in- 


teresting objects, each with its hidden 
history and clustering memories. 

There are old books and old letters 
and papers which have come down 
through the centuries. Among them 
is a lettter from William Pynchon to 
Governor Winthrop, bearing the en- 
dorsement of the latter. A piece is 
torn from the blank space of the last 
page and tradition has it that the gov- 
ernor with true Yankee thrift, saved 
the scrap for future use. Paper was 
a valuable commodity in the early 
days of the Massachusetts Bay Col- 
ony. The original seal of the family 
is not in existence, but there are seve- 
ral old seals of later date. 

Among his other classmates were 
Sylvanus Griswold of Lyme; Daniel 
Humphreys, G. S. Hobart, judge of 
the United States District Court and 
United States Senator from New 
York; Sir Edmund Fanning, lieu- 
tenant-governor of Nova Scotia and 
governor of Prince Edward's Island: 
Rev. Dr. Abraham Beach ; Rev. James 
Scovill; Rev. Samuel A. Peters. 
Joseph Pynchon's name stands sixth 
on the roll of the class, of which the 
membership was forty. 

He married • Sarah Ruggles, the 
only child of Rev. Thomas and Re- 

New Haven, Sept. 2, 1757- 
Dear Sir: 

Yesterday I arrived at Old Yale; find all things in good order; all things prepared for com- 
mencement, except gowning, which we are at a loss where to get. Therefore, if you light on any 
at Guilford should be glad if you would engage it, and send word as soon as possible. 

Sir, we are all well, and want nothing but your good company, which we all insist on having 
this week or the beginning of the next at the farthest. We are in great expectations that the com- 
mencement will be private, and that it will be on Friday or Saturday of next week— the reason of 
this conjecture is considerably from the president's proposing to give all liberty to go home on next 
Saturday that shall make application to him or the Tutors therefor. Pray, Sir, direct a letter to 
Sir Griswold, engaging him to call you in his way to New Haven, on the beginning of the next 
week. If you want the opportunity, pray come yourself without fail. Please excuse the incon- 
gruity of this epistle since it comes from one whose mind is continually harassed and perplexed with 
the thought of the inevitable ruin and destruction that is impending and just at hand upon himself 
and country. Give proper regards to all friends, from your ever sincere 

& affectionate friend & servant, 


P. S. Chandler & Prynde send compliments. 

Another branch of the family in- 
cludes the Gilmans, also among the 
foremost in the educational life of the 

Among the many interesting letters 
that are yellowed with time, folded 
with precision, and fastened with 
seals, is one written by Joseph Pyn- 
chon, great-great-grandson of Wil- 
liam Pynchon of Springfield, Massa- 
chusetts, to his classmate Nathaniel 
Caldwell of Guilford, Connecticut, in 
1757, from New Haven, where he was 
awaiting the Yale College commence- 
ment of that vear. 

becca Ruggles, the minister of Guil- 
ford, Connecticut. He was a loyal- 
ist, and passed the whole period of the 
Revolutionary War in the city of New 
York. At the close of the war in 
17&2-3 he became the leader of the 
famous Loyalist emigration to Nova 
Scotia. He returned to Connecticut 
in 1784 and died at Guilford, Novem- 
ber 2$, 1794. 

There is a letter of Madame Pyn- 
chon of Springfield, Massachusetts, 
written to her son at Cambridge, and 
his reply, both of which are charac- 
teristic of mothers and sons of every 


Springfield, June 26, 1743. 
Dear Son Billy, having but a few minutes just to inform you of our welfare and our friends. I 
have not heard from you since you first went down. Would be glad to hear of your circumstances. 
I have just sent by Capt. Colton a pair of yarn stockings, which would sent 6 weeks sooner if I had 
opportunity. Hope now will come safe. Would just inform you that Cos. Charles Wimick departed 
this life yesterday was 6 months sick. Give my dear Regards to all friends at Cambridge & Boston. 
Brothers and sisters send their love. Accept of mine from your loving mother, 


This lady was the daughter of Rev. 
David Brown of Springfield and at 
this time was a widow. 

We know that Captain Colton de- 
livered the yarn stockings and the let- 
ter safely to "Mr. William Pynchon 
in Cambridge," for this is his reply : 

Honored Madam July 18, 1743. 

I believe I shall not come home by water, but have determined unless some very convenient op- 
portunity happens so thatl can'ride up by horse, to tarry here the vacancy. Madam Larrabee, and m 
Betty is indisposed, very much, and the Capt. also. I invited them up toComtbut they not being able 
to come I saved my money and credit too. I am in health, have gained flesh I find since I came down, 
have nothing now to tell you off 

But am your dutiful son WILLIAM PYNCHON JR. 

Human nature is the same in all 
generations and in spite of the stately 
form of expression this is just like the 
letters of hundreds of college lads the 
land over. 

Fortunately all these interesting 
possessions have fallen into a home 
where they will be cherished. A 
neighbor who had seen the wonderful- 
linen and testers suggested what 
beautiful frocks they would make for 
the children. The mother of the ris- 
ing generation of young Pynchons 
was aghast. 

"These must all be kept for the 
children," she said. ''Some one of 
them will care for and appreciate 

Which will it be? The eldest son 
of the family, who at present is as full 
of pranks and falls into as many ex- 
citing escapades as a healthy nine- 
year-old is capable; or the little lady 
with brown curls, who loves her 
great-grandfather's bachelor bed; or 
her younger sister, too young to 
appreciate anything but the quaint 
wooden dolls; or the chubby baby 
whose crib lies so close to the old 
carved bed that his fat toes may touch 
its sacred wood ? However it be, for- 
tunate it is that these heirlooms are 
cherished, not for their value in the 
antique mart, but for the memories 
they bring of maids and men who 
lived in days that are no more. 

Book Plate of Reverend Thomas Ruggles Pynchon 

President of Trinity College, Hartford, Connecticut 

Descendant of William Pynchon, 1630 





of the New York Bar 
Author of The History and Genealogy of the Mead and Reynolds Families in America 

THE earliest colonial settlers in 
this country found it neces- 
sary to form and maintain 
military organizations for their 
protection from the Indians and other 
marauders, which were designated 
"trained bands" and were called into 
active service at different times during 
the colonial period as the exigencies 
which confronted the colonists re- 

In Virginia, Captain John Smith 
commanded the military force for a 
number of years, and under his effi- 
cient leadership it proved indispensa- 
ble to the preservation of that colony. 
The military forces of the Plymouth 
Colony were commanded by Captain 
Miles Standish, who, in 1621, com- 
manded a strong party of fourteen 
men against the Indians and on the 
twenty-ninth day of August, 1643, was 
appointed captain by the General 
Court, and in 1649 ne was command- 
ant of the several military companies 
within the Plymouth Colony. 

The Massachusetts Bay Colony in 
1 63 1 ordered that "every man with a 
musket shall have ready one pound of 
powder, twenty bullets and two fath- 
ome of match, and that every captain 
shall traine (drill) his company on 
Saturday in every week. General 
training days once a month at one 
o'clock in the afternoon." In 1637, 
general training days were reduced to 
eight times in a year. In 1636, the 
General Court held at Boston, ordered 
that the military companies be divided 


into three regiments ; that all freeman 
be allowed to vote for officers of a 
trained band; and in 1645 ordered 
that the chief commander of every 
company is authorized to appoint out 
and to make choice of thirty soldiers 
of their companies in every hundred, 
"who shall be ready at halfe an hour's 
warning upon any service they shall be 
put upon by their chief military offi- 
cer." The organization of these emer- 
gency men was continued for gen- 
erations, and later they became the 
famous minute-men of the Revolution- 
ary War. There has recently been 
organized, in order to perpetuate the 
memory of the minute-men and also to 
promote patriotism, an association 
known as the "Minute-men," with 
headquarters at Washington, D.C.,and 
divisional commanders located in dif- 
ferent sections of the country. In 
1642, provisions were made for fines 
and punishments for disorderly sol- 
diers, and in 1648 arrangements were 
made for regimental drills and a troop 
of horses was organized. 

The Connecticut and New Haven 
colonies likewise organized military 
companies, or "trained bands," as they 
were called, and in 1636 ordered "that 
every plantacon shall traine once in 
every month and if upon complainte 
of their military officer, it appears that 
there bee divers very unskillfull, the 
saide plantacon may appoint the offi- 
cer to traine oftener the saide unskill- 
full. And that the saide military offi- 
cer take view of their several arms 


whether they bee serviceable or noe. 
And for default of every souldiers ab- 
sent the absent to paye five shillings 
for every tyme without lawful excuse 
within two days after, tender to the 
commissioner, or one of them in the 
saide plantacon. And for any default 
in arms upon warnings to them by 
the saide officer to amend by the tyme 
appointed one shilling every tyme. 
And where arms are wholly wanting 
to be bounde over to answer it at the 
next Corte." 

First American Homes Were 
Arsenals Under Penalty of Law 

Captain Mason, in 1637, was ap- 
pointed a public military officer of the 
plantations of Connecticut to train 
"the military men thereof in each plan- 
tacon according to the dayes appointed 
and shall have £40 per annum, to be 
paid oute of the Treasury quarterly. 
The pay to begine from the day of 
the date hereof, to traine the saide mil- 
itary men in every plantacon tenn days 
in every yeare, soe as it be not in July 
or August, giving a weekes warning 
beforehand." All persons to bear 
arms that are above the age of six- 
teen years, except those exempted. 
A magazine of powder and shot to be 
kept in every plantation for the supply 
of the military men, and every military 
man is to have continually in his house 
in readiness "halfe a pounde of good 
powder, two pounds of bullets sutable 
to his peece, one pounde of match, if 
his peece be a matchlocke, and whoso- 
ever failes of his halfe pounde of pow- 
der and two pounds of bullets and 
match to pay five shillings for every 
tyme that is wanting." Later train- 
ing days in the plantations of Con- 
necticut were reduced to six times in 
a year, and the General Assembly en- 
acted, that "there shall be in each Plan- 
tation within this Jurisdiction, every 
year at least six Training days, or 
days of public military exercises to 
teach and instruct all the males above 
sixteen years of age in the comely 
handling, and ready use of their arms, 

in all postures of war, to understand 
and attend all words of command. " 

An extract from the report of the 
governor of Connecticut to the home 
government, dated the fifteenth day of 
July, 1680, reads as follows : 

"For the present we have but one 
troope settled, which consist of about 
sixty horse, yet we are upon raysing 
three troopes more, one in each county 
of about forty horse in each troope. 
Our other forces are Trained Bands. 
There is a major in each county, who 
commands the militia of that county 
under the governor for the time being, 
who is the General of all the forces 
within our Colony. The whole amount 
to 2507. The names of the several 
counties are: 

Hartford County where are about 835 trained soldiers 
New Haven " " " « 623 " " 

NewLontlon " " " " 509 " " 

Fairfield " " » «« 540 •« " 


Our horsemen are armed with pis- 
tolls and carbines. The foot soldiers 
with musket and pike. For the pres- 
ent in our late warrs with the Indians, 
we found dragoones to be most use- 
full and therefore improved about 
three hundred of these in the service 
to good successe. In 1689 our num- 
bers were 2507." 

Governor Trumbull's Report to His 
Majesty's Secretary of State, dated 
October, 1774, shows the number on 
the militia rolls to be 26,260, "all male 
persons from sixteen years of age to 
forty-five bear arms, the trained bands 
in each town attend four days in the 
year for instructions in military disci- 
pline. There are eighteen regiments 
with a troop of horse to each, and to 
some two troops; each regiment 
attends regimental exercise once in 
four years." In March, 1775, the 
number of regiments of foot in Con- 
necticut were twenty-two, not includ- 
ing troop of horse, light dragoons, 
artillery, or independent companies. 

In Rhode Island practically the 
same military organizations existed 
and in 1640, training days were eight 
times in a year, and at the second beat 


of the drum all men allowed and 
assigned to bear arms were to make 
their personal appearance completely 
armed to attend their colors by eight 
o'clock in the forenoon ; also two 
general masters in each year were pro- 
vided for in addition. Training days 
in 1745 were reduced to twice a year, 
but the two general muster days in 
each year were continued, and later 
a review was had of each regiment or 
battalion twice a year and a general 
muster and review of each brigade 
once in two years. 

First Confederation oi American 
Fighting Forces was in 1643 

The first confederation of the New 
England Colonies took place as early 
as 1643, an d at a meeting of its com- 
missioners in 1653, who were at that 
time in session at Boston, after having 
"considered what number of souldiers 
might be Requisite, if God called the 
Collonies to make warr against the 
Dutch, concluded that five hundred 
men for the first expedition should bee 
the number out of the four jurisdic- 
tions," and apportioned that number 
to the several colonies, as follows : 

Massachusetts Bay. 
New Haven 


and Captain John Leverett of Boston 
was selected as commander-in-chief 
of the forces to be so raised. 

A few years after this, in 1665, the 
Connecticut and New Haven Colonies 
were united under one government, 
and the Massachusetts Bay and the 
Plymouth Colonies united in 1692. 

The militia in the city of New York 
in 1678 were formed into companies of 
one hundred men each, and although 
but indifferently provided with fire- 
arms, and those of all sizes and pat- 
terns, they were drilled and rendered 
excellent marksmen by continual prac- 
tice in firing at a mark. In December, 
1772, the governor of the province of 
New York held a general review in 
the fields of seven independent compa- 
nies of the militia formed into a bat- 
talion in the following order : 

The grenadiers, 

Two companies of the Governor's guard, 

The rangers, 

The Germans, 

One of the companies of artillery, and 

One company of the light infantry. 

The review was witnessed by "a 
splendid assembly of the principal 
ladies and gentlemen." After the re- 
view the officers were entertained by 
the governor, who wrote to Lord 
Dartmouth, stating that "it was the 
most brilliant militia review that ever 
was had within His Majesty's Ameri- 
can dominions." In June, 1773, the 
governor of the province of New York 
forwarded to the home government an 
abstract of the state of the militia in 
the province of New York, by which it 
appears that there were twenty-six 
regiments of foot and eleven troop of 
light horse, of which one regiment and 
one troop were in New York county. 

The Pennsylvania militia was organ- 
ized and trained along the same lines 
as were the other colonies and in 1775 
it was organized into battalions, and 
on the nineteenth day of August of 
that year consisted of fifty-three bat- 
talions, and in 1776 some of these bat- 
talions were composed of eight com- 

George Washington received his 
early military training in the Virginia 
militia, and in 175 1, at the age of nine- 
teen years, he was appointed adjutant 
of the militia, and in 1753 he was made 
commander of the Northern Military 
District of Virginia, and in 1755 lie 
was commissioned commander-in-chief 
of all the Virginia militia. 

It will thus be seen that the training 
in arms and the preparation against 
surprise and attack have been hand 3d 
down from the days of Captain John 
Smith and Captain Miles Standish, 
and that as the settlements increased 
and the population multiplied the mili- 
tary forces increased in equal ratio, 
which were under the immediate su- 
pervision of the various Colonial Gen- 
eral Courts, the Legislature, or the 
governor of the colony. The com- 
pany officers, who must be freemen, 
were elected by the freemen of the 


trained band to which they belonged ; 
every freeman was compelled to serve 
in the militia and their names pre- 
sented to the General Court or Legis- 
lature, and if such elections were con- 
firmed commissions were issued by the 
General Court or Legislature, signed 
by the governor and under the seal of 
the colony, and forwarded to the re- 
spective officers. 

Company drills were held at irreg- 
ular periods and at such times and 
places as the commanding officer 
might designate, and should not be 
confused with training days or muster 
days, which were held in the fields and 
at the times prescribed by the General 
Court or Legislature. In Massachu- 
setts, the minute-men, which were 
picked men from the trained bands, 
during the latter part of 1774 and the 
early part of 1775, were "disciplined 
three times a week and oftener as 
opportunity might offer." 

The First Men of the Nation 
Were Drilled in Use of Arms 

Training days, of which there were 
from two to six during the year, were, 
in a military sense, the graduating ex- 
ercises of a finished course of instruc- 
tion in company drills. Assembly was 
sounded in some of the colonies at 
eight o'clock in the forenoon, and on 
others at one o'clock in the afternoon, 
when the companies were formed, roll 
called and the militia exercised in the 
manual of arms and marching in close 
order. This was followed by a review 
and inspection by the colonial officers, 
then target practice and firing by 
squads. After this the forces were 
divided and manoeuvred in extended 
order and finally ended the day by par- 
ticipating in a sham battle. The vari- 
ous state military camps now take the 
place of the colonial training days. 

On muster days every freeman in 
the colony between the ages prescribed 
for military duty, except those ex- 
empted, was compelled to be present 
and be inspected, or examined, as to 
his fitness for military duty and if he 
passed the necessary qualifications he 

was mustered into the militia in his 
respective district and required to 
attend company drills and training 

From these different trained bands 
there were principally recruited the 
quota of soldiers which the several 
colonies were called upon from time to 
time to furnish in the various wars in 
which the home government was en- 
gaged during the colonial period. The 
last and most important colonial war, 
so far as the colonies were concerned, 
was the French and Indian War, 1754 
to 1764, during which the Virginia 
militia was commanded by George 
Washington. It might be well to add 
here that out of twenty-three Ameri- 
can major-generals of the Revolution- 
ary War, the majority of them 
(twelve) had served with distinction 
as commissioned officers in the French 
and Indian War, and several of the 
others as Indian fighters. 

Washington's letters during his ser- 
vice in the first Continental Congress 
held at Philadelphia in September, 
1774, show that he was under no delu- 
sion as to the outcome of the taxation 
struggle, and that he expected war, 
and after its adjournment he was act- 
ively engaged in perfecting the militia 
of Virginia. 

The first session of the Massachu- 
setts Provincial Congress was held at 
Salem on the seventh day of October, 
1774, and after being temporarily 
organized adjourned to the eleventh 
day of October, 1774, to meet at the 
courthouse at Concord, and as the 
improvement of the militia was an ob- 
ject of importance arrangements were 
made for increasing the quantity of 
warlike stores and the organization of 
an army, and at the session held on the 
tenth day of December, 1774, the sev- 
eral towns and districts in the prov- 
ince were advised to "see that each of 
the minute-men not already provided 
therewith should be immediately 
equipped with an effective firearm, 
bayonet, pouch, knapsack and thirty 
rounds of cartridge and balls." 


On the eighth day of April, 1775, 
the Provincial Congress of Massachu- 
setts resolved that an army should be 
raised and established and that other 
New England colonies should be asked 
to furnish their quota of men for the 
general defense. 

The records of the committee of 
safety and supplies show that in 
accordance with the resolution of 
October, 1774, authorizing the collec- 
tion of military stores, that various 
stores, arms and ammunition were be- 
ing collected and stored at Concord. 
To seize those stores Lieutenant Colo- 
nel Francis Smith, with a detail of 
British regulars, consisting of about 
eight hundred men, embarked from 
the Boston Common at ten o'clock 
Tuesday night on the eighteenth day 
of April, 1775, crossed the Charles 
river and began the march, which was 
to bring on the Revolutionary War. 
He met and dispersed the forewarned 
minute-men at Lexington at five 
o'clock on the morning of the nine- 
teenth of April, 1775, and marched on 
to Concord, destroyed the stores and 
commenced his return. 

11 You know the rest in books you have read, 
How the British regulars fired and fled,— 
How the farmers gave them ball for ball, 
From behind each fence and farmyard wall ; 
Chasing the red coats down the lane, 
Then crossing the fields to merge again 
Under the trees at the turn of the road, 
And only pausing to fire and load." 

At length, about sunset, almost on a 
run the British reached Charlestown 
Common, where they were sheltered 
by the guns from the ships. The pur- 
suit stopped and the colonial officers 
held a consultation. A guard was 
formed, sentinels posted and detach- 
ments were sent out to watch the 
enemy. The remaining provincial 
forces consisting of minute-men and 
trained bands encamped around Bos- 

Soon after this the men encamped 
around Boston were asked by the com- 
mittee of safety, which was the execu- 
tive committee of the Provincial Con- 
gress of Massachusetts, to enlist until 
the end of the year, or for a shorter 
period ; also a vigorous circular letter, 

dated the twentieth day of April, 1775, 
was sent to the neighboring towns 
urging the organization of an army 
and on the twenty-third day of April, 
1775, the Provincial Congress of Mas- 
sachusetts decided that an army of 
30,000 men be immediately raised and 
that 13,600 be raised from Massachu- 
setts. Committees were sent to the 
Congress of New Hampshire at Exe- 
ter and to the governments of Rhode 
Island and Connecticut to inform them 
of those resolutions and urge the fur- 
nishing of men in the same propor- 

Minute Men and Trained Bands 
Were America's First Protectors 

So thorough had the work of organ- 
ization been accomplished in the colo- 
nies during the years 1773, 1774 and 
the early part of 1775 that an appeal 
for men when the Seige of Boston 
commenced was immediately suc- 
cessful and a force of from 20,000 to 
40,000 men, consisting of minute-men 
and trained bands, was soon raised. 
"Throughout the colonies a network 
of local committees controlling militia 
companies and post-riders, formed in 
each colony at the suggestion of the 
Virginia House of Burgess in March, 
1773, watched the approaching storm, 
tested the loyalty of those who pro- 
fessed to welcome it and guided the 
popular indignation and when the Bat- 
tle of Lexington came, the colonies 
were as well prepared for war as the 
poor dependencies of a powerful na- 
tion could be." 

The forces beseiging Boston were 
temporarily under the command of 
General Artemas Ward, who received 
his commission from the Provincial 
Congress of Massachusetts as com- 
mander-in-chief on the nineteenth day 
of May, 1775. A short time prior to 
this, however, the Provincial Congress 
of Massachusetts sent a communica- 
tion to the Continental Congress, then 
in session at Philadelphia, offering the 
direction of the forces to that body 
and suggesting, as had been proposed 


by General Ward, the organization of 
an army on the following basis : 

1. A General-in-Chief. 

2. Troops to be enlisted for the war. 

3. Provisions to be made for the support of the 
families of soldiers. 

4. That a loan should be negotiated for the equip- 
ment and support of the body, which should be 
called "The American Continental Army." 

5. That the volunteers then in the field before 
Boston were, as far as practicable, to be re-enlisted, 
and a special light infantry corps, consisting of six 
companies of " expert riflemen " from Pennsylvania, 
Maryland, and Virginia, were also to be enlisted. 

On the fourteenth day of June, 
1775, a system of rules and articles of 
war were prescribed by the Continen- 
tal Congress, which also resolved that 
six companies of expert riflemen be 
immediately raised in Pennsylvania, 
two in Maryland and two in Virginia, 
to re-enforce the army near Boston. 
On the following day, June 15, 1775, 
the Continental Congress announced 
the selection of George Washington as 
general and commander-in-chief of the 
united colonies and of all the forces 
now raised or to be raised by them. 

First Record of an American 
Continental Army was in 1775 

The term, "Continental Army," first 
officially appears upon the printed 
records of the Continental Congress in 
the summary of the proceedings for 
the fourteenth day of June, 1775, 
where the form of enlistment to be 
subscribed by companies of riflemen is 
given. It was to be an enlistment into 
the "American Continental Army." 
On the same day a committee of five 
was appointed to prepare rules and 
regulations for the government of this 
prospective army, which were reported 
and adopted on the thirtieth day of 
June, 1775. 

For the year 1775 no Continental 
Army was in the first instance organ- 
ized as such by the Continental Con- 
gress, and as the colonies were mus- 
tering their trained bands and minute- 
men around Boston and Ticonderoga 
after the Lexington alarm, and as they 
were already in the field as good ma- 
terial for the nucleus of such an army, 
the Continental Congress adopted 
them as the Continental Army, but 
troops joining later were generally re- 

cruited on the Continental basis. 
After the year 1775 and for the suc- 
ceeding years of the war, the Conti- 
nental Congress took the initiative and 
raised troops for the common army 
under its own regulations respecting 
pay, subsistence and term of enlist- 
ment. The army, however, as will 
appear, was organized and reorgan- 
ized several times during the Revolu- 
tionary War, and for various terms. 
These Continentals were the "regu- 
lars" of the Revolution. They formed 
the main army in the field and were 
the chief dependence of the revolu- 
tionary cause. All other troops raised 
during the war were either state 
troops or militia, and were to act as 
reinforcements of this army, or to re- 
lieve it by serving in alarms at differ- 
ent points. 

General Washington arrived in 
camp at Cambridge, Massachusetts, on 
the third day of July, 1775, and the 
provincial forces having accepted his 
leadership and the regulation of the 
Continental Congress, the entire force 
consisting of about 14,500 men were 
placed upon a Continental establish- 
ment. This new relation was officially 
announced by the commander-in-chief 
in general orders, dated Headquarters, 
Cambridge, July 4, 1775, as follows: 
"The Continental Congress having 
now taken all the Troops of the several 
Colonies, which have been raised, or 
which may be hereafter raised, for the 
support and defence of the Liberties of 
America into their Pay and Service, 
they are now the Troops of the United 
Provinces of North America; and it 
is to be hoped that all Distinctions of 
Colonies will be laid aside so that the 
one and the same spirit may animate 
the whole, and the only contest be, 
who will render on this great and try- 
ing occasion the most essential Service 
to the great and common cause ?n 
which we are engaged." 

After the campaign of 1776 the 
army was reorganized for 1776. It 
was not, however, until the reorgani- 
zation of the Continental Army for 


1777, that Congress realized that the 
contest could not be successively car- 
ried on with troops enlisted for short 
terms. The need of a permanent dis- 
ciplined army to cope with the British 
"regulars" was recognized as urgent. 
Congress accordingly, by resolutions 
of the sixteenth and twentieth days of 
September, and the eighth day of 
October, 1776, provided for such a 
body. The army was proportioned 
among the states according to their 
population, as follows : 

Massachusetts 15 regiments 

Virginia 15 

Pennsylvania 12 

New York 4 

Maryland 8 

Connecticut ... 8 

and the rest in like ratio. 

As a body they formed the Conti- 
nental Army, and the regiments of 
each state formed a subdivision by 
themselves. Each state quota thus 
became a "Line Regiment" in itself, 
which was designated by its state's 
name, as the "New York Line," "Con- 
necticut Line," etc., each being a dis- 
tinct body commanded by officers from 
its own state and cared for by its own 
state as well as by Congress. In- 
spired by a common cause and welded 
into a homogeneous body under the 
leadership of General Washington, it 
was these state "Lines," facing the 
enemy as a single "Continental Army" 
that were to bear the burden of the 
war for the next six years and bring it 
to a successful close. 

Washington Called for •« Clean 
and Spruce" Men in 1776 

The Washington Continental Guard, 
also known as the "Washington Life 
Guard," "Captain Gibbs' Guard" and 
the "Commander-in-Chief's Guard," 
was organized on the twelfth day of 
March, 1776, a few days before the 
termination of the Seige of Boston, 
pursuant to the following order : 

Headquarters, Cambridge, 
March ii, 1776. 
The General is desirous of selecting a 
particular number of men as a guard for 
himself and baggage. The colonel, or com- 
manding officer, of each of the established 
regiments, the artillery and riflemen ex- 

cepted, will furnish him four, that the num- 
ber wanted may be chosen out of them. 
His Excellency depends upon the colonels 
for good men, such as they can recommend 
for their sobriety, honesty and good behav- 
ior. He wishes them to be from five feet 
eight inches to five feet ten inches, hand- 
somely and well made, and as there is noth- 
ing, in his eyes, more desirable than clean- 
liness in a soldier, he desires that particular 
attention may be made in the choice of such 
men as are clean and spruce. They are to 
be at headquarters to-morrow precisely at 
twelve o'clock noon, when the number 
wanted will be fixed upon. The General 
neither wants them with uniforms, nor 
arms, nor does he desire any man to be sent 
to him that is not perfectly willing, or de- 
sirous of being of this Guard. They should 
be drilled men." 

On the following day, March 12, 
1776, Caleb Gibbs of Massachusetts 
was commissioned captain of the 
Guard, which consisted of a major's 
command of one hundred and eighty 
men, to whom was entrusted the de- 
tails of the organization. 

The Guard, like the Continental 
Army, was organized and reorganized 
several times during the Revolutionary 
War, and on the twenty-second day of 
April, 1777, the commander-in-chief 
sent the following letter to Captain 
Gibbs : 

Morristown, April 22, 1777. 
Captain Gibbs : 
Dear Sir: 

I forgot before you left this place to de- 
sire you to provide clothing for the men 
that are to compose my Guard. . . . 
Provide for four sergeants, four corporals, 
a drum and fife and fifty rank and file. If 
blue and buff can be had, I should prefer 
that uniform, as it is the one I wear myself. 
I shall get men from five feet nine inches 
to five feet ten inches for the Guard; for 
such sized men, therefore, make your cloth- 
ing. You may get a small round hat, or a 
cocked hat, as you please. . . . 

I am, dear sir, your most obedient 
George Washington. 

In accordance with the foregoing, 
and on the thirtieth day of April, 1777, 
the general issued the following circu- 
lar to the colonels, or commanding 
officers, of the various regiments sta- 
tioned at Morristown : 
Sirs : 

I want to form a company for my Guard. 
In doing this I wish to be extremely cau- 


tious, because it is more than probable that 
in the course of the campaign my baggage, 
papers and other matters of great public 
import may be committed to the sole care 
of these men. This being premised in 
order to impress you with proper attention 
in the choice. I have to request that you 
will immediately furnish me with four men 
of your regiment ; and, as it is my further 
wish that the company should look well, 
and be nearly of a size, I desire that none 
of the men may exceed in stature five feet 
ten inches nor fall short of five feet nine 
inches ; sober, young, active and well made. 
When I recommend care in your choice, I 
would be understood to mean of good char- 
acter in the regiment, that possesses the 
pride of appearing clean and soldierlike. I 
am satisfied that there can be no absolute 
security for the fidelity of this class of peo- 
ple; but yet I think it most likely to be 
found in those who have family connections 
in the country. You will, therefore, send 
me none but natives, as I do not want to 
create any individual distinction between 
them and the foreigners." 

The Guard varied in numbers at dif- 
ferent periods during the Revolution- 
ary War. At first it consisted of one 
hundred and eighty men. During the 
winter of 1779- 1780 it was increased 
to two hundred and fifty men and in 
the spring of 1780 it was reduced to 
its original number and in 1783, the 
last year of the war, it consisted of 
sixty-four non-commissioned officers 
and privates. It was the duty of the 
infantry portion of the Guard to guard 
the headquarters and insure the safe- 
keeping of the papers and effects of 
the commander-in-chief, as well as the 
safety of his person. The mounted 
portion accompanied the commander- 
in-chief on his marches and in recon- 
noitering, and were also employed as 
patrols, videttes and bearers of the 
commander-in-chief's orders to vari- 
ous military posts. 

Uniforms of Soldiers of 
Continental Army in 1776 

The Continental Congress on the 
eighth day of October, 1776, resolved 
"that for the further encouragement of 
the non-commissioned officers and sol- 
diers, who shall engage in the service 
during the war, a suit of clothes be 
annually given to each of said officers 
and soldiers, to consist for the present 

year of two linen hunting shirts, two 
pair of overalls, a leathern or woolen 
waistcoat with sleeves, one pair of 
breeches, a hat or leather cap, two 
shirts, two pair of hose and two pair 
of shoes." On the twenty-fifth day of 
November, 1779, Congress further re- 
solved, that the following articles be 
delivered as a suit of clothes for the 
current and every succeeding year of 
their service to the officers of the line 
and staff, entitled by any resolution of 
Congress to receive the same, viz.: 
"one hat, one watch coat, one body coat, 
four vests, one for winter and three 
for summer; four pair of breeches, 
two for winter and two for summer; 
four shirts, six pair of stockings, three 
pair thereof worsted and three of 
thread and four pair of shoes." 

On the twenty-third day of March, 
1 779> Congress by resolution "author- 
ized and directed the commander-in- 
chief, according to the circumstances 
of supplies of clothing, to fix and pre- 
scribe the uniform, as well as with re- 
gard to color and facing, as also as to 
cut and fashion of the clothes to be 
worn by the troops of the respective 
states and regiments — woolen overalls 
for winter and linen for summer." 

In accordance with the above reso- 
lution, the following general order, 
dated Headquarters, Moore House, 
October 2, 1779, was issued by Gen- 
eral Washington. "The following are 
the uniforms that have been deter- 
mined for the troops of these states re- 
spectively, so soon as the state of the 
public supplies will permit of their be- 
ing furnished accordingly ; and, in the 
meantime, it is recommended to the 
officers to endeavor to accommodate 
their uniforms to the standard, that 
when the men come to be supplied, 
there may be a proper uniformity." 

New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode 
Island and Connecticut : 

Blue faced with white, 

Buttons and linings white. 
New York and New Jersey : 

Blue faced with buff, 

Buttons and linings white. 
Pennsylvania, Delaware and Virginia: 

Blue faced with red, 


Buttons and linings white. 
North Carolina, South Carolina and 
Georgia : 
Blue faced with blue, 
Button holes edged with narrow white 

lace or tape, 
Buttons and linings white. 
Artillery and Artillery Artificers : 
Blue faced with scarlet, 
Scarlet linings, 
Yellow buttons, 
Yellow bound hats, 

Coats edged with narrow lace or tape 
and button holes bound with same. 
Light Dragoons : 
The whole blue, 
Faced with white, 
White buttons and linings. 

Headquarters, Short Hills, 
June 18, 1780. 
The colonels, lieutenant-colonels and 
majors, the uniforms of their regiments and 
two epaulettes. 

The captains, the uniform of their regi- 
ment and an epaulette on the left shoulder. 
All officers as will warrant, as commis- 

sioned, to weai a cockade and side arms, 
a sword or a genteel bayonet." 

Headquarters, Newburgh, 
May 14, 1782. 
"The clothier is, if practicable, to obtain 
worsted shoulder knots for the non-commis- 
sioned, to wear a cockade and side arms, 
distinguished by one on each shoulder and 
the corporals by one on the right shoulder, 
and in the meantime it is proposed that a 
piece of white cloth should be substituted by 
way of distinction." 

The military record of the New 
World, while not as spectacular as 
that of the Old World, is a story of 
strong men with strong hearts who 
have conquered strong forces until 
today this first struggling republic 
is one of the strongest nations of the 
earth and stands at this moment a 
world power — learned in the arts of 
peace and the forerunner of an age 
of Universal Brotherhood. 





Shall I rejoice that thou hast never 
Life's thorny, bitter way ; 
That woodland glades with roses over- 
Are where thy glad feet stray? 
Aye, — tho' I toil alone 

Beneath my cross this day. 

Shall I recall thee from thy roses, 
To feel the thorns with me ; 
When deathless sorrow hath not lured 
thy feet 
Nor taught thine eyes to see? 
Nay, — 'twere not meet 

My grief should sadden thee. 

But O, when sorrow beckons at thy door, 
And thou dost rise and follow far, 

As I rejoin thee on the distant shore 
Where all earth's grieved ones are, 

If thou implore 

I'll show my livid scar. 





1HAVE wondered if my good 
friends took due consideration 
when they invited me to relate 
my reminiscences of New Haven 
as it was nearly sixty years ago. It is 
said that a man in advanced years is 
inclined to dwell too much upon the 
past and to become tiresome to those 
in younger life. With this in mind I 
will promise to make these recollec- 
tions as entertaining as they are remi- 

I will begin chronologically, as ob- 
servations and traditions serve my 
memory, and start from those present 
"classic precincts/' known as Fair 
street — now an Italian quarter. I 
first saw the light of day in the brick 
house which stood on the westerly 
part of the land now occupied by the 
public school building on that thor- 
oughfare. From this home I started 
out on life's mission, have always been 
a resident of New Haven, grown up 
with it and watched its various 
changes down to the present time, 
with its celebrity as a commercial and 
educational center, a period of seventy- 
five years. 

My first recollection takes me back 
to my childhood as a pupil in the 
primary school kept by Miss Mary 
Bakewell, in the house which stood on 
the easterly end of the same lot on 
which stands the public school build- 
ing before mentioned. There were 
two sisters who kept this school for 
years, Miss Betsey and Miss Mary 
Bakewell; they were well-to-do, edu- 
cated English ladies and it is said they 
were the owners of the first piano in 
New Haven. It is a quaint specimen 
and is now in the possession of the 

New Haven Colony Historical Soci- 
ety ; go and see it. Their father was 
a brewer; his brewery was on the 
easterly side of the street still bearing 
that name, on the land now owned by 
the Smedley brothers. 

The brewery was burned; reverses 
came to Mr. Bakewell and his family, 
and these daughters took up teaching 
for a livelihood. They were brought 
up in luxury and it is said that when 
they promenaded the streets their col- 
ored train bearers followed, carrying 
the trains of their silk gowns. All 
this out of Fair street! Look at the 
change as it stands to-day. 

Next to them lived the Bonticou 
family, who were descendants of the 
French Huguenots. Mrs. Joanna 
Bonticou was also a teacher and was 
really one of the promoters of the kin- 
dergarten system, adopting much the 
same methods of teaching as are used 
in the schools of to-day. Her daugh- 
ter married Commodore Elisha Peck 
of the United States Navy. He lived 
in the brick house adjoining, on the 
east. They had two daughters, one of 
whom married Captain W. W. Low 
of the United States Navy, and the 
other married General J. M. Whitte- 
more of the United States Army. I 
shall never forget Commodore Peck 
hiring me (a five year old boy) to go 
with him on board his ship to pick up 
cannon balls. 

On the corner of Olive street lived 
Captain John Miles, a Revolutionary 
soldier, and his descendants for many 
years afterwards. 

On the southeast corner of Olive 
and Fair streets, Moses Perkins re- 
sided and raised the liveliest, j oiliest 



family of boys that ever lived under 
one roof. If any fun or mischief was 
brewing they were always in it. 

Good Deacon Isaac Mix and his 
daughter, Mrs. Jessie Peck, occupied 
the next house, which was originally 
Benedict Arnold's barn. 

John Beach, a teller or bookkeeper 
in the County Bank, and two maiden 
ladies, Grace and Betsey Brintnall, 
lived in the next house, which was a 
double one. In the mention of this 
double house it may interest you to 
know that it was built by Captain 
David Phipps, a patriot in the days of 
the American Revolution. 

I quote from the Connecticut 
Journal as follows : "He answered 
to the first call of his country in 1775 
and having led a sea-faring life, en- 
tered her service as sailing master on 
board the continental ship, 'Alfred/ 
commanded by Admiral Hopkins, who 
with a small fleet sailed to New Prov- 
idence, West Indies, and took the gov- 
ernor of that island prisoner, together 
with the garrison and all the ammuni- 
tion and warlike stores belonging to 
its fortifications. This, one of the 
first enterprises of the American 
Navy, may be considered the presage 
of its many brilliant exploits since 
that time. Captain Phipps was a com- 
peer with Stephen Decatur, their re- 
spective commissions bearing the 
same date. He served on many sloops 
of war and frigates, and had the satis- 
faction of seeing his name in a return 
to the Navy Department, on the roll of 
officers who had served their country 
with honor from the very beginning 
to the end of the war." It was his 
annual custom, in the later years of 
his life, to show his loyalty and love of 
country by donning his uniform upon 
the Fourth of July and sitting out on 
the porch of his house. He died at 
the age of eighty-four years in 1825. 

Next in order came William Town- 
send's double house. He was a car- 
penter and lived to the advanced age 
of ninety-five years. He was a very 
nice, lovable old gentleman, and the 

world was better for his having lived 
in it. 

Ex-Governor James E. English 
once lived in the westerly half of the 
Townsend house. In the next house, 
ex-Governor Henry B. Harrison re- 
sided at one time with his mother, and 
Thomas Chatterton lived in the one 
next to that. 

The genial John B. Hotchkiss, the 
junior member of the late firm of Car- 
rington and Hotchkiss, who for so 
many years published the Journal and 
Courier, was born in the next house. 
He was a man whose character needs 
no eulogy from me; he was simply 
"nature's nobleman." 

Julius Tyler resided on the south- 
east corner of Fair and Union streets. 
John Anthony lived in the one next 
south of the Tyler's on Union street; 
Anthony's wife was a noted doctress 
in "roots and herbs," and he used to 
drive her about town in his old high 
chariot to visit her patients. 

Asa Buddington ran a grocery store 
at the northeast corner of Fair and 
Union streets for many years, and 
George Beckwith was his "confiden- 
tial clerk," as Mr. Buddington called 

Dennis Covert had a soap and can- 
dle chandlery on the corner of Prindle 
Alley and Fair street. 

This brings me back to my starting 
point. Alexander Coburn built the 
brick house in which I was born, and 
occupied the westerly half of the 
double frame house which stood next. 
Riley Nott lived in the easterly part of 
this house until he bought the frame 
house now standing on Olive street 
next south of the two brick houses 
built by the Home Insurance Com- 
pany. This house he bought of Joe 
Barber for $2,800. It is said that 
when Mr. Nott made the purchase it 
was agreed that Mr. Barber should 
take in specie what he could not pay in 
bank bills. Mr. Barber executed the 
deed, took it to Mr. Nott who read it 
through, put it in his pocket and pro- 
ceeded to make his payment, which 


was $2,700 in specie, principally sil- 
ver, from a Spanish milled dollar to a 
fo'pence ha'penny, copper cents and 
only one hundred dollars in bills. 
Mr. Nott had evidently no use for 
banks, for he kept his money hidden 
away in different parts of his store. 
Mr. Barber was obliged to get a 
wheelbarrow to carry his treasure 

The Alexander Storer corner, at 
Olive and Wooster streets, was a 
noted grocery stand for years, Mr. 
Storer being a very genial and pleas- 
ant man to meet. Sidney Thomas kept 
a private school over the store where 
I was once a pupil. 

In the old tree which stood on the 
corner I remember seeing a political 
flag of the democracy, called in those 
days "Loco-focos." "Polk, Dallas 
and Victory" was the inscription on 
what was then called a burgee flag. 

I recall the carriage shop which 
stood at the head of Fair street on 
Olive street. In 1837 the concern 
went financially to the wall, and I re- 
member seeing the workmen standing 
outside the yard in their best clothes 
and I thought it was a funeral. This 
idea was probably the result of the im- 
pression made upon my mind, a few 
days prior to this event, of watching a 
funeral procession in which post 
stage coaches were brought into requi- 

Then came the Hervey Hemingway 
house. He was for many years pro- 
prietor of the New York and New 
Haven Packet Line of sloops, plying 
between the two cities. 

Next to this came the John Brom- 
ham house. On the opposite side of 
the street resided Dr. Nathaniel 
Booth who owned all the frontage 
from Water street northerly on Olive 
street, to the corner of Fair street, and 
I believe it is still in the possession of 
his descendants. 

At the foot of Olive street, on 
Water street, at Canal Basin, Birdsey 
Brooks built canal boats as well as 
small sailing craft and scows. 

The Brown brothers ran a soap and 
candle concern on the westerly side of 
Union street and Frank Donnelly a 
grocery store; he built the hotel on 
the corner of what was then Cherry 
and Union streets. Wooster street, 
from Olive to State, was then called 
Cherry street. 

A row of old wooden buildings ex- 
tended on the easterly side of Union 
street from Cherry street to the 
church edifice erected by the Third 
Congregational Society on the corner 
of Chapel street where the Masonic 
Temple now stands. It was a brick 
structure with a high basement, front- 
ing on Union street; its approach on 
Chapel street was by a long flight of 
steps, surmounted with two large 
brick columns, similar to those of the 
old State House. Rev. E. L. Cleve- 
land was the second pastor to the time 
of his decease and he vacated this 
building in about 1840 on account of 
theological differences and built the 
church in Court street, and in 1856 
erected the structure on Church street 
used at the present time for the Free 
Public Library. 

At this separation the Chapel street 
church was organized, an off-shoot 
from the Third Church. It is now 
known as the Church of the Re- 
deemer, but its corporate name is still 
"The Chapel Street Ecclesiastical So- 

In the rear of this church, on Union 
street, was a one-story frame building, 
occupied as an engine house for En- 
gine No. 4. In my boyhood Dr. 
Nathaniel Booth was its foreman. 
Among its members were George 
Beckwith, Edward Buddington and 
John Douglass; the last mentioned 
was a pump maker and his shop was 
located on State street, on the westerly 
side, at the junction of Olive street. 
Engine No. 4 was a double-decker, a 
plain, black painted machine without 
ornamentation. The firemen wore 
white "Duck" Prince Albert coats and 
stiff hats, specimens of which can be 
seen at the New Haven Colony His- 


torical Society's rooms. Four times 
a year the department turned out with 
their apparatus to soak it out and ex- 
ercise; these quarterlies were called 
"washing days," and the old canal, 
south end of the market, was the place 
of rendezvous. 

I have seen contesting engine com- 
panies in that square trying their best 
to throw a stream of water over the 
two-story buildings on State street 
without success until John Douglass, 
who was called "Pump Douglass," 
a tall six-footer, conceived the idea of 
making a long pipe (one as long as 
himself), which it is said he kept hid- 
den until the eventful time should 
come to test it, which was the next 
"washing-day." The engine compa- 
nies had lined up on the banks of the 
canal for another trial ; Douglass, who 
had remained in the engine house, 
came striding across the street with 
this formidable pipe at "right shoul- 
der" and attached it to the "goose 
neck" of the engine. The men 
manned the brakes; Dr. Booth 
mounted the engine and gave his 
orders through his fire trumpet, shout- 
ing: "Break her down, break her 
down, boys !" which effort resulted 
in throwing a knitting-needle sized 
stream of water across the canal and 
over Booth and Bromham's store and 
sprinkling the sidewalk on State 
street. And what a cheer went up 
from No. 4's men ! 

A Sack and Bucket Company was 
organized in the decade of the forties, 
which had quarters in the same build- 
ing with Engine No. 4. Their motto 
was : "We sack, but 'tis to save." 

I also recall the great fire on Chapel 
street, which occurred in 1837, and re- 
member the condition of the street the 
following day, and saw the leather fire 
buckets strewn around, with the 
names of the owners on them and the 
line of hose to the old canal, which 
was the water supply for the center of 
the city, at its fires. There were lines 
of hose from one engine to another, 
with only one stream of water on the 

fire ; now we can see a dozen or more 
at the same time. 

In 1838, the two hundredth anni- 
versary of the settlement of the town 
was celebrated and all the schools 
were represented in the parade. I 
was a participant and remember well 
how Miss Bakewell held me by the 
hand and trotted me over the old canal 
bridge on Fair street to keep up with 
the other members of her school who 
were in the lead of the other sister. 
In 1888 another celebration took 
place, the 250th anniversary of the 
settlement of New Haven. I was 
also in that parade, with two hundred 
Lancasterian schoolboys, with our 
venerable teacher, John E. Lovell, 
then ninety years old or more. 

Now this brings me up to the day of 
the old market building which stood 
on the Chapel street end of the now 
old, dilapidated depot, corner of 
Union street. It was a one-story 
affair, once painted blue, the north 
end on a level with Chapel street, pos- 
sibly two hundred or more feet long 
on Union Street; there was quite a 
grade to the rear, which was reached 
by a long flight of open stairs, and the 
old canal was on the westerly side. 
The Second Company Governor's 
Foot Guard and the New Haven 
Grays used to drill in the market as 
it was the only building large enough 
to admit of their company's manoeu- 
vres in its marching and wheeling ex- 
ercises. The hook and ladders used 
by the fire department were stored 
overhead and the basement was used 
for storage purposes ; behind it was 
an open square from Union street to 
the canal. 

On the south end, near the Cherry 
street bridge, stood one of New Ha- 
ven's old land marks, "Rowland's 
Mill;" it was a grist mill and was 
patronized from far and near. It 
stood until the depot on Union street 
was built in the "forties." It was also 
a pumping station; it elevated water 
from the canal into a huge tank set 
upon timbers high enough to admit a 


fall of water from six to eight feet. 
The power running these institutions 
was obtained from the canal. A lock, 
the first one, and known as "Rowland's 
Lock," was located here. George 
Rowland, the miller, a most genial, 
witty specimen of a man and who 
really was the wittiest man in town, 
with his three sons, George, Thomas 
and Fred, ran the mill. 

I need not tell you that it was his 
son, Thomas Fitch Rowland, who 
built the first "Monitor" which saved 
the United States Navy in its engage- 
ment with the Confederate Ram, 
"Merrimac," in the late war of the 
Rebellion. Mr. Rowland has been to- 
tally ignored in all the published 
accounts Of the construction of this 
memorable craft, and while I would 
not, for one moment, or in any man- 
ner, detract one iota of credit due its 
projectors, I do want to honor the 
name of that Lancasterian schoolboy, 
the self-made man that he is, Thomas 
Fitch Rowland, the constructor of the 
first "Monitor" afloat, a New Haven 
boy and an honored son of Connecti- 
cut and of the whole country; for it 
was owing to his push and persever- 
ance that he only, had the plant, the 
machinery and tools with which to 
build the "nation's defender." 

In this connection I want to say 
that I happened to be on board the re- 
ceiving ship in the Brooklyn Navy- 
yard, of which Commodore Gregory 
was then in command, when the 
"Monitor" steamed out for Hampton 
Roads, Virginia. He called my atten- 
tion to it, and, putting his arm over 
my shoulder, said: "Boy, do you see 
that vessel towing out there?" I re- 
plied affirmatively. "Well," said he, 
"that's the 'Monitor' and we shall hear 
from her in a few days," and we did. 

George Rowland, junior, also re- 
moved to New York, but his son, Fred 
C. Rowland, a "chip of the old block," 
remained with us, running a promi- 
nent machine shop and building steam 
engines under the firm name of F. C. 
and A. E. Rowland. 

As to the witty George Rowland, I 
will content myself with giving one or 
two instances of his wit. A Long 
Wharf shipping merchant who had 
four hundred bushels of corn wanted 
it ground to ship to the West Indies. 
He called on Mr. Rowland several 
times to get a reduction in price for 
grinding, but Mr. Rowland was not a 
jockey and stuck to his price, which 
was two and a half cents a bushel. 
Again the merchant called one morn- 
ing and said: "Well, George, what 
are you doing to-day?" He replied: 
"I ain't grinding the face of the poor, 

Mr. ." "Well, well, George," 

said the merchant, "I will send up 400 
bushels of corn for you to grind." The 
corn came ; it was ground and shipped 
to the West Indies. When Mr. Row- 
land presented his bill of $10.00 the 
merchant refused to pay more than 
$8.00. After considerable reluctance 
on the part of the debtor to pay, Mr. 

Rowland said : "Mr. , if you will 

pay me the $10.00 I'll do at your fune- 
ral what no one else will do." "What 
will you do, George?" asked the mer- 
chant. "I'll cry," responded Row- 

Up to this time an Irishman was 
hardly known in this community. The 
Farmington canal was commenced in 
1826. Contemplate to-day, the re- 
sult of that beginning. Canal Basin, 
now occupied as a switch yard, ex- 
tended from East Water street to 
Brewery street on the north, Canal 
Basin Wharf on the east, Long 
Wharf on the south, and was the ter- 
minus of the canal. Boats came down 
into the "Basin" and discharged their 
cargoes of cider, produce, shooks, 
wood, etc., to different consignees. At 
the junction of Canal Basin and Long 
Wharf was a tide gate, allowing an 
outlet and ingress into the "Basin." 
The canal boats were poled down the 
whole length of the wharf, where they 
could load direct from the vessels 
their rum, sugar, molasses, salt, lum- 
ber, and on the return flood tide again 
enter the Basin and sail up the canal 


to their destination as far as North- 
ampton, Massachusetts. In the win- 
ter season I have seen square-rigged 
vessels moored inside the Basin. 

Canal Basin Wharf was built by a 
colored man who was known in his 
day as "King Lanson." He quarried 
the stone at East Rock and scowed it 
down to the wharf that he was build- 

The canal "gave up the ghost" in 
the spring of 1847 \ at the same time 
the railroad was being constructed. It 
is said that the only dividend the canal 
ever paid was from the sale of the 
grass mowed off the tow-path, and 
that to only one stockholder. 

When a youngster I took a trip 
"abroad" on the "raging canal" and 
was two days and one night going to 
Avon, a distance of thirty miles. My 
return was by the "post coach" from 
Farmington, via Bristol Basin (now 
Plainville),Southington, Cheshire and 

A bridge crossed the canal on 
Chapel street, with a truss through 
the center, sheathed in- and painted 
yellow ; it stood for many years. 

The post-office, in the early forties, 
was at the corner of Union and 
Chapel streets and remained there un- 
til the present building was erected. 
The first building was of brick with a 
high-peaked roof from its four cor- 
ners. Edward A. Mitchell was, I 
think, postmaster in 1844 and it was 
under his administration that postage 
stamps were first introduced in this 
country; they were made by Augus- 
tus E. Lines, quite recently deceased. 
The original die is now in the depart- 
ment in Washington. Brewster's 
Hall was built on this site and the 
post-office was also in this building 
for many years. 

Adelphi building was on the north- 
west corner of Chapel and Union 
streets. The Canal Company's office 
was in this building and the Grays 
also had an armory there until they 
moved to Glebe building, corner of 
Church and Chapel streets ; it was here 

that Colonel Samuel Tolles enjoyed 
the zenith of his popularity as captain 
of this honored command. The tele- 
graph office has always been in this 
building, first and second stories, until 
its recent change. 

The Dwight building, now enlarged 
and known as the Boardman building, 
occupied its present site, the northeast 
corner of Chapel and State streets. 
Lewis Fitch for many years occupied 
the corner store and his was the first 
store where ready-made clothing was 
sold in this city. Adams Express 
Company's office was in this building 
for a long time. The General Ford 
building was originally built by James 
Brewster in the decade of the forties 
and Everard Benjamin occupied the 
store, and it is still occupied to-day by 
his successor, General George H. 

On State street, just below, was 
Zebul Bradley, a silversmith; then 
Hotchkiss and Whittlesey, wholesale 
grocers; next the County Bank (and 
the old Gambrel Roof house which 
stood on the corner of Veto and 
Orange streets was moved there to 
make room for the County Bank) ; 
then came Ashley G. Lucus' store 
where Adams' Express Company first 
had an office. Booth and Bromham's 
drug store followed, now occupied by 
Charles S. Leete & Company; Finch 
& Barnes, A. L. Kidston, Newell C. 
Hall, Ives & Beecher and Jonathan 
Nicholson was at the north corner of 
State and Wooster streets. 

On the opposite side of State street 
were Canfield and Spencer, John S. 
Griffing, Stephen Bishop, English and 
Mix, afterwards Lucius Gilbert. 

The County Bank first occupied the 
corner of State and Chapel streets 
where the Yale National Bank is lo- 
cated. Edward E. Hall afterwards 
occupied this corner as a grocery store 
and I was once a clerk for him. 

In the fall of 1848 the New Haven 
Gas Light Company had laid their 
supply pipes through the center of the 
city. Upon the occasion of the Whigs 


celebrating the election of Zachary 
Taylor for president I recollect Hon. 
W. W. Boardman's coming to the cor- 
ner just after a lamp-post had been 
set (minus the lamp) and directed 
that a Whig Light should be displayed 
at this corner upon the occasion of 
their parade that evening. The gas 
was turned on and a flame of fire four 
or five feet high was the result. This 
exhibition of burning gas was a nov- 
elty to me, being the first gas light I 
ever saw. I made up my mind that I 
should have to continue filling and 
cleaning "camphene" lamps a while 
longer under such conditions. 

Next to Mr. Hall's store came 
Luman Cowles' drug store: E. E. 
Huggins had a crockery store; S. B. 
Chittenden, dry goods store; Julia 
Huggins, fancy store, now Howarth 
Brothers' shoe store. Then came the 
two-story frame building owned by 
the Lyon family. The house stood 
back from the street. Here William 
A. Reynolds had a broker's office and 
an insurance agency. 

Miss Harriet Ford, "a hustler," ran 
(the McNulty) fashionable millinery 
emporium of those days with flower- 
ing lilac bushes in the front yard in- 
stead of being on the "headgears" of 
the ladies as they are to-day. 

Sidney Babcock, a noted book pub- 
lisher of his day, had the next store 
and Paul Rcessler was afterward in 
the same building; for many years 
there was a flight of several steps to 
get into the store. It was a two-story 
brick building painted lead color. 

Next came the Register, edited 
by Osborn and Baldwin; following 
westerly, the Connecticut Herald 
(now Journal and Courier), edited 
and published by John B. Carrington 
and Thomas G. Woodward; on the 
opposite side of the street was the 
Palladium office, Babcock and Wild- 
man publishers. The A. C. Heiht- 
man book store was next; Charles 
Bostwick had an old established har- 
ness and trunk store ; Edwin Marble's 

noted carpet store for many years was 
in the next building. 

A noted character in those days was 
Davenport, a deformed man. He 
wore a peculiarly constructed coat of 
many strips and many colors ; he kept 
a toy store and was cross to the chil- 
dren, and they, knowing it, almost 
bothered the life out of the poor man. 
Let it be said to his credit that when 
he passed away it was found that he 
had bequeathed to the New Haven 
Orphan Asylum his entire estate. 

All the merchants on the street had 
their stores opened by seven o'clock, 
but Davenport never took down his 
shutters before eight or nine o'clock 
in the morning. I remember of read- 
ing the chalk mark of some wag on 
his store door one day. It was the 
following quotation : 

Not dead, but sleepeth. 

Next came the Saunders building; 
Peterson and Glenney occupied the 
east store as a paint and oil empo- 
rium, with Philip Saunders on the 
corner, whose store was the first 
house furnishing establishment (a 
specialty) in the town; he also sold 
cordials and "salts and metheglins." 
Mr. Saunders was a wit and many are 
the anecdotes told of him. The sec- 
ond story was a hall known for many 
years as "Saunders' Hall" with en- 
trance on Orange street. 

Orange street from Chapel to 
Court streets was called "Maiden 
Lane," because it was the millinery 
headquarters for the ladies. An old 
landmark was Edward Bulkley's 
"Golden Chair," which sign hung out 
from the top story window of the 
brick building next to the new struct- 
ure of the New Haven Savings Bank. 
It was in this building the Homan 
family first started in with theatrical 

The New Haven Savings Bank was 
incorporated in 1838; William G. 
Hooker was its first treasurer. The 
bank occupied a rear portion of the 
New Haven Bank building with an 



entrance from Orange street. Treas- 
urer Hooker was succeeded by Ste- 
phen D. Pardee. The bank afterward 
removed to the site recently vacated 
on the opposite side of the street and 
now owned by the National Savings 

The Connecticut Savings Bank was 
incorporated in 1857, because it is 
said, of the trouble that Democrats 
experienced in obtaining loans at the 
former bank, Treasurer Pardee being 
an old line Whig and most opposed to 
dealing with the opposite party. 

The assembly house, corner of 
Court and Orange streets, was a well- 
known rendezvous and caught the 
members of the General Assembly at 
its biennial sessions at New Haven. 
We used to call the members "shad 
eaters." Big black Jim Cooper, a 
noted colored waiter in those days, 
served the guests at this house during 
the session of the legislature. One 
morning while waiting on the table 
black Jim announced : "Tea or coffee, 
sah !" One of these rural representa- 
tives replied: "Shad!" creating much 

The old Masonic Temple at the 
northeast corner of Orange and Court 
streets was built in the forties. It was 
considered a great building at the 
time it was erected. The second floor 
was built on an inclined plane, the east 
end of which was well up to the ceil- 
ing and made it quite a sweat-box on 
a hot night; it was used as a public 
hall for many years. At one time the 
space under the east end was occupied 
by the Young Men's Institute as a 

The "Woodcock," a noted cafe, 
stood where the police building now 
stands on Court street and was noted 
for its game dinners and concoctions 
of beverages. It was headquarters 
for characters of prominence — such 
men as Scott Ball, Pete Tomlinson, 
Print Law and others. Then there 
was the old Court Street Church 
erected in the early forties with its 
peculiar fire alarm bell. 

Among the genial and kind people 
who lived in Court street were the 
Hayes family. There was Ezekiel 
Hayes, the printer ; William, who was 
Morris Tyler's right hand man for 
years ; Edward R., at the head of the 
H. Trowbridge Sons, and Dwight 
shipping house on Long Wharf, and 
Charles R., all witty and jolly fellows. 
All have passed away, but their mem- 
ories are still fresh with those of as 
who knew them best. 

Philimon Hoadley kept the up-to- 
date hack and livery stable in his time, 
where Joseph H. McDonald is now 
located on the north side of Court 
street. Mr. Hoadley was an urbane, 
kindly spoken gentleman to every- 
body. He was a man of commanding 
physique and looked finely on a horse. 
He was succeeded by Barker & Ran- 
som in the "Hotel d'Horse," and they 
in turn by McDonald & Ransom, occu- 
pying each side of the street. 

Another old-school type of a gentle- 
man was Charles W. Curtiss, once the 
high sheriff of the county, who also 
kept the Tontine livery stable in the 
early forties. 

A noted firm was Augustus & Fred 
Lines, who kept a store on the 
corner of State street and Grand 
avenue. Augustus was clerk of the 
school district for many years and 
children for entrance to the public 
schools in those days (which were 
principally the "Lancasterian"), had 
to apply to him for tickets of admis- 
sion. They would overrun the store. 
Fred used to get rattled about it and 
would clear them out of the State 
street door and send them to the 
clerk's office which was in an old 
frame building next to the store on 
Grand street, but instead of going 
there they would enter the Grand 
street door, and while he was hustling 
them out of the State street exit, he 
was confronted by the same children 
again through the Grand street en- 
trance. The Lines brothers kept a 
liquor store and it was not considered 
a respectable business by the North 


Church, which excommunicated Fred. 
The next day he advertised so many 
puncheons of St. Croix rum, so many 
pipes Holland gin, French brandy and 
hogsheads New England rum, and a 
pew in the middle aisle of the North 
Church — all in the same advertise- 

New Haven abounded in noted 
characters in those days and I could 
keep you all night rehearsing their 
jokes and eccentricities, but let it suf- 
fice here to simply mention some of 
their names: Elnathan Attwater, 
Captain Samuel Forbes, Captain Ben- 
jamin Beecher, Elam Hull, William 
H. Ellis, Dr. Nathaniel Booth, Judge 
Daggett, Judge Darling, Henry Eld, 
Sam Bishop, Philip Saunders, Sher- 
man Prescott and John Bulford, who 
could remember people "when East 
Rock was no bigger than a basket." 

Good old Billy Goodwin was an 
Englishman by birth and was noted 
for his genial good nature. He was 
a friend to all the boys and a warm 
friend of John E. Lovell. Many are 
the boys of his day who received 
"Goodwin's Silver Medal" for their 
standing in the Lancasterian school. 

There was Dr. Fontaine, a French- 
man and a quack doctor, who adver- 
tised "The balm of a thousand flow- 
ers" for all ailments. Once, when 
asked what the "balm of a thousand 
flowers" was, he replied : "Ho'ney" in 
his broken English accent. All man- 
ner of jokes were attempted by the 
boys on the doctor, but he was equal 
to them. 

"Mikey" Downes, newsmonger, 
opened the first news-stand in the city. 
Any one by paying two cents could sit 
in his back room and read the New 
York papers through and through; 
consequently some of them were well 
worn out from use. He it was who 
electrified the city in his announce- 
ment on the street, crying out 
the "Great Con-flag-aration" (which 
transpired in New York), selling his 
papers. His headquarters were on 
the westerly side of Church street, 

near the present Pease-Lewis Com- 
pany's news-stand. 

Gill Camp, a noted money broker, 
was also on Church street. There was 
Billy Hogan, a witty, rollicking old 
Irishman, who always kept full of 
"Forty rod" and spent the latter part 
of his life in the alms-house. Sylves- 
ter Potter was a noted whip and an 
eccentric fellow. He was always 
ready to invest "seventy-five cents" in 
a horse trade and was commonly 
called "Vet," which name he didn't 
like, and as he used to say, he much 
preferred to be called "Mr. Potter." 

McCracken & Merriman had a dry- 
goods store where the City Bank now 
stands. In the rear was a noted 
ladies' fancy goods store where all 
kinds of "crewel" material and knit- 
ting yarns could be found, and an up- 
to-date fashionable bazaar for ladies, 
kept by Mrs. Wakely for many years. 
Afterwards a man by the name of 
Bradley kept a peanut stand there, 
with small beer, peppermint sugar 
kisses and candies ; he was a man of 
very few words and so quiet a disposi- 
tion that the boys gave him the sobri- 
quet of "meek and lowly." It is said 
he made quite a pile in this business. 
Charles B. Line's and Abel Chamber- 
lain's furniture stores came next; 
Sherman Blair's undertaker and fur- 
niture store next south; in their rear 
was Thomas and George Cook's car- 
riage factory ; then came the property 
of Deacon Isaac Thompson, a very 
nice man. Several kinds of manufac- 
turing was carried on in the next 
building, and before steam was intro- 
duced a horse treadmill could be seen 
in the basement treading out the 
power for "Dickie Beach," a sawyer, 
and I doubt if any boy ever got by 
without getting a crack at the poor 
old horse. I know I didn't. It was 
here where the "New Haven Public 
Baths" were located; the warm 
water used was from the exhaust 
steam of the engine running the ma- 

On the opposite side of Church 


street, beginning with Chapel street, 
was a dry goods store kept by W. A. 
Thompson; then Samuel Bassett's 
looking glass emporium, and many are 
the quaint productions turned out of 
this establishment. As I recall, then 
came Bowditch's furniture establish- 
ment, and the "Irrepressible" More- 
house, "the greatest sign painter this 
side the equator ;" all below to Crown 
street were private dwellings up to the 
time Center street was opened. 

Jonas B. Bowditch was a very droll 
and witty man. Two of his competi- 
tors in business one day got into a 
heated dispute until they began to call 
each other liars. Mr. B. happened to 
come along and hearing them apply 
such epithets to each other said : "Yes, 
yes, that's right; you both speak the 
truth !" 

In Mr. Bowditch's building, in 
1841, Benjamin Beecher, Jr., the 
father of the gigantic Adams' Express 
Corporation, had an office. Mr. 
Beecher started in with running an 
express to New York city and after- 
wards extended it to Boston via 
steamboats to New York and railroad 
to Boston. He had a few cubic feet 
of storeroom in one end of the bag- 
gage room for his packages on the 
steamboats, a valise for his Boston 
trip and packages by freight. In the 
year 1845 tne United States govern- 
ment stopped him from carrying let- 
ters and threatened him with suits, at 
which he became scared and sold out 
the line and the good will to Mr. 
Adams of Boston (whose name is still 
retained by the company), for the sum 
of $5,000. His New York wagon 
boys, Mr. Spooner and Mr. Dinsmore, 
to whom he paid $4.50 per week and 
board, remained with Mr. Adams: 
they afterwards obtained stock in the 
corporation so that at one time I sup- 
pose they had a controlling interest 
and are known as millionaires. Mr. 
Beecher moved his express office to 
State street in 1843, an d when Mr. 
Adams took the business he continued 
at the same stand until the company 

moved to the Boardman building. 
Washington Webb was the agent for 
the company from the time it bought 
out Mr. Beecher to the time of his de- 

On the southeast corner of Crown 
and Little Orange streets, George and 
Hervey Hoadley's carriage factory 
stood, but afterward removed to the 
old Franklin house, now Hoadley 
building, corner of Crown and Church 
streets. Next to the Hoadley car- 
riage shop on Little Orange street was 
a two-story frame building with a 
cupola called "Union School House." 
Hiram Lodge occupied the upper 
story and in the lower story a school 
was carried on by a Miss Peck. Mr. 
Charles S. Leete, president of the 
Mechanics' Bank, and the late Mr. 
Edwin B. Bowditch, two of New Ha- 
ven's honored citizens, attended Miss 
Peck's school in this building. 

Andrew L. Kidston's house came 
next; then Sherman Blairs'. Wil- 
liam Myers, a noted truckman in his 
day, came next. Opposite the school 
stood the Center Church Chapel for 
many years. Samuel Bishop's hotel 
was a noted hostlery and stood where 
the post-office now stands. His bar- 
tender was "Shel" Ransom and he 
was also a wag. One day, a couple 
drinking at the bar, had rilled the 
glasses full to the brim to his disgust, 
throwing down a ninepence (12^ 
cents) for the two drinks. He 
reached over the bar with his index 
fingers and plunged them into the 
glass over which the patrons stood 
conversing before drinking. "What 
did you do that for?" asked one of 
them in surprise. "To make a hole 
for the water," was his ready re- 

I remember the locations of several 
long handle wooden pumps set out in 
the streets ; one was on Orange street 
in front of the first New Haven Sav- 
ing's Bank; one on the corner of 
Crown and Orange streets ; one at 
Fleet and George streets; a pair at 
the head of the wharf; another 


at the corner of the "Green" and 
one in Broadway. In the fifties the 
corporation of the city placed water 
cisterns at different localities in its 
center for fire uses ; after fires had 
occurred they were refilled. 

The rivalry of the different fire en- 
gine companies in those days was 
keen. Of course each engine was 
almost worshiped by its respective 
members. No. 3, "Relief's" house, 
was on State street on the north side 
of the site of the old Mechanics' Bank. 
Its members were mostly young men, 
clerks and merchants, "light weights" 
in their avoirdupois as compared with 
some of the other companies which 
were made up of brawn and sinews — 
notably so with No. 6. It was the 
height and ambition of each company 
to wash any engine which was receiv- 
ing water from another one when in 
line. I remember one fire at which 
No. 6 was washing No. 3 badly. Jt 
was the custom that one man from 
each company should hold the butt of 
the hose into which an engine was 
conveying water to another. When 
No. 3 could not dispose of the water 
as fast as it was coming in its man at 
the butt was trying to stuff rags into 
the hose and the other fellow was pull- 
ing them out. The captains of the two 
commands were called. They also 
got into a dispute and the result was 
a sharp repartee between them. No. 
6's foreman was a brawny chap with 
protruding teeth which attracted the 
attention of the No. 3 captain, who 

exclaimed: "Mr. , I wish you 

would give me those dominoes of 
yours to write epitaphs on." "Well," 
responded No. 6, "as I think of go- 
ing into the theater business, if you 
will give me that lip of yours I could 
use it as a drop curtain." I never 
knew that any exchange was made, 
but I remember the incident. 

The old New Haven Bank was in- 
corporated in 1792. Under the ad- 
ministration of the late Hervey San- 
ford, one day, the bank was burning 
up its mutilated bills in a cylinder 

stove in the director's room. The 
committee that had this matter in 
charge threw into the stove a bunch 
of bills. A draft of wind took some of 
them out of the chimney top, of which 
Banker Sanford was duly notified. 
Of course the news spread abroad. 
The next morning Bill Bishop, a noted 
wag, appeared at the bank desiring to 
see the president, who promptly re- 
sponded and inquired the nature of 
his business, to which Bill waggishly 
remarked that he understood that the 
bank was burning up its mutilated 

"Yes," said the president, "and 
what of it?" 

"Oh, I wouldn't do that, Mr. San- 
ford," he answered; "I'll give you 
fifty cents on the dollar for 'em." 

The joke was still more of a joke 
because "Bill" couldn't raise fifty 
cents in the world. He was a noted 
character, nevertheless, and many 
were his pranks and jokes. 

I recall another one of his ready 
witticisms. A well-known trio of 
those days stood on the Tontine cor- 
ner. They noticed a woman on the 
opposite side of the street, rather 
worse off for having imbibed a little 
too much. One of the party told 
"Bill" to go and see who she was and 
where she came from. Accordingly 
he crossed the street, walked around 
her and returned. He was asked 
what she said. "Nothing," was his 
reply. "Where did she come from?" 
was the next query. "I don't know, 
but by the smell I should say from 
the West Indies," replied Bill. 

Another one I remember of "Bill." 
A noted fashionable tailor had been 
robbed of his choicest goods one 
night. Bill went into his store the 
next day to condole with him. 
"What's the matter?" he said sympa- 
thetically to the tailor who was 
looking rather downcast. "Matter 
enough," replied the tailor. "Rascals 
broke in and stole all my fine goods 
last night." "Well," said Bill in 
kindly tones, "I wouldn't feel bad over 


that; they'll bring 'em back again." 
"Why do you think so?" asked the 
tailor, encouraged. "Because," drolled 
Bill, "they were marked up so high 
no feller'd dare keep 'em." 

Washington Engine Company, No. 
7, was housed on the campus in a one- 
story frame building where the Art 
Gallery now stands. Upon the occa- 
sion of a "washing day" the company 
turned out with their machine for ex- 
ercise and drill upon the "Upper 
Green," where the students were out 
kicking football. The "Green" was 
not big enough then, for "town and 
gown" to meet without clashing. The 
ball was kicked at the fire laddies and 
they resented it by puncturing the 
"bladder," and in turn their hose was 
cut up by the students, and to end the 
melee, that night the engine itself was 
hacked to pieces and its remains were 
distributed as souvenirs on the cam- 
pus. Phoenix Engine Company, No. 
5, was kept at the bulkhead end of 
Gregson street. That street then 
was not cut through to Crown street 
as it is now until the post-office was 
built on Church street. 

The "Green," until the present iron 
fence was set in 1845 by Nahum 
Hayward, was enclosed with a post 
and rail fence on all sides; also each 
side of Temple street; hence the west 
side was called the "Upper Green." 
The committee in charge of the con- 
struction of the new iron fence was 
undecided as to the distance which the 
posts at the different entrances should 
be placed. They concluded to ask 
Sam Bishop, who was the most portly 
man of the town, to meet them at the 
"Green," which he did, and after tak- 
ing his "breadth of beam" at once de- 
cided this important question. 

On the northerly side of Chapel 
street, from the New Haven Bank to 
the Austin building, were with few 
exceptions two-story frame buildings 
and the second stories were occupied 
as residences. I recall the business 
firms as George B. Mygatt, Charles 
Durand, dry-goods men. Mrs. Lang- 

don, who was a noted milliner in her 
day, had a store here. Demas P. 
Tucker ran a confectionery store 
next and manufactured a root beer, 
the merits of which he set forth in the 
following poetical advertisement: 
When first this beer was made 

The Fairies were all in a pucker ; 
The Forest Isles of the Greenwood rang 

And all creation joined the Clang 
With one symphonious rang-de-dang 
For Demas P. Tucker. 

But Billy Button soon "took the 
wind out of Tucker's sail" by offering 
his "home made Button's Beer served 
to the gentlemen by a beautiful young 

Mr. Tucker was succeeded by 
Knight Reed who opened ice cream 
parlors. Then there was Apothecary 
Hall kept by Samuel Noyes and John 
D. Beecher's stove store. Nathaniel 
Smith ran a livery stable from the rear 
of this block, the entrance being 
where the new English building 
stands. Next came Curtis J. Mon- 
son's jewelry store. Then Thomas 
Pease's periodical and news-stand; 
Seymour Bradley's tin shop ; Reuben 
and James Rice, dry-goods men. Eli 
B. Austin's was the next store and 
his was the leading grocery store of 
the day. Mr. Austin was a , promi- 
nent and progressive man. He was 
usually at the head of all public im- 
provements and largely to his labors 
is due the beautifying of the Grove 
street cemetery and the construction 
and building of the stone wall and 
iron fence enclosing it. He was a 
most genial and affable man to meet 
and was considerable of a poet ; many 
of the doggerels of his day have been 
attributed to him. His friends were 
legion. He was one of the chief en- 
gineers of the City Fire Department, 
and at the time of his death in 1842 
the whole department paraded in their 
"white Prince Albert coats and stiff 
hats" at his funeral. A well-known 
truckman employed by Mr. Austin 
was John C. Duke ; he was a mulatto, 
and a very nice man he was too. Mr. 
Austin thought a great deal of 


"Duke." Benjamin Beecher, Jr., 
afterward occupied this store and I 
was a clerk for him from 1848 to 185 1. 
In the east end of the Exchange Build- 
ing the City Bank was located and re- 
mained there until they occupied their 
present quarters. The Merchant's 
Bank followed them until they built 
on State street. N. F. Tuttle ran a 
shoe store next. Elihu Myers in 1842 
opened a drug store and called it the 
"Good Samaritan" on his big sign 
painted in bold relief. At this time 
Smith & Graves had the corner 
store — a large dry-goods concern. 

So many incidents and anecdotes 
of Old New Haven, more than a half 
century ago, crowd my memory that 
I cannot see any conclusion to these 
recollections and they might ramble 
along indefinitely. It has taken me sev- 
enty-five years of! life in New Havei to 
experience them and I fear I would be 
a centenarian before I could fully nar- 
rate them. If what I have here re- 
corded is of any historic value then I 
am pleased to have had this opportun- 
ity to do some service to the records 
of my native and beloved city. 




I WHO have drunk the water bitter-sweet, 
In whose wan eager lips there gnaws the white 
Sad brine from sin's deep goblet bright, — 
Sit by the barren well I thought replete, 
Its treachery now usen to my sight. 
Before me are the ways that part the feet 
Of common manhood, sloping from my seat, 
And here begins the brooding rim of night. 
Many, athirst, dip in the spring for drink 
Whom tearfully I bid to cease their lust, 
Striking the sparkling cup upon the sand, 
And show the water choked with ancient dust. 
Then if they ftout me with enangered hand 
I bare my shame and fright them from the brink. 


Transcribed by Eliza Comstock, of New Canaan, Connecticut 


Y great - great grandfather 
was a slave owner. Among 
his old papers, that have 
come down through the 
generations, I find a bill of sale of a 
twelve year old negro boy, named 
" Cesar," in 172 1. I also find a will 
left by this same negro " Cesar" in 


These documents give an insight 
into the trade which had become an 
established American custom in 
these early days of the colony. They 
are of stronger evidence than volumes 
of written theories or arguments. 

It is significant that "Cesar," the 
slave, accumulated property, as is 
shown by his " last will and testa- 

ment," and that while he was unable 
to sign his own name, his property 
consisted largely of books. I have 
transcribed it accurately from the 
copy of the will still in my possession. 
I find that this will was admitted to 
probate in Norwalk, Connecticut, 
and is on the records of that prob- 
ate district. 

These documents tell their own 
story. It is unnecessary for me to 
elucidate them other than to men- 
tion that "Dwer" and ' ' Belinda, " 
to whom " Cesar " made bequests in 
his will, were fellow-slaves. I re- 
member hearing my father speak 
of them. The quaint documents are 
here recorded : 

To all People to whom these preasents shall Come, greeting — 

Know ye that I John Davice of the Town of Bastable in the County 
of Bastable in ye Province of ye Machejusett Bay, for and in Consideration of 
the sum of fifty and eight pounds in Current Money of the Colony of Con- 
necticut: to me in hand Payed by Moses Comstock of the town of Norwalk in 
the County of Fairfield in ye Colony of Connecticut; have given granted 
bargained sold and by these presents Delivered unto the aforeasid Moses Com- 
stock a Cartain Negro boy {aged about twelve years) Caled and known by the 
Name of Cesar: for him to have and to hold said Negro boy to him the said 
Moses Comstock, v his heirs, Executors, Administrators and assignes during 
the term of said Negros Natural Life ; and in witness wheareof I heare 
hereunto sett my hand and seal this 26th day of April Anno 172 1. 

Signed sealed and delivered 
In presence of 

Berys A. Lines. John Davice. (Seal) 

Jacob Hays. 


Transcribed by Eliza Comstock of New Canaan, Connecticut 

tff CESAR Negro Man of Abijah Comstock of Norwalk in the County 
*Jr of Fairfield and Colony of Connecticut, Being of sound Mind 
and Memory And Calling To Mind my Mortallity, Knowing it is 
Appointed for all Men once to Die With the approbation of my Above s'd 
Master Do make and ordain this my Last Will and Testament. As fol- 
lows, Viz. — 

1 st I give to my master Abijah Comstock my Great Bible, Confession of 
Faith, Mathew henry upon the Sacrament one old Trap of my Deceased 
Masters and woppit. Furthermore — 

2nd I give to my Master's son David my small Bible 6° psalm Book, 
Willison's Explanation, Joseph Allen, Thomas Gouge, My new chest And 
young Bobben trap and half of my Money Except a reserve Hereafter made 
even the price of a silver Spoon Left at the Discrition of my Master to pur- 
chase &*c. 

3rd L give to my Masters son Enoch, Joseph Sew all, Dr. Watts 
Catechism, Thomas Skepperd Solomon Stodard and S Wright My clasp 
paper pocket Book My New Bever hat and Case And hayt trap And the 
other half of my Money JSxcept the Value of one silver spoon. 
David and ] At Masters Decease my Great Bible to David And the 
Enoch. X rest to Enoch. 

If Either of my Masters above sd. sons Dye without heirs The survivors 
to take what I gave to the Deceased. 

My silver spoon to Hannah j 

A silver spoon to Dinah V My Master's Daughters 

A silver spoon to Deborah ) 

To Thomas My Masters Eldest son The Dissenting Gentlemans Anss. 

To Abigail Eells 

T M F 11 i~ ^ Almost Christians and when Deced. 

To Hannah hanford — Four Books — Viz. Law 6° Grace, John Bunyon, 
Vincens Sudden and Certain Appearance to Judgment — Vincens Explana- 
tion upon the Catechism. John Fox, Time &* End of time. 

To Phineas hanford one trap called old Bobben. 

To Samuel hanford one Book a Cordial to the fainting Saint. 

My silver shoe Buckles 6° knee buckles 6° clasps which was above for- 
gotten With my Tankard Quart pot and Bason To David with my sleeve 
Buttons and Gloves. 

My old chest to Dwer and then to Dwer and Belinda all my caps and 
handkerchiefs, old shoe buckles to Dwer and knee buckles. 
February ye 13th A. D. 1773. I appoint my Master Abijah Comstock to be 

Executor of this my last will and testament. 
Daniel Lockwood. His 

Samuel Lockwood. Cesar x Seal 



The Flight Of Red Bird 



Author of " The Song of the Connecticut River 

ON the heights above the river, 
Looking southward to Long 
Stood the Indian home of Obed, 
Stood his cabin lone and high ; 
With him lived his comely daughter, 
Lived his only daughter " Red Bird," 
She a robust, lovely maiden, 
And the apple of his eye. 

She had lovers from the Pequots, 
She had lovers from the Island, 
All the braves for miles around her 

Sought her hand but all in vain ; 
To their tales she would not listen, 
For her heart went out to " White Face," 
He the mighry Yankee hunter 

Of the forest and the plain. 

Obed, stern and true to nature, 

With disfavor looked on " White Face," 

And forbade his daughter "Red Bird" 

To the hunter's ardent gaze ; 
Then within the darkened forest 
Did he meet her clandestinely, 
While their hearts sang love's hosannas 

Through the silent summer days. 

Then a watchful, spying Pequot, 
Who was haunting stream and forest, 
Came upon the happy lovers, 

And to Obed told the tale; 
Obed full of wrath and hatred, 
Ever after, in his absence, 
Locked his daughter in the cabin, 

Where she silent grew and pale. 

One day Obed came from Saybrooke, 
Where he'd been attending worship, 
For 'tis said he was converted, 

And he found his daughter fled : 
She had taken her belongings, 
And her trail led to the river, 
Where in direful consternation 

Broken hearted Obed sped. 

Print of maid and print of lover 

Did he trail through field and meadow, 

Till at last he reached the river, 

Where her birch-bark was no more ; 
Far out on the waters rolling, 
From the storm that was arising, 
Could he see the lovers fleeing 

For the dim Long Island shore. 

Then the storm broke loose with fury, 
And the shell-like craft was beaten 
On the mad waves like a feather 

Till 'twas lost from human sight; 
Obed, dazed and bent with sorrow, 
Turned him back unto his cabin, 
Now a place of chill and darkness, 

Cursing "White Face" through the 

Gone his only daughter "Red Bird," 
Gone the hope and joy of Obed, 
Last of tribe and name of Obed, 

On the treach'rous Saybrooke shoal. 
Sought he then the sacred boulder, 
Known to fame as " Obed's Altar," 
Where he threw himself in sorrow 

And in agony of soul. 

Sunday came, the church was opened, 
But no Obed came for worship, 
And they wondered at his absence, 

Seldom had he staid away. 
When they sought him on the morrow 
Dead they found him on his altar, 
On his altar on the hillside, 

Where it stands in peace today. 



Perilous Journeys of Some of tbe first Steamboats 
in American Waters 




. Hp HE anecdotes of captains and 
I steamships, with recollections 
1 of old-time steamboats from 
those who took "perilous" 
journeys on them, is an interesting 
chapter in the story of navigation. It 
is here that I will recall the names 
that are familiar to many still living — 
names that are closely affiliated with 
the science of commerce and trans- 
portation in its beginning. 

There are undoubtedly some of my 
readers who will remember with in- 
terest their own experiences on these 
early steamboats, or their own ac- 
quaintances with some of the old cap- 
tains who long since were called from 
the decks which they so proudly, 
strode and answered the call of the 
Great Master of all seas and ports. 

To the younger ones of this gen- 
eration, who know only of the mod- 





ern ocean greyhounds and floating 
river palaces, but who may live to see 
even more wondrous miracles on the 
seas, it is both entertaining and profit- 
able to look back into the childhoods 
of your beloved parents and trace the 
marvelous hand of progress. 

It took a hardy man to plough the 
waters aboard a "steam kettle" in the 
old days. It was considered equally 
as daring as serial navigation is to- 
day. It was left for the "Connecti- 
cut" to demonstrate that there were 
no terrors that could cower a real sea- 
dog on Long Island Sound — not even 
at the "hog's back," the "gridiron," 
or in the foaming whirlpool around 
the "pot-rock" from which a steam- 
"boat had to turn its nose — even when 
the tide was stampeding at the death 
holes like so many mad devils. 
Through that "Gate of Hell," with 
engine hissing defiance and wheels 
beating down the spirits that rose to 
oppose, the "Connecticut" made the 
first successful attempt to go through 
"Hell Gate" against the tide. The 
trip was described by a passenger on 
"board as follows: 

I remember the long-agitated question, 
■whether steamboats could be made capable 
of sea navigation, or so constructed as to 
traverse our sounds, bays, and coasts in 
■safety. This question was put to rest by 
the enterprise and skill of Captain Bunker. 
In the "Fulton," which was constructed, I 
am told, with a view to crossing the 
Atlantic, he undertook the navigation of 
Long Island Sound, an arm of the sea in 
which the most severe tempests are often 
encountered. During the season of no ex- 

traordinary moderation, including the two 
equinoctial gales, Captain Bunker lost but 
a single trip. Another doubt remained to 
be removed. It was supposed impossible 
to pass the celebrated passage of Hell-gate 
against the tide, at the strength of the 
current. This was reserved for Captain 
Bunker to remove, and I happened to be 
on board at the time of the novel and in- 
teresting experiment, returning southward 
from New Hampshire. A number of re- 
spectable passengers witnessed the per- 
formance. It was in the boat "Connecti- 
cut,'' built with all the strength to be ob- 
tained and careful workmanship. The ma- 
chinist (McQueen) was accompanying his 
engine to prove its powers, with careful 
and ingenious assistants, and some of the 
owners were on board also. The first 
attempt to pass the point of greatest 
pressure of the contracted stream was un- 
successful, and the boat was compelled to 
retreat into an eddy and increase her 
steam. With renovated power the effort 
was repeated, every man fixed immovable 
at his post, the passengers properly sta- 
tioned in different parts of the boat, the en- 
gineers employing their utmost diligence to 
force the passage. They were again de- 
feated by the supposed resistless stream 
and again retreated, racked, strained and 
shivering from the contest. After a short 
pause and fresh preparation, it was resolved 
by the parties concerned to make a third 
endeavor, and test the strength of the ma- 
chinery by the greatest trial it could ever 
be expected to bear. After a severe strug- 
gle, in which a weaker vessel would have 
been disjointed and torn to pieces, the 
headstrong current yielded to the giant 
power of steam, and the triumph of art 
over nature was effected. A few mo- 
ments of greater breathless anxiety 
I scarcely ever witnessed. Mechanical 
science achieved a victory over elementary 
force, and overcame an obstacle hereto- 
fore deemed in this manner altogether in- 
surmountable. The courage and perse- 
verance of Captain Bunker were so con- 
spicuous on this occasion that I can never 
forget the impression made on all present. 

On the fifteenth day of October, 
1816, Captain Bunker — the same 
Elihu Bunker who was always doing 
the unprecedented thing and became 
known all along the Sound as "Cap- 
tain Bunk" — poked the nose of the 
steamboat "Connecticut" around the 
bend of the Thames River and sailed 
into the beautiful little land-locked 
harbor of Norwich. The sun had 
more than cleared the meridian and 
the . editor of the Norwich Courier 
stopped his press to insert : 



We stop the press to announce the 
arrival at this port of the new steam- 
boat "Connecticut." 

Nearly a year passed before 
another steamboat came into the 
waters of the Thames and then the 
"Fulton" bearing President Monroe 
who with his private secretary, Mr. 
Mason, and General Joseph Swift, 
chief engineer of the War Depart- 
ment, was making a tour of the 
Northern states going as far as 
Maine which was then only a prov- 
ince or district, came into the harbor 
of New London and made a trip up 
the river that the distinguished pas- 
senger might see the beauty of its 
scenery. [See page 103, No. 1, Vol. 
10.] Knowing of the anticipated 
visit of the nation's chief magistrate, 
Captain Doane made ready a dimin- 
utive thing, by courtesy called a 
steamboat, built by Gilbert Brewster 
at Norwich the year before and fitted 
with a small engine and a "wooden 
boiler," which was really an iron 
cylinder encased in wood, known as 
the "Eagle." With about fifty guests 
Captain Doane sailed down the river 
to meet the "Fulton" and as they 
came in sight of the color-bedecked 
big boat the party left the cabin where 
they had been crowded and went out 
to wave a salute. Just as the last 
man left the cabin the end of the 
boiler blew out and one member of 
the crew was quite severely scalded. 
The "Eagle" was subsequently re- 
paired and re-named the "Hancock" 
and under this new name was known 
for many years in the waters farther 
to the east, but is not to be confound- 
ed with the "Hancock" built by Law- 
rence and Sneeden in 1827 which be- 
gan running between Fall River and 
Providence in 1828 — the first regular 
steamboat trips in those waters. 

One of the last of the better class 
of sailing packets carrying both 
freight and passengers was the "Ami 
Maria" sailing under the command of 
Captain W. W. Coit, but Captain Coit 


was quick to see the advantages of 
steam over the uncertain winds and 
turned his attention to steamboating. 
His earliest experiences [1820] were 
with the "General Jackson," a boat 
that had as many vicissitudes as Jos- 
eph's coat had colors. Later on the 
"Norwich," the "Huntress" and the 
"Worcester" were built for the steam- 
boat company of which he was a part. 
After several years of boat sailing 
Captain Coit took to boat building, 
giving up his active life as a captain 
but retaining all his interest in the 
development of the steamboat busi- 
ness. In 1864 he built at Mystic the 
"W. W. Coit" which was at once 
chartered by the government and 
when General Gilmore was carried 
into Charleston, South Carolina, on 
February 18, 1865, the ensign of the 
"W. W. Coit," which he had used for 
a transport, was raised over Fort 
Sumter, the first Union flag to float 
over the fort after its heroic evacua- 
tion on that Sunday morning when, 
after thirty-six hours of steady bom- 
bardment, Major Anderson hauled 
down its colors and left its walls. 

In March, 1818, the "Fulton" again 
steamed into New London and to 
Norwich, the initial trip of the regu- 
lar line that was then established 
between New Haven and Norwich 
with connections for New York. It 
was not thought prudent at that time, 
if, indeed, it were possible, to send a 
boat on so long a continuous run 
as from Norwich to New York, 

6 9 8 



although a letter of considerable 
force had been printed in the Boston 
Advertiser as early as 1816 advocat- 
ing steamboats for trans-Atlantic 
service. The two-part run, however, 
did not meet the requirements and a 
line was soon proposed to make the 
trip in one unbroken stretch. Among 
the first of the boats to attempt it 
was the "Fanny," a staunch little 
cratt of some three hundred tons reg- 
ister, built by Messrs. Peck, of New 
York, upon which Captain Davison 
had command. Captain Davison 
afterward took command of the 
"Henry Eckford" and the "Fanny" 
went to the Hudson where she was 
commanded by Captain Jacob Trem- 
per, of Roundout, one of the most 
popular men that ever sailed the 
water. In 1840 the "Fanny" was 
offered for sale and the public were 
informed that she was built of "locust 
and live-oak and Jersey plank, thor- 
oughly coppered, with an Allaire en- 
gine of fifty-seven horse-power." 

The "Fanny" decided to rest on 
Sunday. Virtue is as contagious as 
vice and in the new stand taken by the 
directors of the "Fanny" there was 
only a repetition of what had already 
been done by the directors of the 
steamboats "Victory" and "New Phil- 
adelphia," who, according to the Con- 
necticut Patriot of April 17, 1828, had 
announced their intention of observ- 
ing the Sabbath and advertised that 
thereafter their boats would run 
every day of the week except Sunday. 

At the close of the year 1828, there 

were five hundred and fifty steam- 
boats in the waters of the Eastern 
states, of which number New York 
had three hundred and thirty-eight, 
Massachusetts eighty-six, Connecti- 
cut fifty-three, Rhode Island twenty- 
nine, New Jersey twenty-three, Penn- 
sylvania thirteen and Maine eight. 

In 1832, Captain Jonathan Peck, a 
brother of the other pioneer, Captain 
Curtis Peck, and father of Captain 
Richard Peck, so long identified with 
the interests of New Haven steam- 
boats, came into the Norwich route 
with his ninety-foot "Flushing," 
which like most of the eastern boats 
of her time had a "square" engine 
built by Allaire. After a few years 
on this run the "Flushing" was taken 
to the Boston-Hallowell line and con- 
tinued in service for many years. 
She was followed by the "Henry Eck- 
ford" with which the Mowatts, in 
1825, had introduced the system of 
towing on the Hudson which was 
then taken up by W. C. Redfield in 
instituting his "Safety-Barge" system 
to catch the patronage of the rich. 

The "Eckford" also had a square 
engine built by Allaire who furnished 
similar engines for the "Sun," the 
"Commerce," the "Swiftsure" and the 
"Pilot Boy" and one of the first over- 
head beam engines for the "Post 

The "Sun" was the first steamboat 
that attempted to make the trip from 
New York to Albany between sun- 
rise and sunset — an attempt that end- 
ed in failure. She was afterward 
put on the run to Bridgeport, making 
a stop at Norwalk. The west trip 
was begun at ten o'clock A.M., with 
a stop at Norwalk at noon, and the 
east trip, at eight A.M., reaching 
Norwalk at 12:30 P.M. and Bridge- 
port at three o'clock. She was burned 
off Sandy Hook in 1831. The other 
boats did service principally on the 

Just before the "Eckford" was 
brought onto the Norwich run she 
made up a part of the Swiftsure Line 
and it was from her that the first 


woman to fall overboard from a 
steamboat took her plunge. There 
was a gang-plank from the stern of 
the steamboat to the bow of the barge 
that was towed behind and "one of 
the lady passengers in crossing from 
the tow-boat to the steamboat fell 
overboard. Captain Reed rescued 
her, although she had been in the 
water some time and was found float- 
ing with her face downwards." 

When she took her place on the 
Norwich run the "Eckford," which 
was then under command of Captain 
Drake, was put under command of 
Captain Davison. The fare to Bos- 
ton at this time was eleven dollars 
and to Norwich the fare was set at 
five dollars. 

In 1833, the "General Jackson" 
came onto the run between Norwich 
and New York with a stop at New 
London. The trip from the eastern 
terminus was made on Mondays and 
Thursdays, the trip from New York 
on Tuesdays and Fridays. The last 
trip for the season was announced 
for December 5, when stages were re- 
announced to connect with "the splen- 
did low pressure steamboats 'Chief 
Justice Marshall,' 'Water Witch,' and 
'New England' at Ely's Ferry, arriv- 
ing in New York early the next 
morning in time to take the North 
River or Philadelphia steamboats. 
Fare from Norwich, $3.00." The lit- 
tle steamboat "Thames," with Cap- 
tain T. W. Bushnell in command, was 
at this time running between Norwich 
and New London, and Jedediah 
Huntington acted as agent for both 
lines as well as for the stage line. 

The season of 1834 was opened 
with the "General Jackson" again in 
commission. On May 5, a special 
excursion was made to carry the state 
representatives, and what passengers 
cared to take the trip, to New Haven, 
but for the rest of the season regular 
trips were made to and from New 
York. The black-bordered papers of 
June 25, announcing the death of La 
Fayette, carried the advertisement of 


a new line under the heading : 



On and after Thursday, June 26th, 1834, 
the new low pressure steamboat " Union " 
will leave Norwich every Monday, Wednes- 
day and Friday at seven o'clock and New 
London at eight o'clock for Saybrook and 
will meet the low pressure steamboat 
" New England " which will arrive at New 
York the same afternoon at six o'clock. 
Fare, $2.00. 

The "Union," which was one hun- 
dred and twenty-four feet long and 
thirty-four feet wide, had a speed of 
fourteen miles an hour. Her cabin 
was quite capacious and beautifully 
furnished. The first steamboat ex- 
cursion that ever went out from Nor- 
wich went out on the "Union" on 
July 27, 1834, when three hundred 
and seventy people were taken down 
the Thames and to Stonington Point. 

The line of sailing packets was con- 
tinued down as far as 1834, and at 
this time the schooner "Convert" with 
the sloop "Jupiter" and the schooner 
"Uncas" with the sloop "Diamond" 
were sailing on Tuesdays and Fridays 
from Norwich for New York and on 
Wednesdays and Saturdays from 
New York for Norwich. There was 
also a regular line of packets sailing 
from Norwich and New London for 

This was the only year of the 
"Union" on this line. In fact she did 




not run this season out. She was 
next heard of in New York waters 
where she lived for many a day. 
When Dr. Kane, in command of the 
small brig "Advance," started out to 
search for Sir John Franklin, the 
"Union," with the members of the 
New York Grand Lodge of Masons, 
followed him down the bay for about 
twenty miles. Noon had been counted 
out on the clocks of the city for May 
31, 1853, when the party came out to 
bid the intrepid Dr. Kane a hearty 
God-speed. The "Titan," a powerful 
tug, had been gratuitously offered to 
tow the "Advance" out to sea, and 
when the beautiful big flag, with a 
compass and square and the accom- 
panying letter "G" had been hauled 
up to the yard the signal was given 
and the expedition begun. This was 
the last noted service of the "Union" 
■ — a fit finale of a useful life. The 
"General Jackson" continued on the 
run for another year, running from 
Saybrook to Sag Harbor, New Lon- 
don and Norwich in connection with 
the Hartford boats, and in 1836 the 
first boat built especially for the route, 
the grand old "Norwich," — noblest 
Roman of them all ! — came from the 
hands of Lawrence and Sneeden. She 
was one hundred and sixty feet long, 
twenty-three feet wide, with eight 
feet six inches depth of hold and had 
a square engine with a forty-inch 
cylinder and a ten-foot stroke built by 
Cunningham and Hall. In the match- 
less collection of pictures shown by 

Samuel Ward Stanton at the World's 
Fair in 1893 there were two views of 
this wonderful old boat that has con- 
tinued in active service down to the 
present day, being now the oldest 
steamboat in the world. For six or 
eight years she ran on the Norwich 
route with the "Charter Oak" and the 
"Belle"— the "Charter Oak" had 
twelve state-rooms on the promenade 
deck, a novelty in those days — and 
was then taken to the Hudson where 
she has been in constant service for 
more than sixty years. In 1845 sne 
ran to Roundout with the "Emerald," 
the original boat of the People's Line- 
In the lithograph of the harbor at 
Roundout, made the year of the chol- 
era plague, there is a picture of the 
"Norwich" as she was when used in 
passenger service. Not long after 
coming onto the Hudson she was re- 
built as she is to-day, a powerful tow- 

The year following the advent of 
the "Norwich," George Clark built 
the "Thorn," which measured one 
hundred and twenty-six feet long, 
sixteen and a half feet wide and seven 
feet deep and had a thirty-five horse 
power engine built by Cunningham 
and Hall. The "Thorn" was owned 
by Appleton Meach and was run upon 
several different short routes near 
Norwich, but came into public notice 
first in 1837 when she carried passen- 
gers from Hartford to Saybrook 
where they were taken on board the 
"Norwich" for New York. In 1842 
she was used as a connecting 
link between New London and Sag 
Harbor. That same year that 
brought the "Thorn" also brought the 
steam-whistle. Over on Narragan- 
sett Bay there was a little boat known 
as the "King Philip," which was built 
to succeed the "Hancock" in 1832 
and upon which Stephen D. Collins 
was the chief engineer. This was the 
genius who found a useful purpose 
in noise — just plain, untuned noise. 
Collins rigged up a whistle to go by 
steam. It was some such a whistle 
as Abe Lincoln had in mind when he 



said that every time the whistle blew 
the boat had to stop to make up 
steam. For more than seventy years 
these whistles have been true to the 
man who brought them into being. 
In the fog they whisper hoarsely: 
"S-t-e-v-e- !" For the port they say 
sharply : "Stave !" For starboard they 
cry "Col-lins !" and when anything 
goes wrong they snappily toot: 
"Steve-D-Col-lins !" 

In 1838, Captain Coit advertised 
the "Huntress" from Norwich and 
New London for New York. The 
"Huntress" was one hundred and 
seventy feet long, twenty-three feet 
wide and nine feet six inches deep, 
with a beam engine of thirty-six inch 
cylinder and a stroke of twelve feet. 
She did not run long on the Norwich 
route as the "New England," which 
had been taken from the Hartford- 
New York run in 1835 and placed on 
the Kennebec river, was lost in a col- 
lision with a schooner off Boon 
Island, and the "Huntress" was sent 
east to take her place. Later on the 
same company that bought the "Hun- 
tress" for service in Maine also 
bought the "J. W. Richmond" from 
the Stonington people and took her 
around to cope with the boats that ran 
under the Vanderbilt flag. This boat 
had successfully competed with the 
"Lexington" and others of the 
"crack" boats on the Sound and 
was, without doubt, the fastest and 
handsomest boat on the coast. She 
was two hundred and two feet long, 
twenty-four feet wide and ten feet 
deep, with a square engine of forty- 
eight inch cylinder and eleven foot 
stroke. The "Richmond" was always 
a racer. In the Providence Journal 
there appeared a protest against the 
endangering of the lives of passen- 
gers as follows : 

The steamboats "Narragansett" and 
"John W. Richmond" arrived here yester- 
day morning about 5 130 o'clock A. M., 
having made the passage in about twelve 
hours from New York and arriving at the 
wharf nearly neck and neck. 

We note this to express our unqualified 
disapprobation of the whole transaction. 


Hitherto the boats have run through the 
Sound without accident and the fullest 
confidence has been always placed in their 
safety and careful management. But if 
that system is to be introduced which has 
caused the awful destruction of human life 
by the "Moselle" and "Pulaski," and the 
many other steamboats which have ex- 
ploded within a year, we feel it our duty, as 
public journalists, to caution the public 
against the dangers to which they are ex- 
posed, so that if any one chooses to risk 
his neck in them he may do it with a full 
knowledge of the possible consequences. 

There is no excuse for risking the lives 
of passengers in this competition for supe- 
rior speed, and it is the height of folly to 
assert that a race can be held between two 
powerful and rapid steamboats without 
great danger. The two boats will leave 
this evening for New York, when the race 
will, doubtless, be resumed, and it remains 
to be seen whether the public will sustain 
such dangerous rivalry. Sincerely we 
hope not; sincerely do we hope that both 
will leave the wharf without a single pas- 
senger. We consider it due to the safety 
of the traveling public that every effort 
should be made to put down this shameful 
contest in the beginning. 

We make these remarks in no spirit of 
unkindness toward the proprietors of the 





different boats. So long as they are con- 
ducted with the prudence which has hither- 
to distinguished them, we wish them both 
every success and shall at all times be 
happy to testify to their merits ; but when 
they commence racing we as sincerely hope 
they will find it a losing business. 


Benjamin Beecher— Born in 1775 and in command of 
the " Huntress " and the " United States "—He was 
closely affiliated with steam navigation from its 
beginning, and one of the heartiest seadogs that 
ever strode a deck— From portrait in possession of 
his grandson, Edward C. Beecher of New Haven 

In the general offices of the Fall 
River Line in New York there may be 
seen a perfect model of this early 
Neptunian racer. While lying at her 
wharf at Hallowell, Maine, on Sep- 
tember 30, 1843, tne "J- W. Rich- 
mond" which had cost her owners 
$52,000 caught fire and was burned 
to the veriest shell, becoming a total 

In 1840, Captain Coit was running 
the "Belle" on the Norwich route 
with the "Charter Oak" under com- 
mand of Captain Roath, who had for- 
merly run the "Kingston," a boat one 
hundred and forty-nine feet long, 
nineteen feet wide and seven feet 
seven inches deep, built at New- 
port in 1836, having a seventy-five 
horse power low-pressure engine 
built by the Providence Steam Engine 
Company, used for some time on the 
Hartford-Saybrook route. Captain 
Roath afterward went to the "Globe." 
The "Worcester," built for Cap- 
tain Coit in 1836, was at this time 
making some remarkable runs. She 
had as a companion boat the "New 
York" from the New Haven route, 
with a record for speed that was 
everywhere talked about, and had to 
do her best to simply save appear- 
ances. But she was good for the de- 
mand made and the average of the 
two boats for the one hundred and 
thirty-two miles was ten hours and 
twenty minutes with a stop at New 
London, nearly thirteen miles an 
hour, and nine hours and seven min- 
utes from New York to Norwich, in- 



eluding the New London stop, which 
gave a speed of nearly fourteen and a 
half miles an hour. 

The railroad between Norwich and 
Worcester was opened for business in 
the spring of 1840 and the extension 
to Allyn's Point, seven miles below on 
the Thames, was completed in 1843. 
At this time Vanderbilt seemed to 
have control of the only direct con- 
nection for Boston and this continued 
till 1848 when Daniel Drew brought 
around the "Knickerbocker" from the 
Hudson and started her on the run to 
Norwich and New London. 

In 1842, the original line was ad- 
vertised as follows : 

<l Mail Line to Boston, via Norwich & 
Worcester R. R. from Pier 1, N. R. 

Steamboat Charter Oak, Capt. Roath. 
Mom, Wed. & Fri. at 5 P. M. 

Steamboat Worcester, Capt. Coit, 
Tues., Thurs. & Sat. at 5 P. M." 

On September 8, 1842, there was 
an appeal to the public as follows : 

"Notice to the Public: In consequence 
of the oppressive course pursued by the 
Boston & Providence Railroad Co., the 
proprietors of the Independent Line have 
deemed it necessary to run their line to 
Boston, via the Norwich & Worcester Rail- 
roads, which companies have thrown their 
roads open to this line." 

The "Cleopatra" and "Worcester" 
were then running on the line and the 
"Charter Oak" was on the regular 


Two Silver Pitchers were presented to Captain 
Benjamin Beecher at a banquet at the Franklin 
House, New Haven, when he retired from active 
service in 1838— Sterling Silver; seventeen inches 
tall; nine inches spread— Now in possession of his 
grandson, Edward C. Beecher of New Haven 




opposition line to Boston via Newport 
and Providence. 

There were two propellers on the 
rim between Norwich and New York 
in 1840 for the first part of the sea- 
son and later a third boat was added. 
These carried both freight and pas- 
sengers and as they were equipped 
with different types of wheels rivalry 
was frequently at the highest pitch. 
In September a race was arranged 
between the "Eudora" which subse- 
quently became the first boat for the 
now world-famed Fall River Line, 
the "Uncas" and the "Ouinnebaugh." 
The first two were fitted with the 
Ericsson wheel and the last had a 
wheel of the Loper pattern. The 
"Eudora" left New York at four 
o'clock in the afternoon, the "Uncas" 
at four-eighteen P. M. and the "Quin- 
nebaugh" at four thirty-one. The 
latter proved to be the best sailer and 
passed the "Uncas" in the East River 
at five-four in the afternoon, the 
"Eudora" at Throggs Point at six- 
fifteen, and arrived at New London at 
seven-fifty the next morning. The 
"Shetucket" which was on the route 
at first did not stay long. In 1845, 
the "Decatur," and in 1852 the 
"Charles Osgood," were added. They 
were both longer and deeper than any 
of the other boats on the line. By 
some attendant good fortune several 
of these propellers were kept alive till 
well along into the years of the war 

and were then chartered to the gov- 
ernment as transports at sums rang- 
ing from one hundred and fifteen dol- 
lars to one hundred and fifty dollars a 
day, the charters in some cases being 
for a year at a time. Other propel- 
lers were on the run after the close of 
the war, notably the "Metropolitan," 
which was formerly the "Nupha of 
Hudson" — the rebuilt "Berkshire" 
which had burned with such an appal- 
ling loss of life in 1854. 

In 1846, Bishop and Simonson built 
the "Atlantic" — the first steamboat 
on the Sound to use gas manufac- 
tured on board for illuminating pur- 
poses — but after being in service for 
only a few months she was caught in 
a heavy northwest gale, just after 
leaving New London, and was driven 
onto the rocks off Fishers Island. 
Captain Dunstan, who had at one 
time been rewarded by the passen- 
gers of the "Lexington" for bravery 
while in command of that ill-starred 
boat, and about fifty passengers found 
an undug grave — a "Grave in the 
Deep." Several years afterward some 
fishermen brought up one of the an- 
chors of the "Atlantic" and a search 
soon found the other. It was then 
seen that in the excitement no one had 
thought to free the stock of the an- 
chor which was found still lashed to 
the shank. The flukes could get no 
hold on the bottom and were dragged 
along by the madness of the waves. 
The "Atlantic" had cost $150,000 and 
was one of the largest and finest boats 
that had been built up to that time for 
traffic on the Sound. She was owned 
by the Norwich and Worcester Rail- 
road Company who contracted with 
Bishop and Simonson for her con- 
struction. The keel was laid in 
November of 1845 5 sne was launched 
in May, 1846, made her first trip from 
New York on August 18, and was 
wrecked on November 27 — just a 
year from the laying of the keel. 
The "Mohican" was wrecked in this 
same gale. 

The "Knickerbocker" and the 


"Worcester," with an occasional turn 
from the "Cleopatra," which in 1851 
was fitted out as a filibuster bound for 
Cuba, but was apprehended by the 
government before the day of sailing, 
looked after the interests of the route 
until a change in the affairs of 
the company brought about the 
construction of the "Commonwealth" 
to run with the "Connecticut." The 
"Commonwealth" was built by Law- 
rence and Sneeden in 1855, while H. 
B. Norton was president of the com- 
pany, especially for this run. She was 
three hundred and sixteen feet long, 
forty-one feet six inches wide and 
eight feet three inches deep and 
had a seventy-six inch cylinder engine 
with a twelve-foot stroke, built by the 
Morgan Iron Works. Her wheels 
were thirty-eight feet in diameter 
and had blades that were ten feet 
six inches long. These blades were 
thirty-two inches wide and when 
the boat had her normal draft of 
eight feet four inches, dipped three 
feet four inches in the water. Alto- 
gether the "Commonweath" was a 
remarkable boat but she never de- 
veloped any great speed. She had 
cost $250,000 and was by many 
looked upon as the handsomest 
steamboat of her time. Later the 
eastern terminus of the line was 
changed to Groton and while lying 
there at her wharf in December, 1865, 
she was burned and became a total 

In i860, chiefly through the efforts 
of Captain Joseph Comstock, the 
Norwich and New York Transporta- 
tion Company was organized as a suc- 
cessor to the old line. The new com- 
pany at once gave orders for the 
building of two boats that were to be 
almost identical in size, power and 
finish. The plans were drawn by the 
eminent engineer, Charles Copeland, 
and the work was assigned to Law- 
rence and Sneeden. They were prac- 
tically three hundred feet on the 
water line with a breadth of forty feet 
and a depth of eleven feet. The 


wheels were thirty-seven feet eight 
inches in diameter and ten feet wide. 
Each carried two return tubular boil- 
ers on the guards and had engines 
with eighty-inch cylinders and twelve- 
foot stroke. The first trip ofi the 
"City of Boston" was made from 
New York on July 4, 1861 ; the "City 
of New York" followed eighteen days, 
later. In his masterly work on ma- 
rine architecture, J. Scott Russell, 
F.R.S., refers to these two boats as 
"remarkable specimens of American 
architecture" and well they deserved 
the praise. Built for fast passenger 
service they could hold their own 
against all comers, unless it might 
be the "City of Newport," (the first 
boat to bear that name) which under 
some conditions of tide and weather 
could possibly distance them as her 
engine was very much heavier. Rac- 
ing in those days was not confined to 
the Western rivers and even the most 
staid travelers felt that a sprint at 
least was included in the price they 
paid for a ticket. As Kipling says : 

"See, the tall Fall steamer lights 
Tear blazing up the sound." 

The Fall River Line had a very fast 
boat in their "Metropolis" and upon 
the appearance of the "City of Bos- 
ton" they at once laid plans for a 
friendly test of speed. The "Metrop- 
olis" was three hundred and forty-two 
feet long and eighty-two feet wide 
j with an engine that had a cylinder 
Jlmore than a third larger than any 




other single marine engine in the 
world. The stroke measured three 
feet more than any one of the three 
cylinders of the then famous ocean 
steamship "Arabia." She was built 
on the plan of an ocean-going boat in 
that she had no "hog-frame" and the 
"hull timbers were carried to the sec- 
ond deck. Before the engine was in- 
stalled a party of twenty-two invited 
guests sat down to dinner within the 
walls of the gigantic cylinder, which 
measured one hundred and five and 
one-quarter inches in diameter. One 
-of the timbers of the gallows-frame 
measured eighty-one feet by two feet 
ten inches, the largest single piece of 
timber that had ever been squared. 

In the first brush the honors were 
wholly with the "City of Boston" but 
the "Metropolis" people had a ready 
excuse in the poor quality of coal that 
"had been imposed upon them. A 
Letter grade of coal was then selected 
and the word came along the line that 
another friendly test would be very 
acceptable. Without any material 
advantage to either, the boats left 
New York at the same time and came 
•out onto the Sound to begin the race 
for . the farther end of the course. 
For league after league the two 
racers ran nose and nose and then it 
was seen that the strain was too much 
for the engine of the bigger boat and 
she was permitted to drop behind — 
vanquished, a loser! The "City of 
Boston" was the "Queen of the 
Sound !" In 1863, as told in the last 

number of the Connecticut Maga- 
zine, she ran into and sunk the 
famous old racer "Oregon." The 
best run of the "City of New York" 
was made in six hours and five min- 
utes which the "City of Lowell" has 
succeeded in cutting down to five 
hours and thirty-seven minutes. In 
1896, both the "City of New York" 
and the "City of Boston" went to the 
"bone-yard" and were broken up. 

In 1862, the "City of Norwich" and 
the "City of New London" were built 
for this run, the former making her 
initial trip from New York July 19, 
1862, and later, May 22, 1863. They 
were smaller than either of the other 
boats and ran from the Norwich end 
of the route while the larger boats 
were sent out from New London. 
Four years later the "City of Nor- 
wich" was run into by the schooner 
"General S. Van Vliet," when off 
Huntington, caught fire and sank. 
She was subsequently raised and re- 
fitted for the route where she ran till 
1894. In March of that year she was 
turned into a coal barge. In the 
meantime the "City of New London" 
had caught fire when near Walden's 
Island, in the Thames, and became a 
complete loss. This was on Novem- 
ber 22, 1 87 1, and seventeen passen- 
gers lost their lives in the catastrophe. 

In 1867, this company had built for 
them their first iron boat — the "City 
of Lawrence" built by the Harlan and 
Hollingsworth Company at Wilming- 
ton, Delaware. She was designed 
more for a freight boat than for 
carrying passengers but had good 
accommodations for the latter and had 
thus proved to be very satisfactory to 
her owners. So well pleased with 
her were both owners and builders 
that a new boat was projected in 
1 88 1, which was built at the same 
yards and, like her predecessor, is 
still in service. This was the "City 
of Worcester" the first of the large 
passenger-carrying boats on the 
Sound to have an iron hull. 

The "City of Worcester" measures 


three hundred and forty feet in 
length, eighty feet in width, and is 
fourteen feet six inches deep. She 
has six water-tight compartments 
with bulk-heads. This, however, as 
the readers of the travels of Marco 
Polo will recall, is no new feature in 
marine architecture, since the people 
of Cathay built their ships after this 
fashion fully six centuries ago. She 
has a vertical beam engine with a 
cylinder ninety inches in diameter and 
a twelve-foot stroke. There are sleep- 
ing accommodations for seven hun- 
dred people and room for one hun- 
dred car-loads of freight. When she 
came onto the Sound in 1881 the 
"Massachusetts" of the Providence 
Line was probably the fastest passen- 
ger-carrying boat running from New 
York to the East. There were fre- 
quent "brushes" during the first year, 
the honors being about evenly divided 
between the two boats. But on the 
night of July 4, 1882, they had a de- 
cisive trial from New York to the 
east end of the Sound in which the 
"City of Worcester" outsailed her 
rival by twenty-three minutes. The 
next year brought out the "Pilgrim" 
for the Fall River Line and the hon- 
ors won from the "Massachusetts" 
had to be defended. Both boats left 
New York on the same night and 
out of the opportunity thus offered 
the "City of Worcester," on the night 
of August 12, beat her new rival by 
thirteen minutes from Bartlett's Reef 
to Throggs Point, which was again 
contested in September and again de- 
cided in the favor of the smaller boat 
with a lee-way of eight minutes. 

In 1894, the "City of Lowell" was 
built for this run and has proved her- 
self to be a good, staunch vessel, with 
power enough to hold her own 
against all comers. She is three hun- 
dred and thirty-six feet in length, 
sixty-six feet wide and has a depth 
of seventeen feet and seven inches, 
with two triple-expansion engines, 
having cylinders of twenty-six, forty 
and sixty-four inches in diameter. 


Strongly built, elegantly finished, per- 
fectly equipped and of superior speed,, 
the "City of Lowell" is one of the 
very best boats in the world. 

There were a score of little boats 
running in and out of New London 
and Norwich on short routes, as the 
"Island Belle," the "Mary Benton," 
the "S. B. Camp," the "Sunshine," 
the "Cricket," the "Laurence," and 
the "Alice" and others not so well 
known, but their history was wholly 
local and had no part in the larger in- 
terests of the state, so we leave their 
story untold. 

Leaving the story of Norwich and 
New London we must turn to New 
Haven for what is yet to be said in 
this article. Much that pertains to 
the earliest history of steamboating 
centers in New Haven and has been 
told in the articles that have gone be- 
fore. All that now remains to be 
said finds its setting in the lives of the 
men who made the story possible. Of 
Captain "Ben" Beecher we have 
already spoken but there is yet a vol- 
ume unwrit about this old "sea-salt."' 
He was born in New Haven on July 
4, 1775. His father, Eli Beecher, was. 
drowned at sea while "Ben" was but a 
lad and his uncle, Thaddeus Beecher, 
the man who set out the "Franklin 
Elm" in New Haven, became his 
guardian. The uncle attempted to 
make a merchant of his ward but 
there was too much mischief in Ben's 
make-up to ever settle down to the 




humdrum life of the commonplace 
and he took to the water on coasting 
vessels. He had extraordinary nat- 
ural ability and soon became a cap- 
tain and took command of the packet 
"Huntress" sailing between New Ha- 
ven and New York, from which he 
was transferred to the "United 
States," which he, with Jehiel Forbes 
and Samuel Higgins, had bought of 
William Gibbons who had her built 
in 182 1 by J. Williams, of New York, 
to carry passengers to Albany. In 
1833 he gave up steamboating and at 
a banquet tendered him in the Frank- 
lin House, which stood on the north- 
east corner of Church and Crown 
streets, he was presented with two 
high silver pitchers as a token of the 
esteem in which he was held by the 
New Haven Steamboat Company. 
George Rowland, the father of 
Thomas Fitch Rowland, who built the 
"Monitor," was toast-master at this 
banquet and from the first course to 
the last kept the party in a laugh. 
However, at eleven o'clock Captain 
Beecher arose from the table and 
went to his home where his wife, 
according to a custom with which he 
allowed nothing to interfere, had 
ready for him a steaming hot gin 
toddy. In 1858 Captain "Ben" 
Beecher died, having followed the 
development of the steamboat from 
its infancy through to the days when 
it was said: "If anyone wants to go 
faster than a steamboat can take him 
let him go to Kentucky and try 

chained lightning." He was buried 
in the Grove street cemetery — the first 
cemetery in the country to be laid out 
in plots and lots sold to individual 
owners — and there to-day may be 
seen the towering monument, solid 
as the character of the man whose 
grave it marks. 

Another one of the men whose 
name must ever be associated with 
the early days of steamboating on the 
Hudson and on the Sound is Jona- 
than Peck, whose brother Curtis 
seemed to have dreamed the first real- 
ized dream of speed for steam-pro- 
pelled vessels and whose son, Rich- 
ard A. Peck, had so much to do with 
the development of the New Haven 
Steamboat Company. Jonathan Peck 
was born in Fairfield, Connecticut, 
and after marrying a Miss Lock- 
wood, went to Flushing, Long Island, 
where with his sons he became iden- 
tified with the steamboat business. 
Richard A. was born there in 1815 
and in the early forties took up his 
home in New Haven and gave his 
whole attention to the bringing out of 
the best possible boats for the ever 
increasing business of the company 
with which he was allied. When he 
died, in 1900, the employees of this 
company placed on his grave in Ever- 
green cemetery a miniature reproduc- 
tion of the "United States"— the first 
really Connecticut steamboat, and 
turned back to their desks and tasks 
realizing that in the death of Richard 
A. Peck the steamboating interests of 
the world had lost an altogether prac- 
tical, honest man. 

Some one must have the story of 
Elihu Bunker. Who knows and will 
tell it that it may have a permanent 
place in the archives that hold the 
records of the past? 

The withdrawal of the "Fulton" 
and the "Connecticut" from New 
Haven left the entire business in the 
hands of the newly organized steam- 
boat company who were making reg- 
ular schedule runs with their steam- 
boat "United States." On one of her 


trips to New York the "United 
States" ran ashore on Fairfield Beach 
and the services of George Rowland 
in getting her afloat were so highly 
prized that he was presented with the 
carved American eagle figure-head. 
This eagle sat for some years on the 
old Rowland mill and afterward 
found a place on the "wigwam," 
noted political headquarters on Olive 
street, New Haven, in the campaign 
that preceded the first election of 
Abraham Lincoln to the presidency. 
It is now in the rooms of the New 
Haven Colony Historical Society, a 
gift of Thomas Fitch Rowland. 
The "United States" could only go 
to Bryan Cove, now Portchester, 
twenty-five miles from New York, 
and all passengers and freight had 
to be transferred from there into 
the city by stage, but from the 
very first the enterprise proved to 
be a well-paying investment. How- 
ever, it was not thought best to try to 
run the boat through the ice of win- 
ter and she was accordingly laid 
aside. But no sooner had Jonathan 
Peck heard that the "United States" 
was laid up for the winter than he 
steamed into the harbor with the 
"Linnaeus" — a new boat with a cross- 
head Allaire engine. She was not 
very much of a boat in either appear- 
ance, size or speed but the owners of 
the "United States" were so fright- 
ened that they at once brought out a 
winter schedule for their boat and 
from that time to this New Haven has 
had an all-the-year-round steamboat 
service to New York. In the next 
spring the "Hudson" was purchased 
from John Livingston of New York 
and added to the original line and the 
"little 'Providence,'" of which we 
wrote in the last article, came onto the 
route as an opposition boat. She was 
soon bought up by the original com- 
pany and put in commission under 
Captain Memenon Sanford. In 183 1, 
the "United States" was again sold 
and went onto the Hudson as a tow- 
boat, her place being taken by the 
new "Superior." 


In 1832, the "Splendid," a some- 
what smaller boat with a trifle bet- 
ter speed, was added to the line. 
These two boats, making up the 
finest line of steamboats running 
out of New York on a daylight 
schedule, continued in service here 
until 1835 when the "Superior" was 
sold and went to the Hudson. 
Her place was filled by the "New 
Haven," which had just come 
from the hands of Lawrence and 
Sneeden, and in the next spring 
another new craft, the "New York," 
came on as a sister boat and the 
"Splendid" was set aside for special 
service. The "New York" which 
was larger than any of her predeces- 
sors, unlike the "New Haven," was 
equipped with a square engine. The 
fare at this time was $2.00 and the 
service was at its best. Dickens quite 
innocently adds a second chimney or 
smoke stack to this "floating, run- 
away bath-house" in the description 
he gives of the "New York" in the 
"American Notes," which was quoted 
at length in the last article. 

The mails, up to the building of 
the "New York," had been carried 
only six days in the week, but the 
government now demanded a seven- 
day service and the two boats were 
used alternately for the Sunday trip. 
There was considerable friction over 
the matter and when Vanderbilt, who 
had bought a controlling interest in 
the line, some time afterward made a 



_ ^ ; ._. 

-y"~"tf ^mmfflm -«c^**fe«. 

«s? .e^cty e6V 


This was one of the first steamboats to have a cast-iron boiler— It exploded in 1827, causing much 
excitement— The legislature was in session at Hartford, and the post-rider leaped from his lathered 
horse and broke into the assembly hall shouting: u The Illiver Ollsworth biled her buster! " The 
interesting story is told in Number 2, Volume X of this series of articles 

demand for larger compensation for 
carrying the mails, he was met with a 
prompt refusal. For some weeks the 
mail was once more sent to New York 
by post and by stage. An effort was 
made to induce the Bridgeport people 
who were running the "Mountaineer" 
to carry the mails from that port but 
Vanderbilt had a large interest in this 
line as well and after much parleying 
the government capitulated and the 
mails were carried as before. 

The company did a large business 
and met with no serious loss until 
their "New York" was burned while 
lying at her dock in New Haven. It 
was at this time that Vanderbilt and 
the Connecticut Steamboat Company, 
the latter being the New York and 
Hartford line that owned the "Oli- 
ver Ellsworth," "New England," 
"McDonough," "Globe," "Bunker 
Hill" and the "Charter Oak," ab- 
sorbed the New Haven Company and 

the steamboat business of the Sound 
was in the hands of Vanderbilt and 
Sanford. The "New Haven" was 
put in commission again and the 
"New York" was ordered rebuilt. 
The people of New Haven did not 
take kindly to the change and Van- 
derbilt thought to bring them to terms 
by sending an old Staten Island ferry- 
boat, the "Bolivar," to look after the 
business. When the Erie Canal was 
opened the "Bolivar" and the "Oliver 
Ellsworth" were used for towing the 
ship "Hamlet" which was one of the 
features of the celebration. The 
"Washington," under Captain E. S. 
Bunker, was used as the flag-boat and 
bore the great banner of the city of 
New York — a crest upon a snow- 
white background. The "Chancellor 
Livingston" was used as Governor 
Clinton's special boat while the "Ful- 
ton" and the "Providence" were un- 
der charter to the city for specially in- 


vited guests. The "Chancellor Liv- 
ingston," as the largest and finest of 
them all, headed the naval pageant 
carrying the governor and the lieuten- 
tenant-governor, the "Washington," 
had on board the committees from 
Buffalo, Utica, Albany and other cit- 
ies. After passing through the "Nar- 
rows" where the governor emptied 
the keg of water carried from the 
lakes through the canal and down the 
Hudson to the ocean, the boats 
turned. As the fleet made its way 
back to the Navy Yard it was joined 
by the "Ousatonic," which was